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Lisbon Earthquake 1755
Transcript of Lisbon Earthquake 1755
Lisbon, Portugal on Saturday, November the first. It was between an 8.5 and 9.0 on the Moment Magnitude Scale. Immediately following the earthquake, there were three tsunami waves and a rampant fire. In Lisbon, Portugal. In 1755, the population of Lisbon was approx. 180,000 people. On the day of November the first, many of the devout Catholic population of Lisbon was in Church for the Christian holiday of All-Saints day. At approx. 9:30, the ground began to shake and continued to do so for 3.5-6 minutes in Lisbon, Portugal. (depending on location) The populace of Lisbon ran from the falling cathedrals and buildings to the open courtyard, which abutted the sea. However, 40 minutes later, a tsunami reached the harbor of the port city.These waves swallowed the people who were trying to escape the falling buildings. Finally, a fire broke out, perhaps due to the widespread use of torches and candles from the holiday. The city of Lisbon Portugal, circa 2012 The Earthquake: The tectonic setting: It was believed to have occurred on the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone. (AGFZ) This AGFZ is on the boundary of the tectonic interaction between the African and Eurasian plates. AGFZ is a geologic fault running eastward from the east of the Terceira Rift in Azores, running through the Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea. It forms the tectonic boundary between the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate. Large earthquakes often occur here, because it is very active. It can also generate tsunamis. Aftershock and Impact: Two major aftershocks occurred on December 11 and December 23 1755. This caused more agony and despair for survivors. One aftershock on December 11th was small, and a larger aftershock occurred on the 23rd, at 11 o'clock in the morning. This second shock destroyed most of western Lisbon including Sao Paulo (where many refugees were killed).
“A seismic reflection survey of the ocean floor along the Azores-Gibraltar fault has revealed a 50 km-long thrust structure southwest of Cape St. Vincent, with a dip-slip throw of more than 1 km, that might have been created by the primary tectonic event.” Seismic shock causes buildings to collapse on people. - Wikipedia Active and complex tectonic behavior caused 3.5-6 minute earthquake Cause: The Tsunami Approx. 40 minutes later, a tsunami reached the harbor and the downtown area of Lisbon, Portugal, running up the Tagus river. 3 waves total hit the harbor, each was 6m high approximately. Tsunami Effects in Other Regions around •Algarve, in the South of Portugal: tsunami destroyed coastal fortresses and inland houses; every town except one (Faro) was destroyed (protected by sandy banks of Ria Formosa)•Lagos, Portugal: waves from tsunami reached height of city’s walls•Peniche, Cascais, Covilha: affected; shock waves destroyed Covilha’s castle walls and big towers•Madeira, Funchal: lots of damage•Ports in Azores: damage from tsunami, which reached 150m inland
•Finland, North Africa, Greenland, Caribbean: felt shocks from earthquake•North Africa (and Martinique and Barbados): had tsunamis up to 20m (66 ft) high on the coast•Cornwall, England: 3m (10 ft) tsunami hit•Galway, Ireland: similar tsunami hit, partially destroyed “Spanish Arch” part of city’s wall•Kinsale, Ireland: boats smacked around harbor; water flooded marketplace Tsunamis outside of Portugal Tsunamis Within Portugal Carmo Convent Ruins The next major earthquake that hit Portugal happened in 1969. The shock went through Morocco and killed many people there. In total, the earthquake of 1969 killed 13 people. 2 deaths occurred in Portugal, while 11 deaths occurred in Morocco. The earthquake was so strong that the people in France felt the aftershock. Between 10 and 6 people were killed in the days after the shock. History of earthquakes after 1755 The Fire In areas that were not flooded by the tsunami, fires engulfed homes and buildings. The fire blazed for 5 days in Lisbon. This map, a static time travel map, shows what time the wave arrived at this point, it does not indicate the height or strength of the wave. The Tsunami reached Lisbon approximately 20 minutes after the first destructive shock, and the height of the wave ranged between 6 and 12 meters along the Portuguese coast. The numbers indicated on the map refer to hours after the earthquake. http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/icons/1755_1101.jpg http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/tsu_travel_time_events.shtml#Atlantic Approximately 50,000 deaths were caused by the tsunami alone. Artist unknown, taken from http://besovereign.wordpress.com/tag/lisbon-earthquake/ After effects of the earthquake The occurrence of the quake on a Christian holiday impacted the predominately Roman-Catholic populace. The catastrophe shook people's belief in God and religion, especially after witnessing the cascading cathedrals and churches and widespread destruction. The event changed the thinking and the philosophy of the time. The tectonic disturbance occurred on the Christian holiday of All-Saints Day, a day in which people gather in church to commemorate and celebrate the Saints of the Christian faith. In 1755, many people in Lisbon and Portugal were devoutly Roman-Catholic. This church and convent was destroyed in the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake Credit: Chris Adams Immanuel Kant Kant (1724-1804) was a philosopher who witnessed the earthquake and its after effects and began to develop his philosophical understanding of God and theology. He had an unusual for the time rationality when it came to philosophy, and he developed at that time a scientific 'Nebular Hypothesis' on the formation of the universe. The earthquake sparked many to lose faith in religion, and seek answers through science. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant/ This is an approximation of where the earthquake was felt. We do not have concrete data (as the earthquake occurred in 1755), but we do know that the earth quake was felt throughout Portugal, and was even felt as far away as France. the red shaded zones indicate intense shaking, (decreasing as you go inland) and the yellow lines suggest that movement was felt, but it was not as intense. The event caused between 10,000 and 100,000 deaths. The red zones also indicates the areas that sustained the most damages from the Earthquake http://maps.google.com/maps