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Cell Organelles

cell project for BIO 1

Matthew Showers

on 4 October 2012

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Transcript of Cell Organelles

Ribosomes are small particles that assemble proteins from a strand of RNA. Ribosomes consist of 2 subunits. The large subunit is the one that actually synthesizes proteins, while the small subunit is responsible for finding the RNA, and after binding with the large subunit, and making sure that the codons and anti-codons are paired up correctly. Cell Membrane CELL ORGANELLES BY: Matthew Showers Cell Wall The Cell Membrane is a lipid bi-layer with the hydrophillic heads towads the cytoplasm and the outside of the cell. the hydrophobic tails are therefore facing together and away fromthe cytoplam and the outside of the cell. This organelle retain organelles, controls the transmission of substances into the cell, protects the cell from cemicals, viruses and other harmful substances. CELL WALL Kantharaj, G. R. "Plasma Membrane." Plasma Membrane. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2012. <http://plantcellbiology.masters.grkraj.org/html/Plant_Cellular_Structures3-Plasma_membrane.htm>.

"Structures Only in Plant (and Other) Cells." Shmoop. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2012. <http://www.shmoop.com/biology-cells/plant-fungi-algae-cells.html>.

S., Jessica. "Animal Cells." : The Organelles: Cytoplasm. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2012. <http://jessicas.tpmsmagnet.com/animalcell/organelle/cytoplasm.html>. Bibliography cytoplasm The cell wall is a shell of protiens and carbohydrates the give the cell structure and support. It also protects the cell from physical damage. A primary componet of the cell wall is cellulose, wich cannot be broken down easily by digestive enzymes. the pores in the cell wall allow adjacent cells to communicate and send substances to other cells. Cell Wall The cell membrane is a semi-permeable membrane that is made up of phospholipids, which are arranged in a bi-layer where their hydrophillic heads face towards the inside cytoplasm and outside fluids. The hydrophobic tails are therefore oriented towards each other and away from the cytoplasm and the fluids surrounding the cell. The cell membrane is crucial to the survival of the cell because it controls what substances can enter the cell. The various methods for substances to cross the cell membrane without using energy include diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion. Diffusion is when some small, usually non-polar substance passes directly through the cell membrane. Osmosis is the diffusion of water across the cell membrane. Facilitated diffusion is when ions and large or polar molecules pass through the cell membrane with the assistance of a protein. The cytoplasm contains:
-Cytosol: fluid inside the cells
-All organelles in cell
-Cytoskeleton: protein fibers that support the cell, anchor the organelles and enzymes, and control the movement of vesicles through out the inside of the cell

Some functions include:
-Controls osmosis with [gradient]
-Cushions the cell
-Contains dissolved solids necessary for cell function THE END Mitochondria Mitochondria have two membranes. The outside membrane controls the passage of chemicals and sugars into the organelle. The inside membrane is folded and has enzymes the catalyze sugars and oxygen into ATP. the folds increase the available Surface area to catalyze the reactions occurring in the mitochondria. Lysosome Lysosomes are membrane mound vesicles filled with digestive enzymes. Their primary function is to break down food and damaged organelles so that the cell can make use of their raw materials Bibleography page 2 Dave, Robert, Feng, and Ben W. Silbermann. "Lysosomes." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/lysosomes.html>.

Farabee, Michael J. "CELLS II: CELLULAR ORGANIZATION." CELLS II: CELLULAR ORGANIZATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCELL2.html>. Vacuoles They are simply a membrane bound sack that stores dissolved substances, water, chemicals , etc. out of the cytoplasm. food is stored in vacuoles so that the amount of dissolved substances in the cytoplasm is not high enough for water to rush in and cause the cell to burst. It also stores toxins, so that the cell is not harmed. Bibleography page 3 "Chapter 4 Notes: The Cell Surface and Cytoskeleton." Chapter 4 Notes: The Cell Surface and Cytoskeleton. Citrus College, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <http://www.citruscollege.edu/lc/archive/biology/Pages/Chapter04-Rabitoy.aspx>.

Davidson, Michael W. "Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: The Golgi Apparatus." Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: The Golgi Apparatus. Molecular Expressions, 1 Oct. 2000. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/golgi/golgiapparatus.html>. Golgi Complex The Golgi body modifies and repackages proteins and lipids produced by the Endoplasmic Reticulum. Several things may happen to the newly packaged protiens and lipids. These outcomes include exiting the cell, returning to the ER, or becoming Lysosomes. The Golgi body is a cluster of long vesicles layered on top of each other. They are usually located close to the nucleus due to the fact that they need to be able to receive vesicles from the ER. Since they are relatively big, they were one of the earliest organelles discovered. Chloroplasts chloroplasts are made of stacks of thylakoids enclosed in a membrane. These thylakoids contain various pigments that absorb light energy. These pigments include chlorophyll and carotenoids. chloroplasts use carbon dioxide, water and light to create sugar and water. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum The smooth ER is collection of membrane-bound tubes that lack ribosomes. It produces lipids and carbohydrates. These products then exit the Smooth ER in vesicles pinched off of the ER. Bibliography page 4 Caplan, Geralyn M. "Cell Structure of Animal Cells." API Study Guide. Owensboro Community & Technical College, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <http://legacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat/study%20guide/api%20study%20guide%20d%20cell%20structures.htm>.

"Photosynthesis." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <http://library.thinkquest.org/28751/review/photo/2.html>. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum The Rough ER is very similar to the Smooth ER, the main difference being that the Rough ER has ribosomes, so that it can produce proteins. Another product of the Rough ER includes Phospholipids. Ribosomes Nucleus The Nucleus contains the cells DNA. it protects the DNA from physical and chemical harm. inside, the DNA is stored primarily in the nucleolus. There, the DNA is copied into RNA to construct proteins. These pass through nuclear pores in the nuclear membrane to enter either the ER or the Cytoplasm. The RNA molecules are then read by Ribosomes and used to make proteins. Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell Bibliography Page 5 "Chapter 3: Cells." N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. <http://kconline.kaskaskia.edu/bcambron/Biology%20117/Cells.htm>.

Dsilva, Savio. "Prokaryotic Cell Diagram." Prokaryotic Cell Diagram. Enoma, 2000. Web. 02 Oct. 2012. <http://www.osovo.com/diagram/prokaryoticcelldiagram.htm>.

"Ribosomal Subunits." RCSB PDB-101. RCSB PDB, n.d. Web. 01 Oct. 2012. <http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/101/motm.do?momID=10>.

Paul. "Abiogenesis: Leftovers." Pensées: November 2005. Pspruett.com, 11 Nov. 2005. Web. 03 Oct. 2012. <http://pspruett.blogspot.com/2005_11_01_archive.html>. Has cell membrane, ribosomes, flagellum, and cell wall. however, it lacks any membrane-bound organelles. This means that all reactions occour in the cytoplasm, where there isn't much the cell can do to keep everything tidy. These contain membrane bound organelles, and some have flagella or a cell wall. this allows the cell to control cellular recations to increase efficiency. <put human disease here> Bibliography page 6 "How Many People Get Mitochondrial Disease." -Disease Questions Answered. Health QA, n.d. Web. 03 Oct. 2012. <http://www.themedicalquestions.com/disease/how-many-people-get-mitochondrial-disease.html>.

"When Cells Face an Energy Crisis: Malfunctioning Mitochondria Cause Many Disorders - News in Health, April 2010." When Cells Face an Energy Crisis: Malfunctioning Mitochondria Cause Many Disorders - News in Health, April 2010. Department of Health and Human Services, Apr. 2010. Web. 03 Oct. 2012. <http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/2010/April/feature1.htm>. Mitochondrial disease Mitochondrial disease may occur when there is a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA). However, most of the time, this disease is caused by mutations in the nuclear DNA. This means that some proteins in the mitochondria are not able to function how they are supposed to. the inability of the mitochondria to efficiently produce ATP may create disabilities ranging from exercise intolerance to early death. There are dozens of sub-groupings, each determined by what genes have been changed and where it affects the body. The DNA mutations that cause mitohondrial disease can be found in one out of 200 people in society. this does not mean that thay have Mitochondrial disease. This just means that they have the DNA that might lead to Mitochondrial Disease. Bibliography Page 7 Edwards, Gabrielle I., Cynthia Pfirrmann, and Gabrielle I. Edwards. Barron's E-Z Biology. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2009. Print.
Goldfarb, Daniel. Biophysics Demystified. Ed. Judy Bass and Stephen M. Smith. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print.
"How Many People Get Mitochondrial Disease." -Disease Questions Answered. Health QA, n.d. Web. 03 Oct. 2012. <http://www.themedicalquestions.com/disease/how-many-people-get-mitochondrial-disease.html>.
"When Cells Face an Energy Crisis: Malfunctioning Mitochondria Cause Many Disorders - News in Health, April 2010." When Cells Face an Energy Crisis: Malfunctioning Mitochondria Cause Many Disorders - News in Health, April 2010. Department of Health and Human Services, Apr. 2010. Web. 03 Oct. 2012. <http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/2010/April/feature1.htm>.
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