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Nabihah Nasruddin

on 19 June 2015

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Foundation Settlement
Change in moisture content
Maturing trees and vegetation
Soil Consolidation
Team Members
Ruzaini Aizat Razali
Muhammad Rasyidin Roslan
Anif Anafee Latif
Nabihah Nasruddin
Venura Jayalath
Settlement occurs by the self weight
Subsidence occurs by external factors

Push Pier System

Tilting building components
Difficulty in operation of building elements

Settlement and Subsidence
Remedial Works
Changes of Moisture Content
Soils with high clay contents have a tendency to shrink
Resulting in a general decrease in soil volume
Settlement damage is often observed in a structure supported on dried-out soil
Maturing trees and vegetation

Nearby trees with extended root system can remove water from the foundation ground, it can give variations in the level of the water table.
Changes in the water table happen less quickly under normal circumstances, typically due to seasonal changes. 
These foundation issues are more difficult to diagnose due to their slow progression.

Soil Consolidation
Consolidation occurs when the weight of a structure or newly-placed fill soils compress lower, weak clayey soils.
Consolidation results in downward movement or settlement of overlying structures.
The foundation will experience downward movement. This leads to cracks and structural damage.

Signs of Foundation Settlement
Interview the occupant, owner and/or client, if available, regarding a history of the property and performance of the structure
Determine whether site drainage issues exist
Observe factors influencing the performance of the foundation
Material testing, if applicable

Material, component or finish which does not meet its expected performance criteria is defined as a building defects.

settlement - downward movement
or downward pressure of building

settlement occurs when structure
moves the soil due to application
of load

The benefits of using piers to repair a foundation are as follows:

• Low cost. Up to ten times less than replacing the building foundation.

• No disruption or loss of use of the dwelling. The repair is performed with the building being used as normal.

• The equipment is portable and can be easily used in tight spaces or carried by hand where access is a problem.

• Remedies both the cause of the settlement (unstable soil) and the consequences (dwelling out of level) in one step.

• No yard destruction

• No heavy equipment
Piling or piering is the technique of driving steel pipe pilings to remedy failing building foundations and to correct foundation settlement. The benefits of using piers to repair a foundation are as follows:

Push piers are hydraulically driven pier systems consisting of sections of galvanized or epoxy-coated steel pipe. The piers are point bearing and driven with a hydraulic ram through unstable soils to rock or load bearing strata.

-The process of determining the settlement in foundation of building comprises observations, investigation of cause and the possible remedy action can be done.

-The most critical item of this design was working with the contractor to develop a solution to obtain actuators with enough capacity to lift the foundation. Once this solution became apparent, which placed the pier pusher and the permanent resistance of the column in bearing, the complications of engineering a competent solution diminished.

Hydraulically driven galvanized or epoxy-coated steel pipes to fix failing foundations.
Push Pier System
For the future...
Well plan the landscape
type & location, paths & driveways, lawns, ponds, filling and retaining walls

Trees and shrubs
Do not over plant next to the house
Keep trees with high water demand well away from buildings in reactive clay areas

What we recommend ?

Avoid variable conditions
Maintain adequate moisture/watering
Avoid unregulated sprinkler systems.

Prevent water to be trapped or pond near the house

Repair leaking pipes and taps

Always monitor and maintain
Piering Cost - According to
Ron Davidson
Ram Jack Systems
, "A typical foundation repair using hydraulic piers will cost between ten thousand and fourteen thousand dollars." (Concretenetwork.com, 2014).
Foundation Repair Cost Breakdown:
• $300-$1,500 - structural engineer
• $500-$3,000 - soil reports
• $75-$150 - building permit
• $3,000-$4,000 - seismic work (if you live in an earthquake area)
• $1,000-$2,500 - hidden obstacles (tree roots, old repairs, deep footings)
• $1,340 - per pier (repairs for an average size home require 8 to 10 piers)


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