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Shark

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by

Erica Ying

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of Shark

5. Epaulette shark (small reef shark) Ambush or Pursuit Hunter - Small, flexible bodies
- Strong pectoral fins
- Hunt prey through small crevices in coral reefs
- Pursuit hunters 2. Swell shark and Angel shark - Rely on camouflage to hide
- Hide and wait until prey appears within striking range.
- Ambush hunters 3. Thresher shark and Sawshark - Have elongated tail / tooth-studded rostrum
- Hunt schooling prey
- Feed until sufficient amount are stunned
- Pursuit hunters 4. Mako shark, Seven gill's and Hammerhead - Fast swimmers
- Rely on speed to catch prey
- Pursuit hunters
1. Thresher shark - use long upper lobe of tail to corral fish
2. Sawfish - move head side to side
- strikes prey with long rostrum
- use snout to dig prey under sand Adaptation of shark to capture, kill and consume food. 4. Cookiecutter sharks – attach itself to whales and large
fishes using suction.
- carves out flesh of fishes with large
triangular teeth

- Type: The basking shark, the megamouth shark, Whale shark
- Consume large quantities of plankton from water using gill rakers (thousand of tiny teeth).
- Have reduced, non-functional teeth. Heterotrophic Tissue Feeder- Shark Group members:
Wilhelm Eng
Guy Sin Ying
Ho Ye Hoong
Janice Lee
Lim Yen Li
Tan Xin Yi - According to Scott Emery (1985), white shark has high amount of hemoglobin and hematocrit (ratio of red blood cell to blood volume).

Hemoglobin: Amount of hemoglobin higher ↑, oxygen carried in the blood↑ higher

Hematocrit: Higher ↑ the ratio (red blood cell: blood volume, higher ↑ the metabolism). Shark has a HIGH metabolism.  Metabolism - Heart Size: Large !
Heart weight to body weight ratio was at a level seen in the warm bodied bluefin tunas, and also comparable to mammals and birds.

  - SMALLER than its own size.
- Weak, injured, or dying prey because it is easier to catch. Prey (Relative Size)
  Jaws: Upper & lower jaws are movable.
Teeth: Very sharp points that can cut through meat. Jaws & Teeth

- As for the Great White Shark,
- teeth are in triangular shape
- just under half an inch long
- serrated along the edges, making them effective blades. How Sharks Bite on Its Prey? - Houses veritable assembly line of teeth, with rows of razor-sharp teeth standing at the ready newer teeth toward the inside and older teeth at the outer edges for disposal. - Can have a high metabolism and activity rate that is comparable to those in birds and mammals. Based on Place’s Law, a narrow chamber with an associated small volume needs less muscle tension than a rounded one to maintain a certain pressure. “High Pressure Pump". - Ventricle: small volume and well-muscled !
Allows the heart to pump lots of blood at a fast rate, as in birds and mammals. - They eat almost anything, including fishes, crustaceans, molluscs, marine mammals, and other sharks. - As more oxygen is transported within the body of the shark, the higher the aerobic metabolism. - The high metabolism in the shark shows that more oxygen can be carried in the blood by the haemoglobin at any given time. For some certain sharks, they eat a few particular foods more than the others. - Hammerhead sharks mainly eat stingrays - Smooth dogfish eat crabs and lobsters For example, - Bull sharks eat other sharks - Tiger sharks which are known as “the garbage cans of the sea” feed on both living things and carrion. e.g: bony fishes, marine mammals, seabirds, and invertebrates. Tiger sharks are also crucial consumers of sea turtles and snakes. Weapons -Most powerful weapons of a shark. - Shark's diet and eating style vary according to the shape of their teeth - Sand Tiger and Goblin Shark, have very long, thin teeth. - Well-designed for hunting small fishes. - single bite and swallow the whole fish. - Thus moving its head side to side rapidly to tear loose the flesh of its prey. - Fits almost perfectly when it bites Hunting Style 1. Great white shark - Stalks prey.
- Approach prey quietly and undetected till final moment of attack.
- Ambush hunters. - Most sharks seize, grasp and tear food - They circle the prey or bump it with snout or pectoral fins. 3. Nurse sharks - has thick lips. - create suction to pull out prey from hole 5. Pygmy sharks – feeds at night - travel 1500 m up and down to hunt Types of adaptations 1. Bottom feeding - Type: horn shark -Use upper jaw to pick up prey - Front teeth to grasp and back teeth (flat and molar-like) to crush prey. 2. Filter feeding
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