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Transcript of Sexual Selection
selection) whereby animals and humans develop features
which help reproductive success, rather than survival
EXAMPLE: peacocks tail
1) Intrasexual selection - mate choice
Members of one sex compete for opposite (males)
those successful mate and pass genes
2) Intersexual selection - mate choice
preference of one sex determines
where other competes. Tall
males, increase. Mating preferences A02
Support Questionnaire by Clarke and Hatfield
Went around a uni campus and asked three questions
"Go on a date" "Back to appartment" "have sex"
75% answered yes to sex, 0% of women did
But - population validity (only students
Social desirability bias - scared of answers
Ethical issues, didnt know in a study Different mate choices have evolved, to ensure successful reproductively. Parental investment theory, men evolved desire for casual sex and earlier on in relationship. Men quickly pass on genes and leave. Also appear to lower their standards for STM, so can impregnate lots of women.
A02 - Supported by Buss and schmitt who found males had a decrease in sexual attraction for their casual sex partners after.
Women not subject to same evolutionary pressures, therefore not same desire for casual sex, can only have child every 9 months despite mating 20 times. A03
Gender bias Says that women dont want casual sex, but men wouldnt have been able to evolve it if women didn't. STM can carry costs for women, but women do do it, and the theory ignores this. Greiling and Buss say however that STM can have postive effects for women. Mate switching and genetically diverse offspring. This means that explainations for STM are often biased towards men therefore lack population validity Long term mating preferences Men and women become picky because they have to invest heavily in offspring. Both sexes look for particular traits in other sex to maximize success in reproduction
Buss says that women look for a man who has resources to look after, strong to physically protect and be a good parent. Men on the other hand look for fertility - healthy - physical attractiveness.
Shown in Buss 1989 study - 37 cultures 10,000
Men - youth and attractiveness
Women - financial prospects/resources A02 support Wayneforth and Dunbar 1995
Personal ads in newspaper.
44% men want attractive
22% women want attractive
50 % advertise attractiveness Eagly and Wood say men want women for dominance
Kenrick criticises this and says that actually he found young boys wanted older females, despite them not being interested A02
- Good sample size
- But his study is criticised for validity because its only a representation of what people WANT not what happens
But, he did another study across 29 cultures and confirmed that men do choose younger women, especially men who divorce and remarry, usually chose young women Deterministic States that we have evolved to be different, therefore comes from the biological approach. Argues men and women are determined to want different mates men young and women resources. If this were the case then universally we would see men with young women and women with rich men, however not the case. Many women are not concerned with material goods therefore do not seek a man out for his resources, and enjoy being independent. This means that this approach to differences in men and women in terms of mating preferences does not reflect real life situations and is only a speculative theory as to why the general consensus is that women want rich and men want looks A02 If reproductive behaviour is based around reproducing, wouldnt being chosing hinder sucess? But it is logical as random mating could result in bad genetic offspring. Being choosy get more chance of offspring surviving