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Copy of Atoms!

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Leigh Wilkie

on 28 April 2016

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Transcript of Copy of Atoms!

atoms
what are atoms?
An atom is the basic unit of matter.
Atoms come from the Greek word
atomos,
which means "indivisible", or "uncuttable".
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything that exists- all matter!
what are atoms made of?
Atoms are made of even smaller particles called
subatomic particles
: protons, neutrons, and electrons.
positively-charged (+) particles
protons
part of an atom's nucleus
neutrons
non-charged (0) particles
part of atom's nucleus
electrons
negatively-charged (-) particles
found in defined orbits around nucleus
structure
Pure Substances
periodic table
history
elements
Atoms with different amounts of protons, neutrons, and electrons make up different elements.
For example:
hydrogen
1 proton
0 neutrons
1 electron
carbon
6 protons
6 neutrons
6 electrons
elements
1st shell - 2 electrons
Elements are pure substances; they are not made of anything except the atoms that make them up.
Compounds are the result of two elements joining chemically and bonding together.
Compounds
Molecules are the smallest particles of substances that can exist independently.
molecules
For example:
A water molecule consists of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom.
the periodic table
Example:
The symbol of the element iron is Fe.
The periodic table is organized in order of lowest to greatest atomic number.
atoms in the table
atomic symbol
Each element is given a symbol, which is usually one to three letters long.
The periodic table is used to organize all of the elements.
Protons:
atomic number = number of protons.
understanding atoms
Electrons:
atomic number = number of electrons.
Neutrons:
atomic mass - atomic number = number of neutrons.
460 B.C.
Democritus
Greek philosopher
Wondered about breaking matter in half until it could no longer be broken
Called basic matter particles "atoms"
Atomic theories were dismissed as worthless by other Greek philosophers
John Dalton
1803
Performed chemical experiments that revealed that atoms consisted of lumpy particles
Did not know about structure, but theorized about atomic properties
Elements made of atoms
Same-element atoms are exactly alike
Different-element atoms are different
Atoms cannot be cut, made, or destroyed
Joining atoms results in compounds
In chemical reactions, atoms change
J. J. Thomson
1897
Discovered electrons
Proposed model for atom:
Known as "plum pudding" model; looked like electron raisins stuck in positive pudding
1911
Ernest Rutherford
wanted to investigate inner structure of atoms by bombarding them with alpha rays (positively charged particles)
shined radium alpha rays onto a gold screen; results were highly informative
reasoned that particles that veered from foil must be scattered by positive particles; made theories about electrons
model:
electrons

positive nucleus
devised experiments based on two rules:
Niels Bohr
1: electrons can only orbit in clearly defined distances from the nucleus
2: atoms absorb and radiate energy when electrons move throughout orbits
teamed up with scientist Arnold Sommerfeld to expand original Bohr model
discovered that electrons travel in orbits with different shapes, and orbits could be tilted by a magnetic field
James Chadwick
discovered neutrons
found particle slightly heavier than proton, with no charge
the proton-neutron in the center eventually earned the name "nucleon"- soon to be "nucleus"
In conclusion:
atoms
atoms make up matter, which makes up all things
different atomic structures create different elements, or pure substances
atoms consist of positively (proton) and neutrally (neutron) charged particles in the center (nucleus), orbited by negatively charged particles (electrons)
scientists have spent a very long time coming to today's understanding of atomic workings
atomic energy can be used both positively and negatively
1932
1912
each shell can hold a certain number of electrons
2nd shell - 8 electrons
3rd shell - 18 electrons
Objective: The student will develop and use simple atomic models to illustrate the components of elements (including the relative position and charge of protons, neutrons, and electrons).

Protons and neutrons have about
the same mass.
Protons and neutrons are tightly bound
in a tiny nucleus.
The nucleus is located in the center
of the atom with the electrons
moving in random patterns in the
space around the nucleus.
KARAOKE TIME!!!
Stem Words
Prefix, root,
or suffix
Meaning
a- not atom, anonymous

-tom cut atom, tonsillectomy

electr- electric electron
Example
Performance Indicator 7.P.2A.3
Analyze and interpret data to describe and classify matter as pure substances (elements or compounds) or mixtures (heterogeneous or homogeneous) based on composition.
Element Symbol Element Symbol

Hydrogen H Silver Ag
Silicon Si Chlorine Cl
Carbon C Gold Au
Copper Cu Magnesium Mg
Nitrogen N Iron Fe
Aluminum Al Zinc Zn
Oxygen O Iodine I Calcium Ca Potassium K Phosphorus P Sodium Na
Helium He Fluorine F
Element names and Symbols to Know
gold
aluminum
zinc
silver
Mixtures
Mixtures are made up of two or
more different substances that retain
their own individual properties and
are combined physically (mixed together).
Heterogeneous Mixture
The component substances can be visibly distinguished (you can see the parts).
Homogeneous Mixture
Practice time!
Atomic number:___
Atomic symbol:___
Atomic mass:___

Number of protons:___
Number of electrons:____
Number of neutrons:____
Atomic number:___
Atomic symbol:___
Atomic mass:___

Number of protons:___
Number of electrons:____
Number of neutrons:____

A mixture in which the substances are evenly mixed and cannot be visibly distinguished (you cannot see the parts).

Also known as: a solution.

Here is a short intro to the periodic table. The organization of the table will be shown to you on a separate Prezi!
Examples:

Water:
Glucose:
Salt:
Examples:
Trail Mix
Salad dressing
Examples:
Milk
Kool-aid
Heterogeneous or Homogeneous?
Heterogeneous or Homogeneous?
Heterogeneous or Homogeneous?
Heterogeneous or Homogeneous?
Heterogeneous or Homogeneous?
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
3 main states:
solid
liquid
gas

Every periodic table will have a square
for each element with the element name,
chemical/element symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass.
The atomic number
of an element is equal
to the number
of protons
The atomic mass is an
average sum of the number of the protons and the number of neutrons in the
nucleus of the atom.
Go to the Periodic Table Prezi to learn more!
http://prezi.com/tzohyuh43pt2/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy
7.P.2A.2 Obtain and use information about elements (including chemical symbol, atomic number, atomic mass, and group/family) to describe the organization of the periodic table.
Electrons orbit the nucleus randomly in "shells". Each shell can only hold a certain amount of electrons.

The 1st shell- 2 electrons
The 2nd shell-8 electrons
The 3rd shell- 18 electrons
Think about how you
might draw a model!
Remember: the protons and neutrons
are both found in the nucleus of an atom, and electrons orbit the nucleus:
Practice!!!!!!
Draw a "Bohr diagram" of an atom Carbon.

Carbon has: 6 protons, 6 electrons, and
6 neutrons
More Practice!
Draw a "Bohr diagram" of an atom of Sodium.
Sodium has 11 protons, 11 electrons, and 12 neutrons.
Sodium
Carbon
Left-side Activity
For the following elements:
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Aluminum
List:
# of protons:
# of neutrons:
# of electrons:
Draw a Bohr diagram:
Left-side Activity
Write an acrostic poem using the word "ATOMS".
Write "ATOMS" in all capital letters don the left-side of the page.
For each letter of the word "ATOMS"write a full sentence about what you have learned about atoms.
A
toms are the smallest unit of matter.
T
O
M
S
Example:
Atoms make up:
Atoms make up everything!
Make a foldable for the elements and their symbols!
Left-side Activity :
1. In your own words, explain the difference
between heterogeneous and homogeneous
mixtures

2. Research 5 examples of each type of
mixture (that we have not covered)


Left-side activity:

1. Divide page 24 of your notebook in half.
2. At the top write
"Classification of Matter"
(you will draw the organizer that is on the next slide)
3. In the bottom half (at the top) write
"Separation of Mixtures"
4. Research and describe the 3 ways to separate mixtures:
Sifting
Filtration
Evaporation


Draw the following organizer in the top half of page 24 of your notebook!
Mixtures can be separated by
physical means
(filtration, sifting, or evaporation)
Compounds and mixtures BrainPop:


https://www.brainpop.com/science/matterandchemistry/compoundsandmixtures/
Full transcript