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Specialistic medical databases
Transcript of Specialistic medical databases
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The basic definition of databases presents as a data set, describing selected fragment of reality, which are permanently stored in a computer memory and which may be available to multiple users at any point of time.
Medical databases are generally „core” of hospital informatic system or a reference point for a network related health care center (clinic or laboratory analysis).
This databases replace traditional archives of patient data, which in their classical form are very uncomfortable, especially when you need to carry out some statistic research or search any past data.
1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC OF MEDICAL DATABASES
Medical databases are in terms of hardware and software practically identical to the database used in other sectors of the economy. There are special features of a medical database.
First feature such database is its strong mulimedia character.
As any other database, without exception, the database consists of records, but the contents within records are unusual, because text and numeric data of patients contain the results of their research in the form of numerous signals and images (Figure 2.1)
Creating medical databases is not difficult, because they are similar to IT tools, such as database used in the economy, in industry or in research.
An example of the extremely simplified model of the database is shown
in Figure 1.2
Medical databases are including many objects, for example different medications, and the attributes (number of packages, drugs of individual doses of medication and the particular embodiments).
Each object has provided space (called fields) for all attributes, as provided in the database structure. All informations in object are connected with one patients and can be shared between all medical facilities.
Specialistic medical databases
In the considered sample database the Key is social security number of the patient.
But this is not totally true to show reality scheme in medical science, because medical databases are characterized by several features, which other databases don't have.
Writing about medical databases we mean also concept of database used in and business or industrial applications.
Database are used in base hospitals, clinics or offices, containing information about patients, diagnoses, recommendations, medical, surgery, treatment results, etc. Such a database is always the core of any system of medical informatics and plays a very important role in functioning.
2. SPECIAL FEATURES OF MEDICAL DATABASES
In terms of general structure of medical information technology database with any different significantly from the database with a different purpose. For managing and creating them "database engines" are used.
These programs are creating and maintaining a database and enable developing and supporting of daily operations.
There are many available programs that may serve as database engine, also free. However, responsible database developers use ,without exception, programs produced by the well-known and recognized manufacturers, e.g, Oracle, Sybase, MS SQL, PostgreSQL.
The currently available large hospital systems dominates the use of the Oracle database engine, even though this program is expensive.
Almost all systems are modular, without dedicating them to individual doctors.
Elements are integrated into multi-module "mosaic"- common graphical user interface.
The modern medical record often consists almost entirely of the images. This has additional advantages because most useful information to doctors is carried by images (Figure 2.2).
These are usually images of different types - situational sketches showing the place of medical examination , recorded from the appropriate imaging camera miniatures of other images, which are available to select for analysis.
There is also the icon of tools, which can be used for handling image and text description elements.
1. General characteristic of medical databases
2. Special features of medical databases
3. Uses of medical databases
4. Actions and coding of medical data
5. Bibliography of medical databases
Fig. 1.1 Predecessor of current medical databases were archives of patients conducted by hospitals in the traditional form.
Fig 1.2 Medical IT system contain different components (marked differend color) Integrated database joins this various elements.
Fig 1.3 In the IT systems need to differentiate between the clinical database and database administration, which are not described here
Fig 2.1 Typical patient record in the medical databases contains many registrations images
Fig 2.2 Example of medical record dominated by image information.
3. USES OF MEDICAL DATABASES
4. ACTIONS AND CODING OF MEDICAL DATA
5. MEDICAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASES
Fig 2.3 Portable computer as element the acsess to medical databases.
Fig 2.4 Medical Computers PDA classes provide convenient access to the base hospital
Another factor distinguishing other databases systems or medical informatics are legal considerations. Database is be useful to doctors, because they are responsible for making diagnosis and treatment on the basis of database information.
That's why it's important to build a database to useful to doctor and he had the opportunity to check not only what medical messages are contained in fields ( record in the database ) but also of where the data where they come from and what is the level of variability.
Another characteristic of medical databases is overriding requirement to protect patient's confidentiality and personal data
(eg,from spying, but there are many examples of active intrusion into medical databases).
Fig 2.6 The threat to medical databases are violations of laws on the protection of personal data by hackers.
Fig 2.7 Medical databases are often objective of active hackers, who can try to take control of the system and force it to disclose data.
Information collected in medical databases can be used to enhance the effects of other components of the hospital information system (Figure 3.1).
The database has usually a direct relationship with the hospital administration system of systems, his systems specialist type of operating system or hospital pharmacy.
Users can use the database in two ways:
The first way is that the user formulates the question and the mechanisms of information retrieval, built-in database management system and receives a response (Figure 3.2).
The second way is that users order response to defined question, and get automatically generated reports which extracts from the database, which extracts from the database and informs about the latest news on the topic indicated in the contract
Figure 3.2 The database can be the source of the reports - automatically created and distributed according to the orders
The data from the hospital database should be available for patients,whenever they would like to refer to them.
Figure 3.3 Electronic patient health card, containing a copy of his record from the hospital database
The introduction of electronic forms of medical database allows us to expect an unprecedented improvement of the quality of medical services (called Quality of Service).
For proper operation of the hospital's database need to ensure an adequate level of protection of the information contained in the database against unauthorized access. It should be taken as an absolute rule that medical data, which should be accessed to both inside the hospital and outside, should be separated from the environment by proper firewall.
Fig 3.4. The division of the medical system on inner part and the outer part, into firewall. The database should be definitely in the protected inner part.
The amount of medical data increases extremely quickly - mainly because of new diagnostic equipment.
It makes to the database are required a specific design assumptions and more funding.
But an huge data collected in the modern hospital system is the problem. Its is important to have to reckon with the fact that the volume of hospital database can lead to unimaginable numbers expressed in a eta-bytes.
Table 4.1 The exponential growth in volume medical data associated with the use of increasingly sophisticated diagnostic tools.
Due to the fact that doctors must reach to the scientific literature and expert often than other workers a database of bibliographic was created.
The oldest and best known medical bibliographic data base is
Medline / Pubmed
This database holds almost all significant scientific publications and professional in the medical field, starting from 1950.
Two more widely available network bibliographies in medicine offers Elsevier.
The first of these databases, called
collects biomedical and pharmacological data collected from a variety of biomedical journals.
The results of research in the field of medicine along with their critical discussion and numerous reviews can be found in the database of The Cochrane Library.
Access to multiple databases also contains the
ISI Web of Knowledge.
There is access to multiple databases, including medical devices.
Medical database also offered by
World Health Organization (WHO)
under the name of the
WHO Global Health Library.
Fig 5.1 Traditional and modern (using network databases) way of using the literature in medicine
The variety of forms of medical data requires the highest quality electronic archiving systems and data.A single byte code be important for the patient's life greater than occupying many megabytes image obtained as a result of diagnostic imaging.
Medical computer science is used in many different programs and operating on multiple systems.
But the database is always the core of around which everything is arranged . Medical databases knowledge and principles of their operation must be regarded as one of the central skills that must possess every person who wants to deal with medical informatics
Regardless of how the database assisted medical other hospital systems - the most important function is that is a source of various kinds of basic information needed for doctors and patients. In this respect, modern database replaces two things: traditional files and archives hospital patients (Figure 4.14).
Rys 4.14 The database replaces the traditional patient files and medical archives.
Fig 3.1 Specyfic architecture od mediacal database
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