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Transcript of Broadcast Communication
Broadcasting.. BROADCASTING is the
practice of creating audio
and video program content
and distributing it to the
mass audiences of radio,
television and Internet media. To broadcast is to send
information via one-way
electronic media to the
general public. Broadcasts usually are intended
for recreation, enlightenment,
or emergency messaging. Types of electronic
broadcasting: Radio owes its development to two other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone, all three technologies are closely related. Radio technology began as "wireless telegraphy". RADIO Telegraph The electric telegraph is a now outdated communication system that transmitted electric signals over wires from location to location that translated into a message. Telephone The telegraph had been a highly successful communication system for about 30 years before. The main problem with the telegraph was that it used Morse code, and was limited to sending and receiving one message at a time. Samuel Morse is best known as the inventor of the telegraph. At 1835 Morse invented a telegraph system that was a practical and commercial success. Until 1877, all rapid long-distance communication depended upon the telegraph. That year, a rival technology developed that would again change the face of communication -- the telephone. The telegraph and telephone are very similar in concept, and it was through Alexander Graham Bell's attempts to improve the telegraph that he found success with the telephone. On June 2, 1875, Alexander Graham Bell while experimenting with his technique called "harmonic telegraph" discovered he could hear sound over a wire. Bell's greatest success was achieved on March 10, 1876, marked not only the birth of the telephone but the death of the multiple telegraph as well. The communications potential contained in his demonstration of being able to "talk with electricity" far outweighed anything that simply increasing the capability of a dot-and-dash system could imply. Twenty years after the telephone was invented and music was first sent down a telephone line, Guglielmo Marconi sent radio signals. What is broadcasting? ... small What are morse codes? a telegraph code in which letters and numbers are represented by strings of dots and dashes. The transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves of radio frequency, esp. those carrying sound messages Radio can refer to either the electronic appliance that we listen with or the content listened to. However, it all started with the discovery of "radio waves" - electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air. During the 1860s, Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell predicted the existence of radio waves; and in 1886, German physicist, Heinrich Rudolph Hertz demonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves similar to those of light and heat. Although Hertz originally thought his work had no practical use, today it is recognized as the fundamental building block of radio and every frequency measurement is named after him (the Hertz). Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian nobleman, got fascinated with Hertz’s earlier discovery of radio waves and realized that it can be used for sending and receiving telegraph messages, referring to it as “wireless telegraphs.” Guglielmo Marconi
Made the practical application of the physicists’ theories that the electromagnetic spectrum existed.
Built equipment that could ring a bell by remote control – no stings, no wires, just turning a n electromagnetic charge on and off.
He sent and received his first radio signal in Italy in 1895.
By 1899 he flashed the first wireless signal across the English Channel and two years later received the letter "S", telegraphed from England to Newfoundland.
Produced the first wireless transmission. Marconi was not the first to invent the radio, however. Four years before Marconi started experimenting with wireless telegraph, Nikola Tesla, a Serb who moved to the USA in 1884, invented the theoretical model for radio. Tesla tried unsuccessful to obtain a court injunction against Marconi in 1915. In 1943 the US Supreme Court reviewed the decision. Tesla became acknowledged as the inventor of the radio – even though he did not build a working radio.
***Up until today, Nikola Tesla remains acknowledged as the inventor of the radio. Growth of Radio Transmitting
voices A promoter who fancied himself as an inventor, created what he called the audion tube
**audion tube- Triode Electron Tube;
made voice transmission possible
This invention made coast to coast telephone calls possible. Soon, this triode tube was being used in radios as well.
Also the first person who used the term “Radio”
Credited as the “Father of American Radio”
It is said that he stole this idea from the Canadian inventor Reginald Fessenden
Clearly demonstrated radio’s potential as an entertainment medium.
Resulted in the invention of amplitude-modulated or AM radio that allowed for a multitude of radio stations. The earlier spark-gap transmitters did not allow for this. Lee De Forest Canadian Scientist
Wanted to transmit the human voice and music without wires.
Devised the theory of the "continuous wave," a means of superimposing sound onto a radio wave. This sound could then be transmitted to a receiver.
Broadcasted the first radio program in 1906
Played some recorded Christmas carols, shocking wireless operators on ships at sea.
Instead of the dots and dashes of Morse code, suddenly there was music. Reginald Fessenden
A Columbia University researcher
Developed the static free transmission
Built an experimental station in New Jersey using a new system called frequency modulation, FM for short.
**FM - it is a system of piggy-backing
sound on airwaves & was different from
the older amplitude modulation or AM
method. This mode of radio transmission
allowed for reduced noise &interference.
In time, he developed FM stereo with two soundtracks, one for each ear, duplicating the sensation of hearing a performance live.
His inventions are considered by many to provide the foundation for cellular phones. Edwin Armstrong SOUND
RECORDING Recording of sound is an old dream of man.
Before the invention of recording you could only hear music if someone was prepared to play or sing it.
Although musical boxes and barrel organs allowed people to hear music without anyone having to play, the sound was very limited.
The sale of sheet music was a big business. In order to hear their favourite songs, families would buy the music and play it on their piano at home. (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr 1. Phonograph
- First machine built that could produce sound
- A talking machine by U.S inventor Thomas Edison
- The term phonograph means “to write sound”
- A cylinder wrapped in a thin foil
- Used for Acoustic Recording
- Major impediment: A recording could not be duplicated 2. Gramophone
- A sturdy metal disc that can record simultaneously
- Was introduced by Emile Berliner
- Can make hundreds of near-perfect copies of the original disc
- Led to mass production Until.. Radio-telegraphy is the sending by radio waves the same dot-dash message (morse code) used in a telegraph. Transmitters at that time were called spark-gap machines. It was developed mainly for ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship communication. This was a way of communicating between two points, however, it was not public radio broadcasting as we know it today.Overseas radiotelegraph service developed slowly, primarily because the initial radiotelegraph transmitter discharged electricity within the circuit and between the electrodes was unstable causing a high amount of interference. Electrical Recording Acoustic Recording Digital Recording COMPUTER, INTERNET AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB 1993 1983 1989 1978 1969 1962 (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr The Internet &
the Web through the years.. Vannevar Bush’s proposition of a memex machine linking human knowledge 1945 Ted Nelson introduced the term hypertext U.S Defense Department created the ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) network linking military contractors and researchers for exchanging information. 1973 Mead Data Central, an Ohio company, offered Lexis; the first online full-text database.
- Carried state and federal statutes, court decisions and other legal documents.
- Delivered via telephone lines; simple text on the computer screen. Mead launched Nexis, the first online database with national news organizations, including the New York Times, The Washington Post and many more.- Proved invaluable tor researchers who would need to trace back issues.-Now includes thousands of publications from around the world. The National Science foundation linked researchers to supercomputers with Internet. Tim Berners-Lee devised coding that made the World Wide Web possible. Marc Andreessen created the Mosaic browser, followed by Netscape. 1999 Creation of the Internet2, the new high-speed backbone to connect research networks. (As fast as 2.4 gigabites) 2003 Amazon.com demonstrated new speed of search engines with Search Inside a Book. Vint Cerf
- Called the “Father of the Internet” but objected to the title
- Created the coding that allowed various computers to talk to each other over phone lines, along with co-researcher, Bob Kahn.
- University of California at Los Angeles: Intercomputer language protocols.
- “It is not right to think of the Internet as having only one father. It has at least two, and in reality, thousands, because of the number of people who contributed to what it is today.” DIFFERENCE OF THE WEB AND THE INTERNET:
- Is the fundamental network that carries messages,
- And is the wired infrastructure on which web messages move.
- It began as a military communication system which expanded into a government-funded civilian research network.
- (With the capital “I”,) is the backbone of the World Wide Web.
While the web is a structure of codes that permits the exchange not only of text but also of graphics, video, and audio.
THE WORLD WIDE WEB
- System that allows global linking of information modules in user-determined sequences.
- Emerged as the eighth major mass medium which can easily be used to deliver different types of communication due to its flexible characteristic.
- Straightforward and accessible technology which makes gathering information easier.
- The number of web users in the United States alone is approaching 100 million--six times the number in 1995, roughly 30 percent of the U.S population.
- Single-handedly invented by an Oxford engineer named Tim Berners-Lee - Tim Berners-Lee was part of Time Magazine’s 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century.
- He was alikened to Johannes Gutenberg who launched the age of mass communication 400 years ago with the movable type that made mass production of written word possible
- Came up with the web concept during 1989 because he could not keep track of all his notes in various places on different computers but officially emerged in the mid-1900’s as a powerful new mass medium
- Devoted his life in improving the web for the use of communication that is open to everyone
- Received various offers from investors to build new ways to derive profits from the web but Berners-Lee rejected it and chose the academic life as the head of W3 Consortium (3Ws – World Wide Web) to realize its potentials. TELEVISION
AND CABLE What is a computer? A computer is an electronic machine that accepts information ( Data ), processes it according to specific instructions, and provides the results as new information. Monitor Floppy Disk Drive System Unit Keyboard CD-ROM / DVD-ROM Drive Mouse The first computer was human mind who has produce the idea of compute, brain is first computer machines inventions are later. The history of computers starts out about 2000 years ago, at the birth of the abacus , a wooden rack, holding two horizontal portions with beads strung on them. Compute actions can be achieved when these beads are moved around according to programming rules memorized by the user. With the use of abacus all regular arithmetic problems can be done. Early Computation Machines Abacus emerged 5, 000 years ago in Asia Minor (still in use today) Pascaline, invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642, used eight movable dials to add up sums eight figures long. 1694 Gottfried Wilhem von Leibniz improved the Pascaline so it could do multiplication. Arithometer invented in 1820 could perform four basic arithmetic calculations, add, divide, multiply and subtract. 1822 Charles Babbage devised the Difference Engine to perform differential calculations, in 1830 Babbage started work on the Analytical Engine which would have been the first general-purpose computer. The analytical engine was never built. 1889 Herman Hollerith devised a punch card tabulating machine to help compile the US Census results, reduced time from 10 years to 6 weeks. Foundered the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896, later to become International Business Machines (IBM) in 1924. First generation computers 1940 - 1956 - 1941 German engineer devised the Z3 computer to design airplanes and missiles.
- 1943 British designed the Collossus to decode German messages.
- 1944 the Harvard-IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (Mark 1) all electric calculator developed to create ballistic charts for the US Navy.
-1944 Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) produced by a partnership between US government and the University of Pennsylvania.
- 1945 John von Newman developed the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer), first to have a stored memory. Also introduced the idea of a single central processing unit (CPU), through which all computer functions are coordinated through a single source.
- 1951 Remington Rand manufactured the UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) the first commercial computer, to have a CPU and stored memory. Characteristics - Operating instructions were made-to-order for the specific task for which the computer was to be used.
- Each computer had a different binary-coded program called a machine language that told it how to operate.
- This made the computer difficult to program and limited it’s versatility and speed.
- Use of vacuum tubes led to massive size. Used magnetic drums for data storage
- Punch cards to input instructions. - Advances such as the transistor, and developments in magnetic-core memory meant that second generation computers were smaller, faster, more reliable and more energy-efficient than their predecessors.
- Stretch (IBM) and Larc (Sperry-Rand) first computers to use transistors, two supercomputers developed for use by the atomic energy laboratories.
- Second generation computers replaced machine language with assembly language, allowing abbreviated programming codes to replace long binary codes
- Second generation computers were solid state (all transistor) and consisted of many components found in today’s computers:
printers, tape storage, disk storage, memory, operating systems, and stored programs.
- 1998 the fiftieth anniversary of the stored program (University of Manchester 1948) Second Generation Computers 1956 - 1963 - A number of commercially successful second generation computers introduced in business, universities and government from manufacturers such as Burroughs, Control Data, Honeywell, IBM, Sperry-Rand.
- 1952 the IBM 701 introduced as a business computer. It consisted of several units that could be shipped to customers, rather than the massive units that had to be assembled on-site.
- 1959 the IBM 7090 was the first mass produced solid state computer
- The stored program meant that instructions to run a computer for a specific function (program) were held inside a computers memory, rather than on punch cards or tape, and could quickly be replaced by a set of different instructions for a different function.
- Higher level programming languages such as COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) and FORTRAN (Formula Translator) replaces binary machine code to make programming easier. - 1975 the first personal computer the MITS Altair 8800 sold as a kit, for users to build.
* The Altair had no input or output (I/O) devices, no monitor, no keyboard, no printer and no memory - demand soon exceeded supply.
* Bill gates and Paul Allen write a version of BASIC for the Altair.
- 1975 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak start Apple Computers. 1976
- Apple I sold as a kit 1977
- Apple II introduced as a pre-assembled computer with a colour monitor, keyboard, sound and graphics. The Microcomputer 1975- present •- The etymology of the word has a mixed Latin and Greek origin, meaning "far sight":
- Greek tele= far, and Latin visio= sight (from video, vis= to see, or to view in the first person). For many years, the technologies used to record and reproduce sound did not rely on electricity. However, by the middle 1920s, record companies began to employ microphones, electronic amplifiers, and electro-magnetic disc recorders for the production of record discs. The idea of using electricity to record sound was first proposed by Thomas Edison, who attached a small stylus to the diaphragm of a telephone receiver, let a telephone signal vibrate the stylus, and used these vibrations to cut the groove. However, the lack of a way to amplify a telephone signal meant that these recordings were weak in comparison to recordings made by simply shouting into the recording horn. After Western Electric improved the Audio electron tube to the point where they could use it to build reliable electronic amplifiers in 1915, engineers returned to the idea of electrical recording. Western Electric engineers H. C. Harrison and Joseph P. Maxfield worked on what they called “electrical recording” for several years before announcing it to the public in 1924. It used microphones, an electronic amplifier, and an electromagnetic cutting stylus to make records. But since the electron tube was still expensive, they decided to develop an improved home record player that was non-electronic, playing the records acoustically just as they had been played for decades. The new records reproduced sound more realistically than the old acoustic discs: for the first time it was possible to hear singers pronounce the letter “s” and other soft sounds. The use of microphones also helped the musicians to be more comfortable and spread out instead of singing so close to the recording horn It also made possible the careers of those with “soft” voices or whom we call the “crooners” The Western Electric company did not make records but instead sold its electrical recording technology to record companies. Electrical recording revolutionized the making of records and paved the way for later innovations, but it did not help the record industry, which declined after the late 1920s. The lack of interest in the new technology kept the acoustic phonograph—and even the hand-cranked version of it—alive well into the 1940s Compact discs (CDs), on which master recordings are converted to digital information, provided clear, superior resolution that cassette tape quality couldn't match. (1982) As video tape recording reached its stride in the 1980s, Sony took the lead in efforts to combine the helical-scan recording technology used for video signals with the latest in audio recording. Resulted in the introduction of digital audio tapes or DAT Today, audio cassettes have quietly secured a key ongoing niche in the recording market. They are the least expensive way to acquire and play music Meanwhile, CDs dominate sales of prerecorded music, DAT machines have broken the "under $1000" barrier and are sparking broader consumer interest, and recordable Mini Discs (MD) and Digital Compact Cassettes (DCC) are being marketed by Sony and Philips, respectively. The CD-ROM (read-only memory) made it possible to contain massive amounts of computer data instead of digital sound. In the early 1990s a user-recordable CD for data storage, CD-R, was introduced. CD-R became the standard for exchanging and archiving of computer data and music. The length of audio CDs was a factor in it becoming popular. Its 74-minutes of playing time was longer than that of most long-playing vinyl albums. A three letter code is printed on the back of many audio CDs. The "A" of the code stands for analog, while the "D" stands for digital. The code was used even more frequently on early CDs. The breakdown for the code is that the first letter represents how the album was recorded, the second represents how the album was mixed, and the third represents how it was transferred (this was always a "D" because a CD is a digital medium). The code was frequently followed by a brief description such as "Full Digital Recording for DDD and "Digitally Mixed Analog Recording" for ADD. Digital recoding and mixing was becoming commonplace among recording artists and producers who were known for having an interest in fidelity by the time compact discs were introduced worldwide. Mechanical Television
System - Paul Nipkow developed a rotating-disc technology to transmit pictures in 1884. He discovered the notion of dissecting the image and transmitting it sequentially. - Mechanical viewers had the serious limitation of resolution and brightness. Nipkow Disk 1911
Rosing in Russia Cambell
to Swinton in England First transmission
of images John Logie Baird - produced mechanical images in London in 1925 and of moving, monochromatic images in 1926 - In 1920's, Baird's 30 line images was demostrated: the transmission of moving silhoutte The image as transmitted was faint and often blurred. It is possible to transmit and reproduce instantly the details of movement, and such things as the play of expression on the face. Charles Francis Jenkins - invented the mechanical system called radiovision (1925)
- this system was slow and murky
- He transmitted pictures of Herbert Hoover, then Secretary of Commerce and demonstrated a mechanical television scanning system using a revolving disk in 1925. He correctly predicted: "It will not be very long now before one may see on a small white screen in one's home notable current events, like inaugural ceremonies, ball games, pageants, as well as pantomime performance broadcast from motion-picture." Charles Jenkins broadcasts the first TV commercial The BBC begins regular TV transmissions. 1930's Vladimir Zworykin - invented the cathode - ray tube called the kinescope in 1929.
- Zworykin was one of the first to demonstrate a television system with all the features of modern picture tubes. Kinescope images were capable of great flexibility. The operator could make the image brighter or darker, adjust contrast, width and height, turn left, right or upside down. The first and most primitive method of recording television programmes, production, or news story, a kinescope is a film made of a live television broadcast. Phil Fansworth - Transmitted complete electronic image-60 horizontal lines - In 1926, he moved to Los Angeles to carry out research. In 1927 Farnsworth's Image Dissector camera tube transmitted its first image - In 1929 the system was further improved by elimination of a motor generator; the television system now has no mechanical moving parts. - By 1936 Farnsworth's company was transmitting regular entertainment programmes.
- He travelled to England and formed an alliance with John Logie Baird . Baird and Farnsworth competed with EMI for forming the standard television system for the U.K.
- By 1939 Farnsworth 's company had licenced patents to RCA. 1937 CBS begins its TV development. The BBC begins high definition broadcasts in London. Television Development 1880s to 1899
Period of Dreams, Concepts and Initial Discoveries 1900
The word "Television" was first used 1922 to 1927
Early Experiments with a MECHANICAL scanning disc system. .
-Peter Goldmark invents a 343 lines of resolution color television system
- Peter Goldmark, working for CBS, demonstrated his color television system.
- His system produced color pictures by having a red-blue-green wheel spin in front of a cathode ray tube. 1940 1946
Goldmark's mechanical system was replaced by an electronic system.
Cable television is introduced in Pennsylvania as a means of bringing television to rural areas. One million homes in the United States have television sets. 1948 1956
Robert Adler invents the first practical remote control called the "Zenith Space Commander".
AT & TH launches Telstar , the first satellite to carry TV broadcasts - broadcasts are now internationally relayed.
July 20, first TV transmission from the moon and 600 million people watch. 1962 1969 1928 to 1934
- First Mechanical TV Sets sold to public
– However, picture quality is lacking. Not suitable for commercial use. Electronic TV offers greater promise.
1926 to 1935
- Early Experiments with All-Electronic Cathode Ray Television (the basic system we have today)
1935 to 1941
- Electronic (Experimental) TV begins broadcasting in Germany, England, Italy, France, USA, Holland,…
- Work begins on CBS Mechanical Color Television.
July 1, 1941
-Electronic (Commercial) Black & White Television
June 25, 1951
- First Mechanical Color Television Set Placed on Market (CBS-Columbia) at $499.95.
- First All-Electronic Color Television Set is RCA CT-100 , selling at $1,000
- Japanese demonstrate ANALOG high - definition TV
- General Instrument's Video Cipher division announces DIGITAL Hi-Definition System Late 1990s
- Internet, World-Wide-Web explodes onto the scene -- ushering in new global communications for the 21st century. CABLE
TELEVISION How it all started.. - Cable Television started because broadcast television had poor reception
- Robert J. Tarlton and Ed Parsons are credited for setting up the first master antenna in 1949
- Cable at first was not regulated at first
- Cable started to flourish during the Regan administration Growth - Subscribers was under 25% until 1981
- Grew over 50% by the end of the 80’s
- Started to decline during the last half of the 90’s The 90’s and Up - 10 years from 1994, cable passed in the U.S. jumped from 91.6 million to 103.5 million
- In 2004, cable systems passed 108.2 million
- About 99% of homes had cable In 2005, cable dropped 700,000 subscribers
- Cable revenue continued to increase because of side services
- High-speed internet Digital channels Higher basic subscription rates Cost - During the decade starting in 1993, the cost of cable subscriptions grew by 53.1%
-Double the 25.5% increase in the consumer price index Cost for cable were up, but cost per viewing hour declined - Programming expenses grew by 10.6% in 2003
- Basic cable increased by 92.6% in a decade to $43.04 per month Digital - 2000 had 8.7 million households subscribed to digital cable
- After 6 months the numbers had jumped to 12 million
- Hit 22.5 million by 2003 2005 hit 26.3 million
- By 2005 started offering Digital video Video on demand DVRs HDTV Telephone service
- Important factor to eliminating analog broadcast television of February 17, 2009 40 million U.S. households remain analog-only Video On Demand - Showed signs of growth by the end 2001
- Revenues exceeding $65 million Alternatives to digital cable 19.5 million users by the end of 2004 Internet and Telephone - By the end of 2004, 93% homes passed by cable were offered high-speed
- Internet service 38% offered telephone service 2000’s - Although cable has dropped in subscribers since 2000
- Cable and satellite television combined showed a steady increase every year since 2000
- 84% of U.S. households