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Bonding

A description of general bonding principles
by

Nancy Cope

on 27 October 2016

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Transcript of Bonding

Chemical Bonding
Types of Bonds
Ionic Bonds
Ionic Bonds
a complete transfer of electrons that usually occurs between a metal and a nonmetal.
Covalent Bonds
two nonmetals sharing electrons
Lewis Dot Diagrams
Way to show the movement of valence electrons
Octet Rule
Every atom is more stable with a full outer s and p orbital
Valence Electrons
the number of valence electrons an atom has directly corresponds to the group in the periodic table to which it belongs
Metallic Bond
Two metal atoms bonded together
Chemical Bond
the force that holds two atoms together
Covalent Bonds
Metallic Bonds
metal and nonmetal that have transferred electrons
two nonmetals that share electrons
metal atoms that have free-flowing electrons between the nuclei
valence electrons are responsible for bonding
the number of valence electrons of the transition metals can change depending on the way the metal reacts
the valence electrons can be lost to form cations
every atom "wants" 8 (or 0) valence electrons
atoms with four or fewer valence electrons will lose valence electrons to get to have no valence electrons
atoms with four or more valence electrons will gain electrons to get to have eight valence electrons
atoms with 4 valence electrons may gain or lose electrons. it all depends on their atomic size, ionization energy and electronegativity
It all starts with electrons....
valence electrons....
atoms that gain electrons bond with atoms that lose electrons. this way the bond is favorable for both atoms involved
atoms become more stable when they bond because they lose energy
the valence electrons are placed around the elemental symbol as dots.
Mg
N
C
O
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Mg
O
C
O
Bond Type
It all comes down to electronegativity
Let's Recap
3 types of bonds
Metallic
Ionic
Covalent (polar or nonpolar)
Properties of Compounds with Ionic Bonds
brittle
electronegative atom attract electrons from atoms that are less electronegative
be transferred from the cation (positive ion, low electronegativity) to the anion (negative ion, high electronegativity)
or be shared between the atoms (usually have similar electronegativity)
when two atoms come together the electrons can either
made from two atoms that have an electronegativity difference greater than 1.7
one atom loses electrons while one atom gains electrons
Polar Covalent Bonds
Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
equal sharing of electrons
non equal sharing of electrons
two atoms with an electronegativity difference less than 0.5
two atoms with an electronegativity difference between 0.5 and 1.7
solid metals are made with this kind of bond
the metal atom's nuclei are arranged in a lattice (very close together) which allows the electron clouds to overlap, making the electrons able to move between nuclei becoming delocalized
1. malleable (bendy)
2. ductile (stretch into a wire)
3. conductive (conduct electricity)
the free flowing electrons make the metals:
The Electron Sea Model
Electronegativity Difference
Ionic > 1.7
Polar covalent 0.5 - 1.7
Nonpolar covalent < 0.5
Bonding occurs with electrons
Lewis dot diagrams show how electrons move to make bonds
when two ions bond, they make a neutral compound
cations are attracted to anions
Ions
anions
cations
negatively charge ions
gain of electrons
typically nonmetals
positively charged ions
lose electrons
typically metals
the charge of a single ion assumes when it is in a compound
oxidation state
transition metals can have multiple oxidation states
most of the time, oxidation state is the same as the charge of the ion
they tend to crack and break apart when under pressure
high melting points
they tend to be a solid at room temperature and must be heated extremely to be melted
conductive solutions
they conduct electricity when dissolved in water
crystal lattice structure
the cations are surrounded by anions very close together to make a 3D arrangement of particles
because the energy required to remove an electron from the cation is less than the energy released by the addition of an electron to the anion
The formation of ionic bonds is exothermic
then they can be gained by other atoms to become anions
Lewis Dot Structures
can also be used to show how bonding occurs between atoms
ionic bonds are drawn with a transfer of electrons to the more electronegative ion
covalent bonds are drawn with lines showing the sharing of two electrons
one line = single bond (2 electrons)
two lines = double bond (4 electrons)
three lines = triple bond (6 electrons)
Polyatomic Ions
ions made of more than one atom
sometimes ions bond and but still have an overall charge
these behave just like other ions
PO
4
-3
+
4
NH
CO
-2
3
the number of atoms is written as a subscript
the charge is written as a superscript
the charge applies to the whole group of atoms
polyatomic ions are more than one atom with an overall charge
O
Properties of compounds with covalent bonds
can be any state of matter
covalent bonds can have different strengths
single bond (2 shared electrons)
double bond (4 shared electrons)
triple bond (6 shared electrons)
weakest = single bond
strongest = triple bond
longest = single bond
shortest = triple bond
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Full transcript