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Social Change (Spring 2013)

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Aisha Pittman

on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of Social Change (Spring 2013)

Social Change: Looking Toward Tomorrow What is Social Change?? Sociologists define social change as the transformation of a culture over time.

This can be:
deliberate, intended
unplanned, unintentional

Some changes are more controversial than others. What is Social Change?? There are several ways that social change can occur:

Major physical event (hurricanes, earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions)
Demographic factors (for example, the aging of baby boomers)
Discoveries and innovations (fire or the wheel)

Changes can be rapid or gradual! Can you think of any examples? Collective Behavior Theories Collective behavior: a group or crowd of people who form together to take action toward a shared goal.

Contagion theory: Individuals who join a crowd or mob become “infected” by a mob mentality and lose the ability to reason.

Emergent norm theory states that:
Individual members of a crowd make their own decisions about behavior and have varying understandings of what their roles are within the crowd. Norms are created through others’ acceptance or rejection of these behaviors. Crowd Behavior Temporary gathering of individuals (spontaneous or planned) with a common focus. Mass Behavior Large groups of people engage in similar behaviors without necessarily being in the same place. Riots Continuous disorderly behavior by a group of people that disturbs the peace and is directed toward other people and/or property. Examples?? Fads and Fashion Social Dilemmas A social dilemma happens when a behavior is rational for an individual but it can lead to collective disaster when practiced by many people. Tragedy of the commons — when many individuals over-exploit a public resource and they deplete or degrade that resource

Public goods dilemma — when individuals must contribute to a collective resource, even though they might not benefit from it Social Movements! A social movement refers to any social group with leadership, organization, and an ideological commitment to promote or resist social change. Armand Mauss identified the four stages that social movements tend to go through:

1) Public defines problem
2) People organize
3) Movement becomes bureaucratized
4) Movement begins to decline Social Movements (Collective Behavior) Think of a social movement in terms of the four stages. Types of Social Movements Some emerging social movements are regressive (attempt to resist social changes, maintain the status quo, or go back to an earlier form of social order)
Others are more progressive (efforts to promote forward-thinking social change) Technology and Social Change Cultural lag refers to the time between changes in material culture or technology and the resulting changes in the broader culture’s relevant norms, values, meanings, and laws.

Cultural diffusion refers to the spread of material and non-material culture to new cultural groups regardless of the movement of people. Final Exam Review Next Week!!!! Technology and Social Change Technological Determinism is the idea that technology plays a defining role in shaping society.

This idea argues that society's technology drives the development of its social structure and cultural values and is an agent of social change. Technology and Social Change Cultural imperialism refers to cultural influence caused by adopting another culture’s products rather than by an imposing military force.

Cultural leveling is the process by which societies lose their uniqueness and become increasingly similar.
According to Armand Mauss, which of the following stages is NOT one of the stages that social movements tend to go through?

a. People organize
b. The movement begins to decline
c. The public defines the problem
d. The movement becomes bureaucratized
e. All of the above are stages of a social movement.
Individuals who join a crowd or mob become “infected” by a mob mentality and lose the ability to reason. This is a definition of which theory?

a. Emergent norms theory
b. Fads
c. Fashion
d. Contagion theory
A type of social dilemma in which individuals must incur a cost to contribute to a collective resource is called the:

a. tragedy of the commons
b. collective cost dilemma
c. public goods dilemma
d. social contribution dilemma
Large groups of people engaging in similar behavior without necessarily being in the same place is called:

a. collective behavior
b. emergent behavior
c. mass behavior
d. progressive behavior
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