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How does providing students with context cues create a deeper understanding of their weekly spelling words?
Transcript of How does providing students with context cues create a deeper understanding of their weekly spelling words?
abilities 86% of Students are LBOTE Why context cues? Where the idea came from: Students were placing familiar words into a sentence Did not completely understand meaning from the dictionary; placing words into incorrect context Using words as a synonym (nimble-fast) Vocabulary activities: Short term What The
Literature Says Pro Con Methodology What I found out... Deepens vocabulary understanding One dimensional (Nash&Snowling, 2006) (Winter, 1985) Mundane and Boring (Krashen, 1989) Ineffective (Jenkins, Matlock and Slocum, 1989) Doesn't allow students to relate the word to other contexts (Nash et al., 2006) Provides students with an aid next time they need to
decipher a word Challenges (Knight, 1994) 90% of students preferred contextual cues to infer meaning Anaylsis Phase 1: Wk 1-3 Students use dictionary to assist with unknown words Methodology Phase 2: Wk 4-8 Methodology Evaluation of phase 1, implement phase 2:Students were provided with contextual cues to assist with meanings Evaluation of each lesson, how students responded to the activity Students were give the definition of words, using this understanding they placed the word into sentences Students used contextual cues to further aid their understanding of the selected word Phase 3:Wk 9 (Post Test) Without a sound knowledge of the meaning students attempted to place the word into a sentence 3 different process Approaches were changed during the weeks of 4-8 Short term Students used words in the same context as the provided example No control of students use of dictionary after Monday More structure/time needed Students became lazy Students preferred method did not show an improvement in their vocabulary growth Implications and Significance Beneficial for strong readers (Knight, 1994) Using context cues to assist students in writing stage 3 sentences and using words in the correct context 70% of students struggled with understanding
contextual clues (There was no use of dictionary) Week 4 Deriving words from a text: more natural and effective Data Work Sample Survey Reflections What is the difference between reading spelling words in sentences and on their own? 'I think that the spelling words is better because every week we get new spelling words, so we get to know it better in the sentence because it gives you the clues' 'Reading sentences helps you to get how to write it in sentences and get the definition quicker' 'It's easier if you read the spelling words in the dictionary because it gives you more information about that word' 'The dictionary gives you more possibilities of what the word might mean, you only get one meaning from the sentences' Example of simple sentences/sentences students had difficulties to place words into correct sentence and a difference after using context clues Teachers Comment: 'A few students were able to benefit through the activities(top students), I reinforced the use of context clues in our Focus on Reading activities. There has not been much growth in their ability to understand the weekly spelling words.' Students showed an understanding of words, used the word in the same context Little understanding of the
chosen spelling words Allowed for better language development (Evident in the following weeks worksheet) Why/why not hard concept for students to understand. Repalcing it with what do you think/placing word into a sentence showed a better result in their understanding Beneficial for students with a strong vocabulary knowledge -Struggle with relying on sentences for meaning Week 5 -Working in pairs saw a vocabulary building, students were understanding words on their own level.
-Still some confusion on the meaning of words Week 6-8 -Students were allowed to use dictionary AFTER discussing possible meanings with a partner -The 4 forms of spelling was ignored: etymological, morphemic, visual and phonological Rationale: Improvements? -Experimenting with different context cues Constraints/Challenges Time (10 minutes) Wording Authenticity Did it enhance students knowledge? Short term Few students were able to use their vocabulary in everyday language Very little could understand the word in a different context -Less vocabulary words to focus on -More focus on using the words in different context Results Collection of evidence, survey the students and conduct a post test References: Krashen, S. (1989) We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: additional evidence for the input hypothesis. The Modern Language Journal, 73(4), 440-458. Jenkins, J.R., Matlock, B., Slocum, A.T. (1989) Two approaches to vocabulary instruction: the teaching of individual word meanings and practice in deriving word meaning from context. Reading research quarterly. 24(2). 215-234 Nash, S & Snowling, M. (2006) Teaching new words to children with poor existing vocabulary knowledge: a controlled evaluation of the definition and context methods. International Journal of Language & communication disorder. 4(3). 335-354 Knight, S. (1994) Dictionary use while reading: the effects of comprehension and vocabulary acquisition for students with different abilities. The modern language. 78(3) 285-299 Kuhn,R.M.& Stahl, A.S (1998) Teaching children to learn word meaning from context: a synthesis and some questions. Journal of literacy research 30 (1) 119-138 Future Research -Words in their natural forms -Reliability?