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Transcript of Genetics Timeline
Interrelationships between cytology and Mendelism, closing the gap between cell morphology and heredity
G.H. Hardy Wilhelm Weinberg
DNA (first called "nuclein") is identified by
as an acidic substance found in cell nuclei. The significance of DNA is not appreciated for over 70 years
THE THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION
published the results of his investigations of the inheritance of "
" in pea plants
Mendel's principles were independently discovered and verified, marking the beginning of modern genetics
Amrita School of Biotechnology
members of a population who are better adapted to the environment survive and pass on their traits
Early civilizations carried over tremendous transfer of traits in Agriculture through breeding
Indian Scriptures says about the inbreeding of agricultural products dating back to 9000 BCE
Hugo de Vries
Erich von Tschermak
Walter Sutton Theodor Boveri
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model
which describes the frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population
Independently described the behavior of sex chromosomes
XX determines female
XY determines male
Coined the term "
Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked
Proposed that some human diseases are due to "inborn errors of metabolism" that result from the lack of a specific enzyme
Proposed a theory of sex-linked inheritance for the first mutation discovered in the fruit fly, Drosophila, white eye. This was followed by the gene theory, including the principle of linkage.
T H Morgan
Proposed that some unknown "principle" had transformed the harmless R strain of Diplococcus to the virulent S strain
One gene one enzyme Hypothesis
Oswald Avery Colin MacLeod Maclyn McCarty
DNA as genetic material
Developed the hypothesis of
to explain color variations in corn
Discovered a one-to-one ratio of adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine in DNA samples from a variety of organisms
Obtained sharp X-ray diffraction photographs of DNA
Martha Chase Alfred Hershey
Used phages in which the protein was labeled with 35S and the DNA with 32P for the final proof that DNA is the molecule of heredity
Francis Crick James Watson
DNA is in the shape of a double helix with antiparallel nucleotide chains and specific base pairing. They deduced this using
s data provided by
Matthew Meselson Frank Stahl
Used isotopes of nitrogen to prove the semiconservative
replication of DNA
H. Gobind Khorana
Led teams that cracked the genetic code- that triplet mRNA codons specify each of the twenty amino acids
THE GENETIC CODE
Hamilton Smith and Kent Wilcox Isolated the first type II restriction enzyme,
, that could cut DNA molecules within specific recognition sites
Agarose Gel Electrophoresis
Joseph Sambrook led the team at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory that refined DNA electrophoresis by using agarose gel and staining with ethidium bromide
Developed the chain termination (dideoxy) method for
Three independent research teams announced the discovery of human
Kary B. Mullis
Published a paper describing the
polymerase chain reaction
(PCR), the most sensitive assay for DNA yet devised
The Human Genome Project began with the goal of determining the entire sequence of DNA composing human chromosomes
Coined the term DNA fingerprinting and was the first to use DNA polymorphisms in paternity, immigration, and murder cases
Identification of the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) on chromosome 7 that, when mutant, causes cystic fibrosis.
The first cloning of a mammal (Dolly the sheep) is performed by Ian Wilmut and colleagues
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering
Craig Mello & Andrew Fire