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Pathways to the Common Core
Transcript of Pathways to the Common Core
Introduction to the Common Core
Overview of the Reading Standards
Literal Understanding and Text Complexity
View the Common Core State Standards as GOLD
The CCSS provides an urgently needed wake-up call
Implementing the Common Core
Look at current literacy initiatives and set goals for how to improve them
Look at curriculum gaps and develop a long-term plan for reform
Implement a spiral, cross-curricular K-12 writing workshop
Move students up levels of text complexity by providing them with lots of just-right high-interest texts and the time to read them
Prioritize argument and informational writing
Focus on higher-order comprehension instruction
What the Standards Do and Don't Value in Reading Comprehension
Deep comprehension and high level thinking skills
How the Same Skills are applied to Reading Literature and Informational Texts
The call is for literacy to be a shared responsibility in content area classrooms as well as in ELA classrooms
Readers bring the same skills to various texts(p. 27)
Implementation Implications of the Reading Standards
-High level comprehension skills
-More training for teachers
-Explicit instruction for students
-Have kids in "Just Right" texts
-Science and social studies teachers will have to participate in PD on reading instruction (p. 29)
How do the CCSS Suggest Educators Determine a Text's Level of Complexity?
-Reader and Task Consideration Measures (p. 34)
What Are the Standards' Suggestions for Grade Level Appropriate Texts?
- Grade-Band Exemplar Texts
- Lexile Level Charts
- Fountas and Pinnell (p. 37)
What are the Common Core's Expectations for Literal Comprehension?
Literal comprehension demands a sharp rise in expectations as you move up the grade levels. As you move up the grade levels, the skills in literal understandings become more challenging, because the texts themselves become more complex.
Equal weight on reading and writing
The CCSS respects the professional judgement of teachers
Make text-self connections, access prior knowledge, explore personal response, and relate to your own life
What Does the Common Core Say About the Implications for Instruction?
1. Take stock of your school's current efforts to move students up the ladder of text complexity
2. Accelerate students' progress up the ladder of text difficulty
3. Devise a plan to support you students' progress toward reading more complex texts
4. Implement your plan (p. 42)
Reading for Key Ideas and Details
Standard 2- Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
Standard 3- Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. (p.54)
Reading for Craft and Structure
Standard 4- Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific choices shape meaning or tone.
Standard 5- Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other.
Standard 6- Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content of a text.(p.58)
Reading to Integrate Knowledge and Ideas
Standard 7- Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
Standard 8- Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence (not applicable to literature)
Standard 9- Analyze how two or more texts address similar these or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. (p.62)
Reading Informational Texts
Reading for Craft and Structure
*Reading closely and making logical inferences
*Reading to determine central ideas and themes
*Reading to analyze how individuals, events and ideas interact over the course of a text (p.77-82)
Reading to Integrate Knowledge and Ideas and Think Across Informational Texts
*Integrate and evaluate content in different media
*Compare different texts to analyze supports the author uses for his/her claims
*Compare two texts on the same subject (p.86-87)
Reading for Key Ideas and Details
*Reading to interpret the language used in the text
*Reading to analyze the structure of a text
*Reading to assess the author's point of view and how it shapes the text (p.82-85)
Overview of the Writing Standards
The Standards' Emphasis on Three Types of Writing
1. Persuasive/Opinion/Argument Writing
2. Informational and Functional/Procedural Writing
3. Narrative Writing (p.104)
The Standards' Emphasis on the Writing Process and the Quality of Student Writing
Writing Process- Students should be able to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, [and] editing. (p.105)
Quality- Frequent engagement in the writing process and extremely high levels of proficiency. (p.106-107)
The Standards' Emphasis on Writing for Young Students and Across All Disciplines
Young Writers- Kindergartners can write. They can not only invent their own spellings and write with fluency and power, but also write long, well-developed, shapely texts. (p.108)
Across Disciplines- Writing should occur in the content areas, across every discipline. (p.110)
The CCSS and Composing Narrative Texts
The Common Core's Expectations For Narrative Writing Are Ambitious
*Students are to write well-crafted, tightly structured stories. The expected levels of achievement are well within reach of students who have grown up within a rigorous course of study in narrative craft...(p.115)
The Structure of the Writing Standards Presents Helpful Learning Progressions
*In order to understand the narrative writing standards you must read the standards in a horizontal fashion, setting the descriptors for each skill from one grade alongside the descriptors of the proceeding grade and noting the new work that is added at each subsequent grade. (p.116)
The Standards Emphasize Skills a Writer Will Need to Know to Write Any Type of Text
*We were so enamored with the process of reading the grade level standards horizontally, noting the relatively small, incremental advances that occur at each grade, that it took us a long time to see another source of coherence:
the first descriptor of writing type, then the ways the writer will develop the text.
The CCSS and Composing Argument Texts
The Continuum of Expectations For Opinion and Argument Writing is Steep
*The standards put particular emphasis on students' ability to write sound arguments on substantive topics and issues. (p.127)
writing is a generalization, and teachers are more accustomed to teaching and talking about specific genres, including persuasive letters, persuasive reviews, book reviews, and petitions. (p.128)
Writing Arguments Eventually Includes Refuting Counterarguments
*The CCSS note that learning to compose convincing arguments not only develops writing skills but propels thinking and learning and researching skills. They value looking for sides of an issue, weeding out bias, and tracking the development of ideas. (p. 131)
Writing Arguments Eventually Includes Using Sources, Evaluating Them, and Using This Analysis to Engine Convincing Arguments.
*The CC suggests that students should not just lift quotes and plop them into their opinion and argument writing, instead analyze their source of information with more and more nuance and then use that analysis within their writing. (p. 135)
The CCSS and Composing Informational Texts
The Standards' Parallel Structure For All Three Writing Types Presents Helpful Learning Progression
*The standards as that teachers across a student's schooling work together to support a progression of skill development. (144)
It Is Especially Important That Information Writers Learn to Sort, Categorize, and Elaborate on Information
Writing About a Topic Extends Learning About It-And Therefore, Informational Writing Belongs In And Beyond The ELA Classroom
*When teachers pay attention to informational writing, teaching its processes and craft and then creating multiple opportunities for students to transfer those skills to the informational writing they do in every subject, the result is not just better writing, but also better learning. (p.152)
Overview of the Speaking and Listening/Language Standards
Language work should be interwoven across the day, so that conventions, vocabulary, and craft moves become a seamless part of reading, writing, speaking, and listening. (p. 170)
Speaking and Listening Standards
* Academic literacy requires students not just to take in facts but also to position themselves as critics and reviews in relation to the texts they read and hear.
* The CCSS opens up the definition of speaking and listening to include nonverbal forms of communication and viewing and interacting with multimedia. (p. 164)
CCSS-Alligned Assessments Fuel Whole-School Reform
First Steps Toward Creating a Culture and Context For Making Meaningful School Reform
*Don't interpret the CCSS as a mandate to shoehorn more stuff into an already overcrowded curriculum.
*Choose priorities, drawing on school's strengths.
*Implement the selected reforms fully and seriously, then learn from that process and extend it to new areas. (p. 182)
Past Assessments Have Led Curriculum Far Afield CCSS Goals
*When high-stakes tests ask little of students, schools that teach only low-level literacy skills can appear to be doing an acceptable job. (p. 187)
Create, Revise, and Critique Present Assessments to Fuel Whole-School Reform
*When teachers pull together to study student work, to study their own teaching, to study what does and does not lead to increasing achievement,...that process will be the pathway to implementing the CCSS. (p. 197)
*The CCSS expect that our students can independently include a variety of types of evidence such as facts, opinions, and quotations, and use language that connects within sections and across an entire piece. (p. 149)