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Cloning- Could we? Should we?

A science class badger task project.
by

Mollie Were

on 21 March 2012

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Transcript of Cloning- Could we? Should we?

Cloning-Could we?Should we? Taking cuttings is a very old technique. In recent years scientists have come up with a more modern way of cloning plants called tissue culture. It is more expensive but it allows you to make thousands of new plants from a tiny piece of plant tissue. If you use the right mixture of plant hormones, you can make a small group of cells from the plant you want produce a big mass of identical plant cells.
Then, using a different mixture of hormones and conditions, you can stimulate each of these cells to form a tiny new plant. This type of cloning guarentees that the plants you grow will have the characteristics you want. Cloning animals is now quite common in farming, particularly cloning cattle embryos. Cows normally produce only one or two calves at a time. If you use embryo cloning, your very best cows can produce many more top-quality calves each year.
In embryo cloning, you give top-quality cow fertility hormones to make her produce a lot of eggs. You then fertilise these eggs using sperm from a really good bull. Often this is done inside the cow, and the embryos which are produced are then gently washed out of her womb. Sometimes the eggs are collected and you add the sperm in a laboratory to produce the embryos.
This process would involve taking a donor egg, and removing its nucleus. This would be replaced by a cell nucleus from the patient. The result is stimulated to divide, and stem cells harvested from the resulting blastocyst.
Stem cells are capable of forming any kind of tissue including organs. These would be grown on to form the required organ, then transplanted. What it involves. What it involves Cloning crop plants
in tissue culture Advantages Advantages and disadvantages Disadvantages Genetic diseases could be prevented.
You can get the characteristics you want.
You could have a child if you were infertile.
You can have a child that will have the correct DNA for transplants.
It helps to keep important or helpful genes going.

We could be playing god.
It is un-natural.
It goes wrong alot.
It is expensive.
It uses alot of resources.
Could disturb natures process.
Ethical issues Is it fair to get rid of a perfectly healthy embryo and produce something that could have difficulties.
They don't use all of the embryos and discard part of it. We make a decision for the animal and dont take the possibilities that something could go wrong into account.
The cloned person does not have as long life expectency as the normal embryo (when grown) would have done.
It could mess around with natures course.
Cloning and transplanting
cattle embryos Advantages
Advantages and disadvantages Disadvantages You could get the genetic information you want.
More food can be harvested.
Able to reproduce more crop plants with desirable traits.
Higher income for the farmer.
Less economic loss from failed crops.
More tax revenue. It is expensive.
Some people prefer organic food.
Something could go wrong with the way that the plant grows.
The plant may not live as long.
The plant is not going to be as big and will be a minature version of the adult.
It could effect the ecosystem in many different ways. Ethical issues Cloning human body
parts for transplant Cloning a human completely Advantages Advantages and disadvantages Disadvantages You can have top-quality calves.
Your top-quality cows can produce more offspring during each year.
You can produce suculent beef and creamy milk from the clones. It can go wrong very easily.
It is very expensive.
It uses up alot of resources.
Deformity may occur.
Calves may be too big for the cow.
Beef could become toxic if cloned incorrectly.
Diseases could be passed on to humans from animals.
Some embryos of cattle can grow so that they are not perfect e.g. to become deformed during development.
The cloned population will all have the same genes, so the gene pool is very, very small. Populations with small gene pools are at risk of being wiped out. That is why conservationists are very keen on preventing populations from dropping below a certain number. If a disease comes along, and it afflicts one cow because of its genetic make-up, it will affect all the cows. Ethical issues What it involves Artificial production of a genetic replica of another human being. It is a form of asexual reproduction. One way in which cloning could take place is by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, the nucleus of an unfertilised ovum is removed and replaced with the nucleus of a somatic cell, or whole diploid body cell, from a developed embryo, foetus or adult individual. The ovum is then stimulated either chemically or by an electrical pulse to create a human embryo. Given that the nucleus contains almost all of a cell’s genetic material, the new embryo will be a delayed genetic twin/clone of the human individual from whom the cell was taken. In this whole process male sexuality plays no direct role. What it involves Many people think that it is wrong to grow an embryo and to then destroy it for its stem cells.
People believe that it messes with the natural selection and could lead to a new race of people.
The way in which the cells are harvested is very evasive.
A disregard for human life. Ethical issues Advantages Advantages or disadvantages Disadvantages Organ is genetically identical.
Rejection will not happen as it will be the same.
There is no use for the strong anti-rejection drugs used.
Limbs could be replaced if lost.
There would be no shortage of organs for transplanting.
Increases life expectency.
There is no time limit to get the organs to the patient.
We do not have to harvest organs from dead people. Needs a supply of eggs from, most likely, the spares of IVF couples.
It is very expensive to do.
Not every single tissue from the human body can be cloned.
Conclusion Reasons Alot of people think that it is a waste of money and the globes resources and that with global warming going on it is best to reduce the amount of cloning going on. High failure rate.
Problems during later development.
Abnormal gene expression patterns.
Risks of cloning We feel that there is some risks in cloning however it is possible to succesfully create a clone of another human beings once those risks have been exterminated or at the very least minimized. Once these risks have been sorted human cloning will then be made possible.
However we feel that cloning should not be done to full humans as it is like playing the role of god and we should let nature take it's course. We also feel that although the cloning of human body parts and tissue is a maijor step forward for science and medicine we should not create embryos to grow like normal embryos would and then kill them off.
We think that the cloning for plants is a good thing to do as long as they are tested as non-toxic and safe to digest.
We feel that cloning in animals like cows to create top-quality cattle should not happen as it goes wrong too many times and even if the embryo is grown and born correctly it can still develop problems. Cloning- Could we? Should we? NO By Mollie Were and Claire Weller Thank you for your time.
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