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Transcript of Chapter 6
-Short vowels, blends, and digraphs are nearly mastered and should only require some review.
-Childrens' phonemic awareness is well developed and they should be able to isolate the vowel sounds in the middle of words.
-Learning the various ways the sounds within words can be spelled with patterns is the challenge. EX: boat- bote, bowt, boot
Word Study Instruction for the Within Word Pattern Stage
*Use words students can read
*Look for what students use but confuse
*Sort by sound and pattern
*Avoid teaching rules, and have students find reliable patterns instead
*Don't hide exceptions
The Pattern Layer
-Children must isolate the phonemes to determine the sounds they need to represent AND choose from a variety of patterns that represent the same phoneme.
Reasons why the same phoneme may be spelled with different patterns:
-A word's history and origin
-A vowel's position within a word
-Vowels dependent on sounds next to them
-A word's meaning
Progress in Word Pattern Stage
By the end of second grade
Ways to monitor:
Weekly spelling test
makes students accountable
using transfer words - words that fit the feature but aren't used in the sort
blind writing sort - students sort words as they write them, encourages thinking of pattern
using unit tests with same spelling words every 3-6 weeks
Word Study with ESL & ELL
Learn about first language to identify their literacy patterns
Remember vowels are hardest, relate back to their first language
Strategies for teaching & assessing:
DON'T rely on spelling tests, students can memorize words without understanding
Use word study to show them patterns
Use concrete words that can be acted out/explained
Use less words in sort, focus on the columns
Pair ELL students with native English speakers so they can hear the language
Model correct pronunciation, but don't stress if they don't master pronunciation
Weekly Routines & Management
Routines allow students to work independently with partners or in small groups.
Word Study Notebooks
Students record weekly sort, word hunts, activities with their words, summarize what they learned
Record words from reading/comprehension area to make connections
Ongoing list of homophones, homographs, polysemous words, etc with sentences and pictures
Send home a checklist of activities from which students choose 2-3 activities to complete each night.
Lists can be modified and activities an be added occasionally.
Show students the connection between subjects and parts of literacy, have them search through their reading materials for words with the same patterns.
Challenge them to look for words that may be in later sorts with features they don't recognize.
What are some effective word study lessons (with ELLs, routines, etc) you have seen in your practicum?
Leslie, Nicole, Savannah, Kelly
Literacy Development of Students in the Within Word Pattern Stage
The Complexities of English Vowels
Can read one syllable words accurately at instructional level and two-three syllable words with contextual support
Full Alphabetic Phase --> Consolidated Alphabetic Phase
There are many more vowel sounds than there are letters to represent them. To spell so many sounds, vowels are often paired, or a second vowel or consonant is used to mark or signal a particular sound.
Most vowel sounds are spelled a number of differnet ways. EX:
-Common long-a patterns:
a-e (cave), ai (rain), ay (play)
ei (eight) ey (prey)
In addition to short and long vowels, there are
sounds, all of which are spelled with various patterns. These include:
-influenced vowels (
car, sir, earn
that blend 2 vowel sounds (
vowels that are neither long nor short (
Complexities of English Vowels cont.
Read out loud, Reread, Picture books --> DEAR, SSR, Group Discussion, Various Genres
Students should practice often during transitional reading at instructional and independent levels. Promote fluent, expressive reading with repeated and timed repeated reading.
English is a language of multiple dialects, and the dialect differences are noticeable in the pronunciations of vowels.
may sound like
, "pahk the cah" (
park the car
Words that do not match more common vowel patterns fit into the
-True "exceptions to the rule":
was, build, been
dance, fence, prince
English vowels pose special challenges for English learners as they compare vowels in their primary language with English. Students find that some vowels in English are not made in their languages, and that the vowels may not be spelled the same ways.
Despite the complexity of vowel spellings, by the end of the within word pattern stage, students who have experienced systematic word study have a good understanding of vowel patterns in one-syllable words.
The Influence of Consonants on Vowels
Triple Blends, Silent Initial Consonants, and Other Complex Consonants
Encourage students to try a word several ways.
Use posted resources in the room.
Use spelling dictionaries to look up words.
Remind students what they know:
-Use rhymes to make analogies
-Use word chunks
-Use the "best bet" strategy
Consonants are also vowel markers, such as the
, which signals the long-i sounds. Students who associate the CVC pattern with short vowels may be puzzled by
saw, joy, hall
. In those words,
, no longer act as consonants but take on vowel qualities.
-The presence of an
following a vowel robs the sound from the vowel before it. The sound of
sounds quite different from the short
-The influence of
makes them indistinguishable in some cases (
herd, bird, curd
**Young students sometimes confuse
-influenced vowels, as in the spelling of
as GRIL. They can hear an
but are not sure of its location.
There are several other consonant issues that pose challenges for within word pattern spellers who already know basic beginning and ending consonant blends and digraphs.
Three-letter blends and digraphs
(often require further study)
Silent consonants to study in one-syllable words:
Complex consonant patterns
tack take fetch peach fudge huge
lick like notch roach badge cage
smock smoke patch reach ledge siege
ck (tack), tch (fetch)
are associated with short vowel sounds
ke (take), ch (peach)
are associated wtih long vowel sounds
Greater speed and less conscious attention
More time to concentrate on ideas, sophistication in expression
Greater complexity in writing, uses background knowledge
Take active and deliberate role in making sure growth happens
Make students "wordsmiths" to raise word consciousness
Vocab instruction is not spelling/phonics instruction, it is meaning/concepts behind words
Use sophisticated language in daily interactions, set an example, teach indirectly
Repeated exposure to new words
Connect what they hear to what they see
Always take the time to read through words in sorts to make sure students understand the meaning
Homophones address vocab and spelling
Discuss how context helps determine meaning
Concept sorts expose students to new vocab and ideas, specificially in different subjects. Used as informal assessment of background knowledge
Used to check word meanings, spelling, and answer questions
Use as resource, not assignment
Students must learn base words before affixes
Understanding how simple affixes combine with base words lays foundation for understanding word formation
Use frequently occurring and easily understandable words
Discuss ways to support a student struggling with vocabulary, reading, and writing.
Word Study Lesson Plans:
1. Demonstrate the sort
2. Check and reflect
3. Extend: Students work independently across the week
Types of Sorts:
-Teacher Directed Two Step Sorts
Sequence and Pacing of Word Study in the Within Word Pattern Stage
Early, Middle, or Late Placement:
Early- Student know blends and digraphs and spell most short vowels correctly. They often experiment with sildent letters that mark long vowels. Most likely will spell fewer than two of the CVCe long vowels correctly.
Middle- Students are spelling the vowels with the CVCe pattern correctly but still make mistakes on the less common long vowel patterns as well as other vowels such as r-influenced vowels and ambiguous vowels
Late- By the end of this stage, students will have mastered long vowel patterns but will be making a few errors in other vowels such as r-influenced and ambiguous vowels. They may also be missing some of the complex consonants studied in the late within word pattern stage.
High Frequency Words
Spelling instruction focused on a small core of words that students use the most.
Routines for examining and studying high frequncy words:
-Introduction and Discussion
-Self-Corrected Test Method
Picture Sorts to Contrast Long and Short Vowels
1. Use a prepared sort or select 10-14 pictures from one short vowel and its corresponding long vowel.
2. Set up the headers and explain to the students why they'll be listening to the vowel sound in the middle of each word that names the pictures.
3. Model several pictures.
4. Have students sort remaining pictures.
5. Give students their own set of pictures and observe how accurately they sort them
Teacher-Directed Two-Step Sorts for Long Vowels
1. Use a prepared sort or create your own word sort for students, and have them cut it out.
2. Introduce the sort by reading the words together and talking about any words whose meaning may be unclear.
3. Introduce the key words for the sound sort and sound them out.
4. Ask students to look for patterns in the long vowel category and then separate them into two subcategories.
5. Scramble the words and have students sort a second time.
1. Use a prepared sort, or create one with words that students should already know how to read.
2. Introduce the sort by reading the sort together and talking about any whose meaning may be unclear or words that have multiple meanings.
3. Agree on key words and underline them as headings, then ask all student to sort them in that way.
4. Help students to summarize what they learned from the sort by playing "what if"
Assess and Monitor Progress in the Within Word Pattern Stage
Methods of Assessment:
Weekly Spelling Tests
What type of assessment would you implement in your own classroom?