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Combustion/Incomplete Combustion Reactions

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Alyssa Sandford

on 8 June 2015

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Transcript of Combustion/Incomplete Combustion Reactions

What is Combustion?
Combustion is an exothermic reaction that usually occurs when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen to produce water and carbon dioxide. Additionally, it is a form of oxidation that occurs so rapidly that noticeable heat and light are produced.

General Form of a Combustion Reaction
hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water
Combustion / Incomplete Combustion Reactions
Incomplete Combustion
Occurs when there is not enough oxygen to allow the fuel to react completely
Carbon monoxide and Carbon (black soot or ash) will form instead of CO2
Usually has an orangish flame
Common Fuels
Common Uses
cooking
heat
light
steam-powered trains
hot-air balloons
methane gas from cows and pigs can be used to power turbines
Hazards
Carbon monoxide gas
Smoke
Destruction (forests and houses burning down)
Oxygen depletion
Explosions
Injury/ death
Carbon Monoxide
CO
Colourless, odorless, tasteless, toxic, and therefore deadly
Carbon monoxide detectors help save lives before a person inhales too much of this gas
Complete Combustion
Occurs when there is enough O2 and only CO2 and H2O are produced
Usually has a blue flame
(Alyssa's Info)
Combustion Reactions/Incomplete Combustion
-A combustion reaction is a major class of chemical reactions. Combustion usually occurs when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.
-Combustion is an exothermic reaction, so it releases heat
-General Form of a Combustion Reaction
hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water
Examples of Combustion Reactions
• combustion of methane
CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g)
• burning of naphthalene
C10H8 + 12 O2 → 10 CO2 + 4 H2O
http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemicalreactions/a/Combustion-Reactions.htm
complete combustion has a blue flame, incomplete has an orangish flame
-defined as a form of oxidation. This oxidation occurs so rapidly that noticeable heat and light are produced.

-From a chemical standpoint, combustion is a process in which some chemical bonds are broken and new chemical bonds are formed. The net result of these changes is a release of energy, known as the heat of combustion.
Uses:
• Cooking
• Heating
• With the development of the steam engine, a new use for combustion was found: performing work. Those first engines employed the combustion of coal, to produce heat that was used to boil water. The steam was then able to move pistons (sliding valves) and drive machinery. That concept is essentially the same one used today to operate fossil-fueled electrical power plants.

http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ci-Co/Combustion.html
(Caleb's info)
Incomplete combustion will occur when there is not enough oxygen to allow the fuel to react completely to produce carbon dioxide and water. Additionally, a black soot or ash will form due to the lack of oxygen present
Ex. CH4+O2 -> CO+H2O
• Combustion of methane
CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O

• Combustion of octane
2 C8H18 + 25 O2 → 16 CO2 + 18 H2O

• Combustion of propane (complete)
C3H8 + 5 O2 → 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + heat

• Combustion of propane (incomplete)
C3H8 + 2 O2 → 3 C + 4 H2O + heat
*note: Incomplete combustion reactions don't need to be balanced
Examples of Combustion Reactions
By: Alyssa, Caleb, and Dami
Propane (C3H8)
Methane (CH4)
Kerosene (C12H26 up to C15H32)
Petrol (Gas) (C8H18)
Pentene (C5H10)
Bibliography
https://myorganicchemistry.wikispaces.com/Kerosene
http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemicalreactions/a/Combustion-Reactions.htm
http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ci-Co/Combustion.html
https:/ /www.youtube.com/watch?v=8N9fLdq92iY
https:/ /www.youtube.com/watch?v=F8Z-ayQkK2A
https:/ /www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfvceHUBWnU
http://webserver.dmt.upm.es/~isidoro/bk3/c15/Environmental%20effects%20and%20hazards%20in%20combustion.pdf
http://epa.gov/climatestudents/solutions/technologies/methane.html


Thank You
The Phlogiston Theory
A theory first stated by J.J. Becher, the theory stated that there was an element named "Phlogiston" in which it was believed to be inside combustible bodies and released during the reaction of combustion.
Errors with the Phlogistan Theory
Around, 1770, the Phlogiston theory was thought to be right, thus supported by universally by chemists all over the world. However, after experiments from Rutherford and Priestley seemed to validate the Phlogiston Theory, another scientist by the name of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier proved the whole Theory wrong.
Significance with Lavoisier's findings.
Lavoisier found that the previous scientists had dismissed the idea of using quantitative analysis. Using the Law of conversation of mass, he saw that the reactants total mass equaled the total mass of the products.
He then observed with experimenting with tin. He burned the tin and closed it into a vessel. When he opened it and measured the mass, it had added. He figured out that part of the air reacted with tin, during combustion, adding the total mass.
This earned him the title as the father of Chemistry. Not only did he prove the Phlogiston theory wrong, but he helped define the modern definition of what combustion is.
Previous Ideas on Combustion
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