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Kingdom: Plantae: Jennifer Robinson

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Jennifer Robinson

on 18 January 2013

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Transcript of Kingdom: Plantae: Jennifer Robinson

Kingdom: Plantae
Non Vascular Plants
(mosses & relatives)
Division: Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)
Division: Bryophyta (mosses)
Division: Hepatophyta (liverworts) Reproduction Gas Exchange Circulation Common Structures Impact The impact that the plants have on earth is a great one, as their ability to convert inorganic matter (atmospheric CO2) to organic matter using photosynthesis keeps us humans in kingdom animalia alive. Without plants we would not receive enough oxygen to survive, making plants and their survival very closely connected to the survival of all species in kingdom animalia. Digestion Non-Vascular Plant Reproduction Seedless Vascular Plant Reproduction Gymnosperms Reproduction Angiosperms Reproduction A Non- Vascular Plant contains two parts:
1. The Gametophyte
2. The Sporophyte that grows up on tall stalks called 'Seta' with a capsule on the end that contains spores.

Process: The capsule of the Sporophyte dries out and bursts releasing spores. The spores land and begin to germinate, differentiating into one of two types of gametophytes.
1. An archegonium (A female gametophyte which produces eggs)
2. An antheridim (A male gametophyte which produce sperm)

Sperm is released from the antheridium in a moist environment , which then swim to the archegonium and fertilize the egg. A zygote forms which grows to become a new sporophyte. A Distinct Life Cycle Spores produce a sporangium which forms into a gametophyte called a 'prothallus'
The prothallus develops both an antheridia (male organ) and an archegonia (female organ)
Sperm from the antheridia swim via a droplet of water to an egg produced by the archegonia. A fertilized egg begins to grow into a sporophyte. The sporophyte then matures and roots develop from the Prothallus and a stem and fronds grow. Sori develop on each pinna beneath the fronds, spores are then formed in the sori. The reproductive structures of the gymnosperms are the cones. The cones can be either male or female. Female
Cones develop ovules in archegonia that grow on the upper surface of each cone scale. Male
Cones produce microspores that develop into the pollen grains that are released by the hundreds of thousands. A male pollen grain lands next to a female cone by wind, pollen tube is formed which grows into the tissue of the archegonia. Sperm from the pollen passes through the tube and fertilizes the egg in the archegonia. The zygote develops into an embryo in the female cone. The embryo is covered y a tough outer coat to form a seed. Female cones remain on the tree until the seeds have matured. After maturation the cones will open, dispersing seeds. Flowers contain the structures necessary for reproduction in the plant and do not rely on such imprecise methods of fertilization as found in the gymnosperms. Pollination:
The method by which the male pollen is transferred to the female. Self- Pollination:
When plants produce identical traits as the parent. Cross-Pollination:
Pollination by means of birds, bats or insects can result in a greater variation in plants. Angiosperms do not produce spores, but rather fruits which protect and nourish the developing seeds. Plants have developed a series of adaptations to attract various pollinators. Some flowers open at night to attract bats, while other flowers develop at the base of corolla to attract hummingbirds. The distinct colour, shape and scent of flowers also attracts pollinators. Kingdom: Plantae
Seedless Vascular Plants
(ferns & relatives)
Division: Psilophyta (whisk ferns)
Division: Lycopodiophyta (club mosses)
Division: Sphenophyta (horse tails)
Division: Pteridophyta (true ferns) Kingdom: Plantae
(conifers & relatives)
Group: Coniferophyta
Group: Gnetophyta (gnetophytes)
Group: Cycadophyta (cycads)
Group: Ginkgophyta (ginkgo biloba) Kingdom: Plantae
(flowering plants)
Class: Monocotyldea (monocots)
Class: Dicotyldea (dicots)
Eukaryotic- An organism with cells containing nuclei, and other types of membrane bound organelles.

Multicellular- The organism consists of more than one cell, in contrast to single-celled organisms.

Autotroph- The organism can produce organic molecules from simple inorganic molecules and thus make its own food.

Sexual & Asexual reproduction- Meiosis vs. Mitosis, the organisms can reproduce in one of two ways.

Aquatic & Terrestrial- These plants can grow in either environment. General Characteristics A common structure of the Non Vascular Plants and Seedless Vascular Plants are that neither of them have true roots, stems or leaves, causing them to stay minimal in size. Most plants are generally green in the stem area or leaves due to the chlorophyll in the plant, used during photosynthesis to produce food for the plant. Another common structure of these plants is that they are constantly adapting to change, whether it be digging their roots in deeper to get more water, opening at night to attract bats or having different colours on them to attract bees and hummingbirds. They change to survive in the environments that they grow in. Non Vascular Plants
Mosses & Relatives Seedless Vascular Plants Ferns & Relatives Gymnosperms Conifers & Relatives Anthocerotophyta (hornworts) Bryophyte (mosses) Hepatophyta (liverworts)

Liverworts are non-vascular plants. Their shape resembles a liver. They are the most basic living plants ranging in size from 0.02 to over 8 inches in diameter. They are one of the first plants to evolve from a sea plant to a land plant 400 million years ago. The Liverwort is included in the Hepatophyta division which consists of about 8,500 different species that grow in locations all over the world including the arctic and the tropics. There are approximately 60 different families of Liverwort plants.

The Liverwort plant commonly grows in moist habitats but there are some types that can grow in dry sandy areas and rock outcroppings.There are approximately 60 different families of Liverwort plants. They grow in 2 different forms, either leafy which have a leaf-like appearance or thallose which grow in large flat sheets. Leafy liverworts can be mistaken for mosses.

Mosses are a type of Bryophyte that ranges in size from less than 1/2 inch to 3 feet. They are non-vascular plants that date back 360 million years. Mosses are an extremely diverse group of plants that include about 10,000 species divided into 700 genera.

Mosses grow all over the world in moist shady areas but there are types of mosses that can live in dry sandy soil and on rocky outcroppings. Mosses are very useful for preventing soil erosion and breaking down earth beneath the topsoil making it easier for other plants to utilize. Mosses grow in either an erect form or a prostrate form and are classified as either sphagnum mosses, true mosses or lantern mosses. Non-vascular plants are unable to absorb moisture through their roots and transport it throughout its structure like vascular plants do. Moisture is absorbed by the plant through its top surface area. Because of this they generally grow in damp areas so that they can get enough moisture. There are some that have adapted to life in dry areas, though. The group's common name "hornwort" refers to the tall narrow sporophytes which are embedded in the top of the plant. As in other bryophytes, the sporophyte remains attached to its parent gametophyte throughout its life, but unlike these other plants, the sporophyte continues to grow throughout its life; this happens as a group of cells at the base of the horn divide repeatedly. This continuous growth from a near-basal meristem is unique among plants to hornworts.

As the sporophyte grows longer, it splits into two halves lengthwise, releasing the spores as they mature. Along with the spores are cells called pseudoelaters, which change shape as they dry out and thereby assist in scattering the spores.

When a spore germinates, it produces a flat thalloid plant with a greasy blue-green color and odd morphology. The best way to recognize a hornwort, and especially to tell it apart from a liverwort or fern gametophyte, is to look at the plant under a low-power microscope; hornworts will generally have a single large chloroplast per cell. This is an especially useful character for sterile material, but you must look at fresh material, since hornworts tend to dry up and fall apart if not kept moist, and will quickly rot if immersed. Phaoeceros Psilophyta (whisk ferns) Lycopodiophyta (club mosses) Sphenotphyta (horse tails) Pteridophyta (true ferns) Simple, plain in appearance, and without true leaves, the psilophytes are not plants of extreme beauty, although some are often cultivated, but they are unusual and often quite unique. They all have vascular systems, but lack seeds and roots. Some species have the odd characteristic of growing off of another plant and in turn having fungi growing in its own clefts.

The Psilotum, or whisk fern, is one of the psilophytes still living today, being found in damp, rich soils of tropical or subtropical regions, such as Hawaii, Florida, Texas, or the islands of the Caribbean. Many times the Psilotum plants grow on trees or other plants, but not as parasites. In Japan, certain forms of the species Psilotum nudum are very popular for the subjects of books and for cultivation.

About two feet in height, Psilotum plants have upright, aerial stems coming up from an underground rhizome. With scales arranged spirally around them, the green, dichotomous stems (stems that fork out continuously in two ways, similar to the branches of trees) are covered in a waxy material called cutin and are photosynthetic. Three-lobed sporangia are produced on the stems of mature plants. The rhizome, which absorbs nutrition from the ground and anchors the plant, is covered in hairlike rhizoids and, like the stem, has a cutinized epidermis. However, this amount of cutin is so large that even after internal tissues die and decompose the rhizome becomes hollow and stays in the ground. Often found in the rhizome of Psilotum plants are endophytic fungi, which grow in the cells of the rhizomes and benefit the plant by breaking down food. Both the upright stems and rhizomes have simple vascular tissue.

A native of Australia, New Caledonia, Tasmania, the Polynesian islands, New Zealand, and islands of the Philippines, the one species of Tmesipteris is the only other psilophyte around today and is usually endophytic, meaning that it grows on other plants. Half-inch long, leaf-like structures covering two stems, which either
hang down or stand upright from the rhizome and produce two-lobed sporangia describe the plant. Psilotum Nudum Psilotum nudum is an epiphyte that sometimes grows as a terrestial plant in rocky crevices in sandy soils. It is considered a fern ally because it is a spore-producing vascular plant. Whisk fern is native to swamplands and dry rocky cliffs from North Carolina to Oklahoma to the tropics. Tmesipteris Tmesipteris is a small green plant which usually grows from the trunks of tree-ferns, but occasionally grows in humus on logs, or on the ground. In the epiphytic form the fleshy branching rhizome which is not, strictly speaking, a root, is embedded in the fibrous mat formed by the aerial roots of the tree-fern trunk. The rhizome is not photosynthetic but is covered with minute golden-brown hairs or ‘rhizoids’, and harbours a fungus within its tissues from which it is thought to receive supplementary nutrition. (Fungal hyphae in association with roots are called mycorrhiza.) The rhizome is continuous with the pendant aerial fronds which may reach up to 30 inches but are usually nearer 12 inches. In terrestrial forms the fronds are often semi-erect. The green aerial portion has small scale-like emergences near the base which gradually pass into the larger characteristic leaves. These are peculiar in that they have no distinct stalk but the bases of the ‘leaves’ are applied closely to the stem and spread downwards to give it a ridged appearance. Some writers have likened the leaf-like structures to the flattened lobes of a branching thallus as in the plant-body of a seaweed. The leaf tip ends fairly bluntly but the midrib is often continued forming a little spike or ‘mucron’ on the end of the leaf.

The reproductive organs of Tmesipteris are very interesting. They are two-lobed structures, of spindle-shaped appearance, and are borne on the upper side of a forked appendage. There has been great controversy over the interpretation of these structures. Recent opinion regards them as short fertile lateral branches bearing two leaves and terminating in a ‘synangium’ — a term used for two joined sporangia. The two sporangial chambers are separated by a septum, and the whole structure sheds its numerous spores page 48 by splitting lengthwise. The development of the fruiting body would suggest that there are two sporangia joined, although reduced capsules in which the septum is absent have been found in the frequently occurring ‘abnormalities’. The fertile organs can be borne at any point along the main part of the stem intermixed with the leaves, but there seems to be a tendency for them to be aggregated in fertile zones.

Although not common in New Zealand Tmesipteris can be met with fairly frequently in rain forests throughout the North and South Islands and Stewart Island. It also extends to Australia, the East Indies, north to the Philippine Islands, and to several of the Pacific Islands. Psilotum can also be found on Rangitoto Island, Auckland. Here the little plants have a ‘twiggy’ appearance like a diminutive flowering broom. The bushes grow up to 18 inches high. The aerial shoots have several equal branchings, the stem is sometimes longitudinally ribbed, and the leaves are reduced to small irregularly placed scales — probably as a response to unfavourable conditions. As in Tmesipteris the reproductive organs are borne in the axils of forked appendages. Here however the sporangial organs are 3-lobed and 3-chambered and are borne on minute bifid leaves. Most of them are carried on the distal portions of the branches. The living representatives are all rather small herbaceous plants, usually with branched stems and small leaves, but their fossil ancestors were trees. Like other vascular plants, the axes of this group have epidermis, cortex, and a central cylinder, or stele, of conducting tissue. The spore cases, or sporangia, are borne at the base of leaves, either scattered along the stem or clustered into a terminal cone or strobilus. At maturity, the sporangia split across the top, releasing great quantities of spores. The spores germinate to produce small, nongreen, fleshy gametophytes, which bear both sperm-producing antheridia and egg-producing archegonia. The motile sperms swim to the egg through a film of water. The fertilized egg, or zygote, gives rise to an embryo and eventually to a mature sporophyte. The lycopods or clubmosses (phylum Lycopodiophyta lyco= wolf, pod=foot, phyt=plant or Lycophyta "wolf plant") range from the Silurian to recent times. Lycopods are not mosses. Clubmosses are more closely related to ferns and conifers . Lycopods are vascular plants with true roots, stems, and leaves. Lycopod leaves are spirally arranged with spore capsules in the axes of leaves or arranged into terminal cones. Today, the 1500 species of small herbaceous clubmosses represent a small fraction of modern flora, which possess an evolutionary history rich in diversity and abundance extending back 420 million years ago. Diphasiastrum Tristachyum (Blue ground cedar) The branches are somewhat squarish (1-2.2 mm wide) rather than broadly flattened, and the leaves of the underside of the branches are nearly the same size as the lateral and upper leaves (underside leaves are conspicuously smaller in the other two species). D. tristachyum is often conspicuously blue-green in color, especially the youngest growth, and the branches of the other two species are green. The branches have conspicuous constrictions at the juncture between consecutive years growth Grows from extreme eastern Canada west to Manitoba, south to Minnesota, Ohio and Maryland and in the mountains south to northern Georgia. In Wisconsin it is found mostly in the northern two thirds of the state, most often on dry, acid, unproductive, sandy soils in forests with light canopies and in forest openings, including disturbed sites.
Has erect, leafy stems arising at intervals from horizontal (also leafy) stems spreading along the surface, or beneath fallen leaves, but not beneath the soil. The leaves spread from several sides of the vertical stem, giving a round cross-section to the branches (i.e. the branches not conspicuously flattened in appearance). Spores are produced in sporangia located only in specialized "strobili" or cone-like structures at the ends of the leafy vertical stems. L. annotinum is separated from other species in this group by having the strobilus sessile on the tip of branches (no narrow elongated stalk between the leafy stem and the strobilus), and by the conspicuous narrowings along the vertical stems, called annular (or annual) constrictions. The annular constrictions are the result of shorter leaves being formed at the end of one year's growth and the beginning of the next year's growth. Lycopodium Annotinum (common club moss) Sphenophyta, also known as horsetails or foxtails, are a class of plants related to ferns. They grow in moist areas and are characterized by a single central stack with needle-like leaves growing radially at regular intervals. Living sphenophytes have stems containing a large central pith region which in mature plants is hollow. Surrounding the pith cavity are discrete bundles of vascular tissue; this arrangement of conducting tissue is known as a eustele. The bundles contain both xylem and phloem, and are marked by the presence of large canals known as carinal canals, which also function in water conduction. External to the vascular bundles is another set of canals, the vallecular canals or cortical canals. These canals line up with the depressions between the ribs on the surface of the stem. Most fossil sphenophytes had a very similar stem morphology. The most obvious external characteristic of sphenophytes is their "jointed" branching pattern: leaves, branches, and roots branch from the stem at evenly spaced points called nodes, separated by lengths of bare stem called internodes. Today these ancient plants survive in the single genus Equisetum. Equisetumis found throughout the world and, depending on the classification scheme, comprises between fifteen and twenty-five species.

Species that have branching forms are commonly called horsetails; scouring rushes are the unbranched species. Equisetumprefers moist or wet habitats, although some species do grow in drier areas. They can often be found growing along streams and the edges of woodlands. Equisetum Hyemale
(horse tail reed) Scouring rush (also commonly called rough horsetail) is a non-flowering, rush-like, rhizomatous, evergreen perennial which typically grows 3-5’ tall and is native to large portions of Eurasia, Canada and the U.S., including Missouri. It typically occurs in wet woods, moist hillsides and peripheries of water bodies (lakes, rivers, ponds). This species features rigid, rough, hollow, vertically-ridged, jointed-and-segmented, bamboo-like, dark green stems (to 1/2” diameter at the base) which rise up from the plant rhizomes. Each stem node (joint) is effectively marked by a whorl of tiny, stem-clasping, scale-like leaves which are fused into an ash-gray sheath (1/4” long) ending in a fringe of teeth. Equisetum is the single surviving genus of a class of primitive vascular plants that dates back to the mid-Devonian period (350 + million years ago). Today, the equisetums are categorized as fern allies in large part because they, like the ferns, are non-flowering, seedless plants which reproduce by spores. Ferns are usually found in border habitats that other plants find hard to survive in. They grow in rock crevices, deserts, on mountains and in moist and shady forests. Some species are epiphytes that grow without soil on the branches of trees. Ferns have fibrous roots. They are generally considered non-woody plants, but some giant ferns can be considered semi-woody. They have green leaves that provide energy through photosynthesis. New leaves grow out of a tight spiral called a fiddlehead. They also have specialized leaves that produce spores called sporophylls. Ferns grow from a rhizome that sits just on top of the soil. Ferns are strongly distinguished from other plants by their method of reproduction. Instead of producing seeds, they reproduce by making spores--microscopic structures that combine with sperm to produce a new generation. Spores are produced that develop into gametophytes. The gametophyte grows into a tiny heart-shaped structure that develops male antheridia and female archegonia that produce sperm and eggs. Sperm from the antheridia fertilize the egg in the archegonia and the gametophyte will develop into a sporophyte--an adult fern. Matteuccia Struthiopteris
(Ostrich Fern) Phlox Peniculata Scientifically known as Matteuccia struthiopteris, is a specie of colony-forming fern belonging to the family Onocleaceae. One of the tallest ferns in cultivation, its characteristic appearance resembles ostrich plumes. In cooler climates, the plant grows in full sun but needs protection from the sun’s heat in warmer regions. The ostrich fern occurs naturally in regions with a temperate climate, particularly in North America, northern Asia, and northern Europe. Other names used to refer to this perennial plant include shuttlecock fern and garden fern.

The large divided leaves of the ostrich fern are dimorphic, which means the fronds can be either sterile or fertile. Sterile fronds are nearly upright, measuring about 3.3 to 5.8 feet (1 to 1.7 m) tall and roughly 8 to 14 inches (20 to 35 cm) broad. They are short and taper off gradually to a bare stem at the base. Fertile fronds, on the other hand, are shorter and measure approximately 16 to 24 inches (40 to 60 cm) in length. When ripe, the frond color turns brown and the constricted and highly-modified leaf tissue becomes curled over the sporangia, a plant structure that develops in autumn and releases spores at the start of spring. (Smooth Cliffbrake) Pellaea Glabella They are most abundant and diverse in the southwestern United States south into Andean South America, central and southern Africa, and eastern Australia to New Zealand. They typically have creeping rhizomes and pinnately to bipinnately compound leaves lacking prominent scales or trichomes on the blades. Like most members of Pteridales, they have marginal sori protected by a false indusium formed from the reflexed leaf margin. Grow in rock crevices and damp places to get lots of water, but they grow oards the sun because they require a lot of sunlight. The seedless vascular plants can be divided into three groups: Lycophyta (lycophytes), Sphenophyta (horsetails), and Pteridophyta (ferns). Lycophytes appeared during the Devonian period but split into two lines during the Carboniferous period. One line became the huge extinct trees that thrived some 300 million years ago, and a good portion of the carbon they fixed was fossilized and is now burned as coal. The other line of lycophytes are small nonwoody plants. These extant lycophtes are usually found in either temperate forest floors or tropical areas. One species, Lycopodium, can be found in the forests around Pennsylvania.

Except for one existing species (Equisetum), the group whose members are commonly called horsetails is also extinct. Equisetum occurs in damp locations and is an example of a homosporous plant.

The third group of seedless vascular plants is probably the most familiar. These are the ferns or pterophytes. Most of us have seen ferns growing on a forest floor or as cut fronds in a flower arrangement. There are about 12,000 species of ferns in existence today, and they are found in tropical and temperate regions.

While the vasculature of seedless vascular plants has allowed them to grow to larger sizes than nonvascular plants, they also generally occupy moist habitats. Lunularia Cruciata Crescent Cup(Thallose) Liverwort Lunularia occurs commonly in western Europe, where it is native to the region around the Mediterranean. It is also common in California, where it now grows "wild", and is known as an introduced weed in gardens and greenhouses in Australia. In America, the species grows only as a sterile form, easily recognized by the crescent-shaped cups containing asexual gemmae. It grows on damp portions of roadside banks and in woods.

The discus-shaped gemmae are readily dislodged from the cups by splashes of rainwater. They can then quickly "take root" and start to grow in suitably damp places, which is why they are so successful in greenhouses.

Lunularia is not purely asexual; it can also reproduce sexually with four archegonia arranged in a cross-shaped head bearing diploid sporophyte plantlets. As in other liverworts, the main plant body or thallus is a haploid gametophyte. Leafy Liverwort Jungermanniidae Liverworts of this group bear leaf-like structures, on a branched or unbranched stem, that are of a prostrate form with leaves which are generally only a single cell thick. Often the leaves are divided into two or more lobes, and sometimes the lobes are folded to form various shapes. The leaves are most often arranged in two rows, but in many species there is a third row of much smaller leaves, which are often only visible with a hand-lens or microscope. A common moss found on north facing slopes and along stream banks. It has an extensive rhizoid system which makes it useful in preventing erosion and forming clods of earth for easy transplanting. Fissidens Taxifololius (Fissidens moss) It is a medium-sized species, with shoots up to 2 cm long. The leaves lack a border, and the nerve runs right to the tip of the leaf, where it is usually excurrent as a short point. Under a microscope the leaf margins are regularly and finely toothed but this is scarcely detectable in the field. Capsules are fairly frequent, inclined and the red seta arises from near the base of the main shoot. All mosses are hygroscopic and able to store moisture in their stems and leaves. Acrocarpous mosses, because of their gregarious nature, form turfs or sponge-like cushions which increase their water storage capacity and give them an advantage for survival in periods of drought. Thus the species of this group should have a better chance of surviving transplant than plants which have only their individual storage potential. There is a technical difference between these two forms but in practical terms, acrocarps usually have erect stems and grow in cushions or turfs while pleurocarps tend to grow with main stems parallel to the ground (or rockor tree trunk) and form wefts. The often dense growth form of acrocarps means that their sparse branches are obscured while in pleurocarps the branches are usually many and easily seen. Acrocarpous vs. Pleurocarpous VS size: large and usually forming
sprawling patches; branching: unlike most acrocarpous
mosses, there are frequent irregular branches; colour:
usually grey when dry and blackish-green when wet;
stem: green; leaves: narrowly triangular, tapering to a long,
toothed white ‘hair-point’; habitat: an abundant and locally
dominant plant in hilly areas, on rocks and in mire and
heath; note: an important and unmistakeable component
of our upland vegetation and a constant in oceanic heath. (Acrocarpous) (Pleurocarpous)
Initially this is a tricky question but with a little experience it ceases to be a problem. Thallose liverworts are easy but leafy liverworts can be passed over as mosses by the uninitiated. In most mosses the leaves grow all around the stem but in most liverworts the main leaves are in two ranks down each side of the stem, sometimes with a line of smaller under-leaves below. Most moss leaves are roughly triangular, wide at the base and narrow to the apex; few liverworts are like that. Moss leaves never have lobes whereas many leafy liverworts do. Most mosses with round leaves have a nerve; no leafy liverworts have a nerve but a few have lines of cells running up the centre of the leaf. Moss or Liverwort? Scott's Fork Moss Slender Mouse-tail Moss Dicranum Scottianum Isothecium Myosuroides I. myosuroides has a distinctly tree-like growth form, its main stems growing away from
the substrate, unbranched in the lower part, and bushily branched above. It often
occurs in pure, dense mats, so its tree-like form may not be immediately apparent.
It often grows on inclined or vertical surfaces, with the stems and branches curving
downwards. Shoots are typically 1–2 cm tall. Stem leaves, especially towards the base
of the stem, are about 2 mm long, broadly egg-shaped to triangular with a heartshaped
base, rapidly contracting to a finely tapering tip. Branch leaves are 1–1.5 mm
long, narrower, triangularly spearhead-shaped, and taper to a shorter but still slender,
rather sharply toothed tip. The single nerve ceases above mid-leaf. Capsules are 2–
2.5 mm long, frequent in some regions, elliptical, slightly asymmetrical and inclined.
The lid has a long beak. In western areas a very robust form (var. brachythecioides)
occurs on rock faces and ledges with irregularly branched, prostrate shoots to 10 cm
or more. This form is almost always non-fertile, but is best confirmed microscopically. I. myosuroides grows on boulders and tree trunks in woodland and shaded places,
but may occur in the open. It does not grow on strongly base-rich rocks such as
limestone. It is abundant in rocky, upland woods on siliceous and non-calcareous
substrates, and in western areas may dominate trunks of oak (Quercus) and other trees. Laevis Phaeoceros is a genus of hornworts in the family Notothyladaceae. The genus is global in its distribution. Its name means 'yellow horn', and refers to the characteristic yellow spores that the plants produce in the horn-shaped sporophyte.
Species of Phaeoceros are typically found in mild climates of subcosmopolitan areas. The branches resemble radiating, overlapping, and dichotomously lobed leaves. There is no midrib on the thallus. The upper cells of the thallus contain an abundance of chloroplasts, while the lower cells do not contain chloroplasts. The chloroplasts are spindle- or lens-shaped and contain a pyrenoid surrounded by starch.Shoots of Phaeoceros spp. typically form a symbiotic relationship with algal colonies of Nostoc. The hornwort recieves Nitrogen, while the alga receives moisture and protection.The majority of Phaeoceros spp. are bisexual. The sexual reproductive structures are embedded within the dorsal surface of the thallus. Ceratophyllum Demersum (Coontail) Ceratophyllum demersum is a cosmopolitan, ubiquitous, obligate aquatic plant. In its natural habitat, it is typically found floating in stagnant and slow moving water. It is commonly referred to either as Coontail because its tight whirls resemble a racoon's tail, or as Hornwort. The Latin and common names of hornwort come from the Greek keras meaning horn, phyllon meaning leaf, and wort (the Anglo-Saxon word for plant). This species has been in the aquarium trade for many years and is commonly available. It is also widely available as a plant for ponds.

C. demersum is an easy plant to grow in an aquarium. It is a true rootless aquatic that floats just under the surface of the water. It will develop rhizoids if anchored in the substrate. It grows quickly in medium-hard to hard water with temperatures of up to 86F. It is undemanding as far as light levels. It does not require CO2 supplementation although it will increase its already rapid growth. Being a fast grower, C. demersum can take up nutrients quickly. This makes it a good competitor with algae. Additionally, this plant has been known to use allelochemicals to combat algae. Coniferophyta (Conifers) Gnetophyta (gnetophytes) Cycadophyta (Cycads) Ginkgophyta (Ginkgo Biloba) A group of vascular plants whose seeds are not encased by a ripened ovary (fruit).
The seeds of gymnosperms (literally "naked seeds")are borne in cones and are not visible.
Currently about 60-70 genera are recognized, with a total of 700-800 species.
Gymnosperms are distributed all over the world with extensive latitudinal and longitudinal ranges. Sequoia Red Wood Welwitschia- Mirabilis It has a massive squat stem that rises a short distance above the ground.The apex is about 60 centimetres in diameter. From the edge of the disk-shaped apex, arises two leathery, straplike leaves that grow from the base and survive for the life of the plant. Zamia Pygmaea Conifer forest cover vast regions of northern temperate lands in North America and Eurasia. Conifers have leaves that are needle-like, linear, awl-like or scale-like.There is no flower. The reproductive structure that is comparable to a flower (producing
the male pollen and female egg) is a cone. There are male cones and female cones. Some
conifers have male and female cones on the same individual tree while other species have
plants with only male or female cones.

There is no flower. The reproductive structure that is comparable to a flower (producing
the male pollen and female egg) is a cone. There are male cones and female cones. Some
conifers have male and female cones on the same individual tree while other species have
plants with only male or female cones. Fun Fact:
The Hollywood juniper is a female cultivated variety of the Chinese juniper. Because it is a female plant, it doesn't produce any pollen (only male cones produce pollen). Many people are allergic to juniper pollen, so the female Hollywood juniper is an "allergy free" plant. Unique to the Namib desert and surrounding areas of Africa, are the weltwitschia. Morphologically the plant contains only 2 long strap-like leaves which continue to grow over many years. The edges age, with the wear and tear due to the desert winds sandblasting the leaves over time, but the meristematic center adds new mass.
Most of the moisture is obtained from the fog dripping onto the surfaces; rain when it comes infrequently is to inconsistent to depend on. An interesting feature of all gnetophytes is the presence of both tracheids and vessel elements in their xylem tissue. Most flowering plants contain vessel elements, too, providing evidence to some botanists that the Gnetophyta might have been ancestral to angiosperms.

Gnetophyta's unique fertilization feature is that a tube grows from the eggs to unite with the pollen tubes in order for fertilization to take place between the gametophytes. The sperm themselves are not motile, like we see in the cycads and gingko.

This is the only type of gymnosperm that undergoes double fertilization, however no endosperm forms and the 2nd egg fertilized disintegrates. Also like the angiosperms, some of the species produce nectar and are visited by insects.

It is thought that it is this group may have evolved the angiosperms- but certainly not any of the extant species .. most likely an early progenitor of both this group and the angiosperms. Considered "living fossils," cycads are fern-like seed plants that make up Phylum Cycadophyta. Cycads played a major part in Mesozoic ecosystems. Today they are limited to three families that grow only in tropical and subtropical regions. Cycads are popular landscaping plants in temperate environments because of their unusual, prehistoric look. Many cycads are considered endangered species because of habitat destruction and collection. Cycads are dioecious, which means that there are separate male and female plants. Cycads can reproduce asexually or sexually. To reproduce asexually, a cycad sends out shoots or suckers called pups, which will grow into a new plant that is a genetic copy of the parent plant. Sexual reproduction occurs when wind and insects pollinate seeds.

Cycads grow naturally on every continent except Europe and Antarctica, in limited tropical and subtropical environments. Cycads inhabit rain forests, dry temperate forests and savannah grasslands. Cycads have a crown of tough, divided, fern- or palm-like evergreen leaves surrounding single, straight, round trunks. The soft trunks consist of leaf and storage tissues. Cycads produce large seeds on their fronds, as well as large and sometimes elaborate cones. Some varieties grow upwards of 50 feet tall. King Sago Cycad Interesting Facts: Ginkgo leaf extract has been used to treat a variety of ailments and conditions, including asthma, bronchitis, fatigue, and tinnitus (ringing or roaring sounds in the ears). Extracts are usually taken from the ginkgo leaf and are used to make tablets, capsules, or teas. Occasionally, ginkgo extracts are used in skin products. Ginko Biloba Maidenhair tree The division of gymnosperms that includes only the extant Ginkgo biloba (maidenhair tree) and its extinct relatives. The first undoubted maidenhairs occur in Triassic rocks, and in the subsequent Jurassic Period their distribution was practically worldwide. The surviving species is restricted (in the wild) to China, and its leaves are strikingly similar to fossil Ginkgo leaves from the Triassic. The restricted geographical range, the unchanged appearance of the leaves, and the motile male sperms (otherwise known only in living seed plants in the Cycadales) have together led to the maidenhair being referred to as a ‘living fossil’. Ginkgo is often used for memory disorders including Alzheimer’s disease. It is also used for conditions that seem to be due to reduced blood flow in the brain, especially in older people. These conditions include memory loss, headache, ringing in the ears, vertigo, difficulty concentrating, mood disturbances, and hearing disorders. Some people use it for other problems related to poor blood flow in the body, including leg pain when walking (claudication), and Raynaud’s syndrome (a painful response to cold, especially in the fingers and toes).
Ginkgo leaf is also used for thinking disorders related to Lyme disease and depression.
Ginkgo's been tried for eye problems including glaucoma, diabetic eye disease, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
The list of other uses of ginkgo is very long. This may be because this herb has been around for so long. Ginkgo biloba is one of the longest living tree species in the world. Ginkgo trees can live as long as a thousand years. Using ginkgo for asthma and bronchitis was described in 2600 BC.
In manufacturing, ginkgo leaf extract is used in cosmetics. In foods, roasted ginkgo seed, which has the pulp removed, is an edible delicacy in Japan and China. Though, the whole seed is not safe to eat due to the effects it can have on the consumer. Ginkgo is a herb that is very beneficial and used regularly in our healthcare systems. One of the oldest tree species on the planet, ginkgo grows only about a foot a year, reaching 50 to 80 feet. Female trees set fleshy fruit that smell unpleasant as they decay; they contain edible nuts. Distinctive fan-shaped foliage turns a brilliant clear yellow in fall. Color lasts until first freeze, defoliating almost overnight. Light brown or gray-brown furrowed bark becomes darker and more pronounced as it ages. Insignificant, catkin-like pendulous male flowers are borne in clusters in spring. 'Jade Butterflies' has a shrubby habit reaching only 10 feet tall and 5 feet wide. Thrives in moist, well-drained soil, but tolerates poor, compacted soil, as well as heat, drought, salt spray, and air pollution. Common names include Coast Redwood and California Redwood.

It is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living for up to 2,000 years, and is commonly considered the tallest tree in the world, reaching up to 115.5 m (378 ft) in height and 7 m (23 ft) diameter at the base.

The largest Sequoia tree in volume is the "Del Norte Titan", with an estimated volume of 1044.7 m³; it is 93.57 m tall with a diameter of 7.22 m.

Among current living trees only 15 Giant Sequoias are larger than this; these are shorter, but have thicker trunks, giving the largest Giant Sequoia, General Sherman, a volume of 1,487 cubic metres (52,510 cubic feet). The coast redwood has a conical crown, with horizontal to slightly drooping branches. The bark is very thick, up to 30 cm (12 in), and quite soft and fibrous, with a bright red-brown color when freshly exposed (hence the name redwood), weathering darker. The root system is composed of shallow, wide-spreading lateral roots.

The leaves are variable, being 15–25 mm (0.59–0.98 in) long and flat on young trees and shaded shoots in the lower crown of old trees, and scale-like, 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long on shoots in full sun in the upper crown of older trees, with a full range of transition between the two extremes. They are dark green above, and with two blue-white stomatal bands below. Leaf arrangement is spiral, but the larger shade leaves are twisted at the base to lie in a flat plane for maximum light capture.

The species is monoecious, with pollen and seed cones on the same plant. The seed cones are ovoid, 15–32 millimetres (0.59–1.3 in) long, with 15–25 spirally arranged scales; pollination is in late winter with maturation about 8–9 months after. Each cone scale bears three to seven seeds, each seed 3–4 millimetres (0.12–0.16 in) long and 0.5 millimetres (0.020 in) broad, with two wings 1 millimetre (0.039 in) wide. The seeds are released when the cone scales dry out and open at maturity. The pollen cones are oval, 4–6 millimetres (0.16–0.24 in) long.

Its genetic makeup is unusual among conifers, being a hexaploid (6n) and possibly allopolyploid (AAAABB). The mitochondrial genome of the redwood is paternally inherited (unlike that of other conifers). Red Dwarf Cycad Zamia pygmaea is also known as the Red Dwarf cycad. It is quite rare with its most distinguishing feature is its dwarf stature, with a trunk less than 10 centimetres in height. It grows under extremely dry conditions in extreme habitats, so it is very drought tolerant. Zamia pygmaea becomes more vigorous and produces more and larger leaves and larger stems under cultivation.

It is native to Western Cuba and the Isla de Pinos. Plants of Zamia pygmaea generally grow in open dry habitats, varying from stone outcrops to almost pure sand. It is one of the most xerophytic species in the genus Zamia, so it is adaptable to hot and dry climates. All parts of the plant are poisonous if ingested and the plant has sharp edges and spines. The King Sago is very hardy and grows virtually anywhere. Sago Palms (Cycas revoluta), one of the most primitive living seed plants, are very unusual and popular ornamentals. A rugged trunk, topped with whorled feathery leaves has lead to the common name "Sago Palm". In fact it is not a palm tree even though it is often thought of as one because of its appearance. The King Sago is a Cycad, not a palm tree. The subtropical Sago Palm is native to the Far East and the cold hardy Sago Palm has been used as a choice container and landscape plant for centuries. The growth habit of Cycas revoluta displays an upright trunk with a diameter from 1" to 12" depending on age, topped with stiff feather-like leaves growing in a circular pattern. Rather than continuously adding foliage, a Sago Palm produces a periodic "flush" of new leaves, called a "break". Eventually, offsets begin to grow at the base of the Sago plant, and occasionally in the crown. The addition of offsets provides a source of new plants and many possibilities for developing an unique specimen. Cycas Revoluta Angiosperms Flowering Plants Dicotyldea Monocotyldea MONOCOTS
Embryo with single cotyledon

Pollen with single furrow or pore

Flower parts in multiples of three

Major leaf veins parallel

Stem vacular bundles scattered

Roots are adventitious

Secondary growth absent DICOTS
Embryo with two cotyledons

Pollen with three furrows or pores

Flower parts in multiples of four or five

Major leaf veins reticulated

Stem vascular bundles in a ring

Roots develop from radicle

Secondary growth often present vs. Monocots have only one seed leaf inside the seed coat. It is often only a thin leaf, because the endosperm to feed the new plant is not inside the seed leaf. Dicots have two seed leaves inside the seed coat. They are usually rounded and fat, because they contain the endosperm to feed the embryo plant. When a monocot seed germinates, it produces a single leaf. It is usually long and narrow, like the adult leaf. Even when it is quite a round shape, there is only one seed leaf in a monocot. When a dicot germinates, it produces two seedleaves. They contain the food for the new plant, so they are usually fatter than the true leaves. The first true leaves are often a different shape. The leaves of monocots are often long and narrow, with their veins in straight lines up and down the leaf. Sometimes, the veins run from the centre of the leaf to the edge, parallel to one another. Leaves of dicots come in many different shapes and sizes. The veins go from the central midrib to the edge of the leaf, crossing and joining to form a netted pattern all over the leaf. The stems of monocots are usually unbranched and fleshy. They do not grow thicker from year to year. New leaves often grow wrapped in a protective sheath formed by the older leaf. The roots of dicots are usually short and stringy. Dicots often have bulbs. The stems of dicots are usually tough. They can grow wider each year and are often branched. They sometimes have stipules at the base of the leaf. The root is often a single long tap root with smaller roots growing from it. The parts of the flower of monocots are in threes. The sepals are often the same colour as the petals, making it look as if the flower has six petals. There are usually the same number of stamens as petals. The flowers of dicots usually have flower parts in fours or fives. The calyx is a separate ring of sepals under the corolla, and is usually green. Angiosperms are able to grow in a variety of habitats as well as habits. They can grow as trees, shrubs and bushes as well as herbs. These plants have diploid (2n) sporophytes. Angiosperms have a distinctive underground root as well as aerial shoot system.
Angiosperms have very well-developed conducting tissues. These tissues include the xylem and the phloem arranged in form of vascular bundles. The xylem contains xylem vessels, similarly phloem consists of sieve tubes and companion cells.
The vascular bundles of monocotyledons are arranged in the stems in a cross-section. The dicotyledons have vascular bundles organized in form of a ring. A pith for storage as well as cortex for strength and structure are found in the stem tissues. Growth of stem tissues takes place due to a layer of cambium cells. The outer part of the stem tissues is covered with a layer of epidermis.
The root system of angiosperms is also very complex. The roots also contain cortex, phloem, xylem and epidermis. They have root hair that helps in better absorption of water minerals from the soil. Absorption takes place by diffusion and active transport.
The characteristics of angiosperms includes their leaves. The leaves carry out photosynthesis and are covered with a waxy cuticle to avoid water evaporation from leaves. Also, there is absence of stomatal openings in the upper epidermis. This helps in prevention of excess transpiration. The stomatal openings are present in the lower epidermis.
The flowers are one of the most differentiating features of angiosperms. They are they reproductive structures of angiosperms. The flower has a thalamus that is a short axis, four whorls of sporophylls arranged on the thalamus. The four whorls of floral leaves include calyx, corolla, androecium and gymnocium. The sepals, petals, stamens and carpels make up the whorls.
The stamens produce pollen that helps in pollination when they reach the stigma. A pollen tube containing non-motile male gametes is produced after germination of a pollen grain. The pollen tube reaches the ovary through a style. Ovaries of an angiosperm contain a nucellus and two integuments containing a micropyle. Closed carpels that enclose the ovules help in prevention of self-fertilization.
Angiosperms characteristics also include double as well as triple fusion. This leads to formation of a zygote (2n) and triploid endosperm cell (3n). Endosperm cell produces endosperm and zygote develops into a sporophyte.
Fertilization takes place by pollination that includes insect pollination, wind pollination, etc. Endosperm is produced after fertilization and before the zygote undergoes its first division. The endosperm helps in providing nutrition to the developing embryo as well as the seedlings. The fertilized ovule develops into seeds and then ripens into a fruit. The seeds are enclosed in the fruits and are dispersed by animals and humans who eat the fruit. Iris are hardy herbaceous perennials and are native to North Temperate regions. Iris comes from a large genus of bulbous and rhizomatous perennials. This perennial herb can grow in water and on land. An iris can be grown from a creeping rhizomes or a bulb, they clump and multiply beautifully and create a tall vertical presence in the garden. Some of them grow in deserts, some grow in swamps and some in the cold far north and others in temperate climates. Its sword-like foliage is very attractive when the plant is not in bloom. Most irises need full sun and they are easy-to-grow perennials. Iris Germanica German Iris Aconitium Colombianum Monkshood flower This peculiar, hood-shaped flower consists of five petal-like sepals. The uppermost sepal curves upward and forward, forming the top of a hood. The bottom two sepals form the collar of the hood. Inside the flower is a cluster of reproductive parts and two hiding whitish petals. The flowers alternate at the top of a firm stem up to 6 feet high. The leaves are large and maple-like. A part of the buttercup family.

Habitat: Moist semi-shaded creek beds and banks.

Toxicity: Monkshood is extremely poisonous to livestock and humans. The name "Wolfsbane" comes from the medieval practice of poisoning darts to kill wolves.

Fun Facts: Because the flower opening of monkshood evolved into the size of a bumblebee, the flower"s natural pollinator, monkshood will not thrive in areas without bumblebee populations. Spiderwort flowers have a very short life - only a single morning - but each plant will produce 20 or more flowers per stem. The petals quickly decompose after blooming.With their flower parts in threes (three petals and six stamens), Spiderworts show they are in the Monocot class. Spiderwort is a perennial plant which is commonly considered an invasive weed. It grows in small clumps between 1 and 2 feet high, and blooms between May and July. The blooms are small, violet flowers that last only a couple of days. Spiderwort can spread rapidly and can take over a yard in just a few seasons. Ohio Spiderwort Tradescantia Ohiensis Narcissus (Daffodil) Narcissus is the proper name for the daffodil family. It is so called because its bulb houses a toxic substance – the Greek word ‘narcissus’ means ‘numbness’, so it is a reference to its narcotic nature.Narcissus is very distinctive, with its long, narrow tubular stem (hypanthium), its central crown (corona cup) and its three petals and perianth, or petal-shaped sepals. The Narcissus flower is usually yellow or white and sometimes the cup can be a different colour from the crown.Normally a native to the Mediterranean, the Narcissus plant can also be found in China and Asia where there are a few native species.Narcissus grows from a bulb and will thrive when planted in well-drained soil. They are available from October in the Isles of Scilly when the small tazetta types bloom, and the season ends in April in Scotland with the trumpet daffodils.The genus of Narcissus has many different species and varieties, as well as many hybrids that have been cultivated. The most popular Narcissus plants widely available are the Paper Whites, Daffodils and Jonquils. Narcissus Pseudonarcissus Nerium Oleander Nerium oleander is the scientific name for the oleander, the rose-laurel and the laurier-rose, which are all names for the same flower. Oleanders, which are white, deep red or yellow flowers, grow from a large evergreen shrub. The plant can grow to 20 feet in height if it is not maintained. It is native to Southeast Asia, northern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. This plant is toxic and will irritate the skin if you touch it and ingesting this plant will cause death. Wild Raspberries

There are more than 60 different species of sunflowers.Some sunflowers grow from 3 to 10 feet tall. Their sunflower head can be 1 foot in diameter. In the center of each sunflower head is a disk of small flowers. These are tubular in shape and surrounded by yellow petals.
Each sunflower head can produce over 1,000 sunflower seeds. These grow in the center of the sunflower head. Helianthus Annuus Common Sunflower The sunflower habitat consists of prairies and dry, open areas. It is sometimes a weed in cultivated fields and pastures. It grows best in sunny, moist, or disturbed areas. The sunflower is tolerant of high and low temperatures, although more tolerant to low temperatures with the optimum temperature range being 70-78 degrees Fahrenheit. Helianthus annuus is an autotroph meaning that it makes its own food via photosynthesis. The leaves of a sunflower are phototropic, they turn to follow the rays of the sun. This increases the amount of light intercepted and leads to increased photosynthesis. This adaptation was made because the sunflowers primary source of nutrition is from conducting photosynthesis. The presence of self-incompatibility is seen in sunflowers which is why they rely heavily on pollen movement between plants by insects and bee colonies. These organisms benefit the plant because they carry pollen from plant to plant, allowing cross-fertilization to take place. Raspberry is a deciduous bush from the Rosaceae family that grows up to 6 ft (2 m) high, with erect and thorny stems, a thin spine and perennial roots. The bush is well-known for its fruit, a red spherical berry that grows continuously on the branches. Cymes (clusters) of white flowers bloom in late spring to early summer. Raspberries can be grown in many temperate countries, in either dry or moist wooded areas. Rubus Ideaeus The oleander contains the toxic glycoside oleandrin. The latter can be considered a cardiac glycoside and is very similar to those found in •foxglove• (Digitalis) and •pheasant's eye• (Adonis vernalis). Oleander The species grows in the wild (i.e. in the Mediterranean), it occurs along watercourses, gravely places and damp ravines. It is widely cultivated particularly in warm temperate and subtropical regions where it grows outdoors in parks,gardens and along road sides. Elsewhere, where the plant is not frost-tolerant (e.g. in central and western Europe), it may be grown as a conservatory or patio plant. Phlox paniculata is a plant in the phlox family, Polemoniaceae. It is native to eastern United States, but has been extensively cultivated for many years, with many cultivars. Garden Phlox This native perennial plant is 2-4' tall and usually unbranched, except near the apex where the flowers occur. The central stem is light green, round, and usually hairless. Sometimes fine purple streaks occur along the stem. The opposite leaves are up to 6" long and 1" across. They are narrowly ovate or ovate-oblong, with smooth margins and conspicuous pinnate and secondary venation. The margins are slightly ciliate, otherwise the leaves are hairless. The lower leaves have short petioles, while some of the upper leaves may be sessile and rounded at the base. While this plant is widely distributed here and there, it is rather uncommon in natural habitats, occurring as isolated clumps of plants. Some populations are undoubtedly derived from cultivated forms of the plant that have escaped. Habitats include openings in moist to mesic woodlands, woodland borders, thickets, and semi-shaded areas along rivers. Because of the attractive flowers, Summer Phlox is quite common in flower gardens. Plants appeared on land about 425 million years ago and the evolutionary history of the plant kingdom reflects increasing adaptation to the terrestrial environment.
General Characteristics of Plants:

1. Multicellular eukaryotes that are photosynthetic autotrophs.

2. Contain chloroplasts with the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a, and b and carotenoids.

3. Cell walls containing cellulose.

4. Food reserve is starch that is stored in plastids.

5. Aerial parts are coated with a waxy cuticle that helps prevent desiccation.

6. Gas exchange cannot occur across the waxy cuticle so specialized openings on the under surface of the leaf, called stomata, allow gas exchange.

7. Reproductive adaptations necessary as plants moved from and aquatic to a terrestrial environment

a) Gametes must be dispersed in a nonaquatic environment. Plants produce gametes within gametangia, organs with protective jackets of nonreproductive cells that prevent the gametes from drying out. The ovum is fertilized within the female organ.

b) Embryos must be protected against desiccation. The zygote develops into an embryo that is retained for awhile within the female gametangia’s jacket.

8. All plant life cycles have “Alternation of Generation”.

a) A haploid gametophyte generation produces and alternates with a diploid sporophyte generation. The sporophyte in turn produces the haploid gametophyte.

b) The life cycles are heteromorphic; sporophytes and gametophytes differ in morphology.

c) The sporophyte is larger more conspicuous and more dominate in all except the Bryophytes and their relatives.
Plants evolved 425 million years ago during the Silurian period. They are believed to have evolved from green alga probably charophytes. Evidence includes:

a) These algae have a cell wall composition similar to plants.

b) The structure and function of the chloroplasts is homologous in these two groups. Both have chloroplasts with thylekoid membranes stacked as grana.

c) Plant chloroplast DNA most closely matches that of charophytes.

d) Green algae and plants contain cellulose in their cell walls

e) Similarity in mitosis and meiosis

f) Charophyte sperm are more similar to certain plants than to other green algae

g) DNA and RNA are similar in charophytes and plants. Kingdom Plantae Plants obtain the gases they need through their leaves.
They require oxygen for respiration and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. Plants need Oxygen too. The Epidermis of a Leaf The gases diffuse into the intercellular spaces of the leaf through pores, which are normally on the underside of the leaf – stomata. From these spaces they will diffuse into the cells that require them. Stomatal opening and closing depends on changes in the turgor of the guard cells. When water flows into the guard cells by osmosis, their turgor increases and they expand. If the guard cells loose water the opposite happens and the pore closes. Lenticels – pores in the bark of stems The only plants that really use digestion as the method of getting nutrition are carnivorous ones. Digestion methods (with representative genera or species):
1. Leaf surface
Leaf rolls and tentacles bend for increased prey contact (Drosera)
Leaf rolls or is rolled to contain digestion fluid (Pinguicula)
Leaf doesn't move (Drosophyllum, Triphyophyllum, Byblis, Roridula)
2. Sealed trap (Dionaea, Aldrovanda, Utricularia)
3. Pit or stomach (Sarracenia, Genlisea)
4. Water pool (Nepenthes, Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, Cephalotus, Sarracenia purpurea and S. rosea)
5. Commensal organisms (Roridula, Byblis, Darlingtonia) Leaf surface and sealed trap digestion generally involve only digestive enzymes and other material supplied by the plant. The leaf surface carnivores release copious amounts of fluid to smother the prey, quickly digest it, and provide a vehicle for assimilation of the released nutrients. The leaves have special glands to make this possible and may also have special adaptations to make absorption of the nutrients more efficient than typical plants. Looking into a Sarracenia leucophylla pitcher full of corpses. / Absorption Plants absorb water through the entire surface - roots, stems and leaves. However, mainly the water is absorbed by roots. The area of young roots where most absorption takes place is the root hair zone. The root hairs are delicate structures which get continuously replaced by new ones at an average rate of 100 millions per day. The root hairs lack cuticle and provide a large surface area. They are extensions of the epidermal cells. They have sticky walls by which they adhere tightly to soil particles. As the root hairs are extremely thin and large in number, they provide enormous surface area for absorption. They take in water from the intervening spaces mainly by osmosis. In this pathway the movement of water occurs exclusively through cell wall without the involvement of any membranes. Majority of the amount of water goes through the apoplast pathway. The cortex of the root does not oppose such movement of the water. Apoplast pathway Symplast pathway Here the movement of water molecules is from cell to cell through the plasmodesmata. The plasmodesmata forms a network of cytoplasm of all cells.

The Casparian strip separates the cortex and the endodermis. It is composed of a wax like substance called suberin, which blocks water and solute molecules through the cell wall of the endodermis. Now the water is forced to go through the cell membranes of different cells leading to a transmembrane pathway. Mechanism of Water Absorption Water can be absorbed by two methods:

Active absorption
Passive absorption Water is absorbed due to activities going on in roots. Absorption of water occurs with the help of energy in the form of ATP, which is released due to metabolic activities of root cells such as respiration. Absorption takes place against concentration gradient - even when the concentration of cell sap is lower than that of soil water Passive absorption is by osmosis. Passive absorption takes place along the concentration gradient - when the concentration of cell sap is higher than that of soil water. Water is absorbed when transpiration rate is high or soil is dry. Due to high transpiration rate, water deficit is created in transpiring cells. Rapid transpiration removes water and reduces turgor pressure in living cells of root. The suction force thus developed is transmitted to root xylem. It pulls water from surrounding root cells to make up water deficit. Active Absorption Passive Absorption (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (24) (21) (22) (23) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) (34) (35) (36) (37) (38) (39) (40) (41) (42) (43) (44) (45) (46) (47) (48) (49) (50) (51) (52) (53) (54) (55) (56) 1.
20. 21.
29. 30.,r:2,s:0,i:94&tx=57&ty=49
32.,r:37,s:0,i:205 33.,r:60,s:0,i:268&tx=69&ty=19
34.,r:3,s:0,i:111 35.
37. 38.
45.,r:43,s:0,i:219 46.
56. Pictures Cited General Information on Kingdom Plantae :
N/A. (n.d.). Retrieved from Plantae.htm

Anand, A. (n.d.). Plant kingdom. Retrieved from Kingdom Plantae Sternberg,Y. (Dec 19 2012). Kingdom Plantae. class notes. Common Structures
(doesn’t show up if you put it in the search bar but, type “gas exchange in plants” into google search engine, and it’s the 7th link down, ‘Gas Exchange in plants HT science’) Gas Exchange
Information from same place as the Gas Exchange information Circulation Digestion:
Brittnacher, J. (n.d.). Carnivorous plant digestion and nutrient assimilation. Retrieved from
Tutorvista. (2010). Retrieved from Digestion/Absorption Sternberg,Y. (Dec 20 2012). Plant Reproduction. class notes. Reproduction Robinson, J. Impact. (Jan 5 2013). received from Cranium Impact Hessong, Athena.(2013). Examples of Nonvascular plant. Retrieved from
Liverworts; Lunularia Cruciata;
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Isothecium Myosuriodes:
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Lemke, C. (18 N). Psilotum nudum - whisk fern. Retrieved from
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Lycopodium Annotinum:
Fewless, G. (n.d.). Lycopodium annotinum linnaeus. Retrieved from
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Matteuccia Struthiopteris:
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Pallaea Glabella:
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Welwitschia Mirabalis:
Welwitscha. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Vidmar-McEwen, H. (n.d.). General characteristics of the phylum cycadophyta. Retrieved from
Zamia Pygmaea:
Levin, M. (n.d.). Zamia pygmaea. Retrieved from
Cycas Revoluta:
Sago palm(cycas revoluta). (n.d.). Retrieved from
MICHAEL ALLABY. "Ginkgophyta." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. 1998. 9 Jan. 2013 <>. –ginkgo biloba-gymnosperms

Ginkgo Biloba:
Ginkgo biloba. (n.d.). Retrieved from Gymnosperms Batul, N. B. (9/19). Retrieved from
Monocots vs dicots. (n.d.). Retrieved from Batul, N. B. (9/19). Retrieved from
Iris Germanica:
List of birthstones. (n.d.). Retrieved from flowers/Iris birth flowers.html
Pepelnjak, I. (n.d.). Iris germanica. Retrieved from germanica
Aconitium Colombianum:
Berry ,Lisa. (n.d.). Sierra wild flowers. Retrieved from
Tradescantia Ohiensis:
Sidhe, W. (n.d.). Spiderwort plant care. Retrieved from
Narcissus Pseudonarcissus:
narcissus. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Tredwell, E. (n.d.). Narcissus psuedonarcissus. Retrieved from
Monocots vs dicots. (n.d.). Retrieved from Batul, N. B. (9/19). Retrieved from
Helianthus Annuus:
Johnson, A. (n.d.). Facts on sunflowers. Retrieved from
Volk , T. (2011). Multiple organisms. Retrieved from
Rubus Ideaeus:
Raspberry. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Nerium Oleander:
Odenthal, K. (n.d.). List of dicot flowers. Retrieved from
Poisonous plants: Oleander. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Poisonous plants: Oleander. (1997, July). Retrieved from
Phlox Peniculata:
Summer phlox(phlox paniculata). (n.d.). Retrieved from Angiosperms Information Cited
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