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Psychology AS

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H Evans

on 5 May 2015

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Transcript of Psychology AS

Social
Cognitive
Human beings are developed information processors >> Information is received via the senses and a response is processed based on perception and experience
Uses computer analogy - brain is a highly developed central processing unit; memory is a hard disk drive. If any part suffers physical damage, functioning in greatly reduced

Biological
Genes and bio-chemistry and neuroanatomy affect human behavioral (its a consequence of biological processes and reactions)
The mind is not a separate entity to the brain
The brain can only be understood in terms of its biological functioning, so the mind is the consequence of this process

Psychodynamic
Human nature is controlled by unconscious forces
The mind is separated between the conscious and the unconscious; the unconscious is only accessible via dream analysis or therapy
The human personality is shaped during formative years; a persons childhood experiences will determine their emotional/mental state in adulthood

Psychology AS
Agency Theory
Behavior is influenced by;
the actions and attitudes of others
the norms and values of the culture in which one lives

Autonomous
(freewill)
Receives an order
Agentic
From a perceived legitimate authority figure
Contravenes with moral code
Placed in moral strain
Milgram
Milgram
40 participants (advertised in newspaper)
Rigged draw - participant was always the teacher
Learner was a confederate
Experimenter was present (also a confederate)
Participant witnessed learner be strapped into a chair
Participant received 15v shock
Participant had to read out word pairs; if the learner answered incorrectly, a shock was administered
The shocks increased by 15v and were clearly marked eg. severe shock'
Responses from the confederates were standardised
Obedience was quantified by the intensity of the shock the participant was willing to continue to
At 120v the learner began to complain
At 150v the learner shouted in pain
At 300v the learner refused to continue
If the participant began to refuse the experimenter would give prompts; 'You must continue'/'It is absolutely essential that you continue'
The participants were debriefed afterward and qualitative data was obtained from an interview
Results
100% of participants continued to 300v
65% of participants went to 450v (26/40)
By 375v 9 refused to go on
Evaluation
Conclusions
Strengths
Responses and instructions were standardised therefore results are valid because its unlikely other factors had led to obedience
Well controlled making it reproducible; so its reliable
Collected both quantitative and qualitative data
point at which they stopped
amount of time between each answer and administration (moral strain)
amount of time they left their finger on the switch
asked how much pain they thought the learner was in
asked how much stress they felt
High external validity because
variations
support results
Ethical issues such as debriefing and reconciling participants were adhered to
Someone else conducted the experiment - objective and no experimenter effects
Weakness
Lacked ecological validity because the setting and task were artificial - it was unrealistic so lacked mundane realism
Makes it vulnerable to demand characteristics
All American middle-aged men so its difficult to generalise results
Because it was a lab experiement; participants could have worked out the aim and acted accordingly - demand characteristics
Ethical issues
deceived about nature
found it difficult to withdraw
Placed in psychological discomfort
Felt they had to continue - confounding variable
Being paid
Volunteered
Prompted
Variation
> Proximity of the learner - Participants had to hold his hand

> 12/40 continued to 450v

Variations were conducted to look at other factors of obedience such as; changing setting, proximity of experimenter and other teachers - they all showed a lower obedience level
Learning
Supporting
studies

Hofling
Meeus and Raijmaker
22 nurses
21/22 obeyed
Field
experiment

Received call from Dr Smith while on shift
20mg of astrogen
Sign authorisation later
Standardised
voice

Debriefed and interviewed afterward
11 aware of dosage discrepancy
15 recalled similar incidences
Carried out questionnaire on student/graduate nurses
All 21 wouldn't have given the drug
19 noticed dosage
8 said because of this they wouldn't
Natural setting + real task = eco-logical validity + mundane realism
Well controlled = reliable
same time of day
standardised procedure
Script phone call -same voice and tone
same drug and dosage
Ethical guidelines crosses
Consent wasn't taken
Nurses were upset & distressed
No longer relevant -> 1966 when all doctors were male and nurses female; confounding variable
Social Identity Theory
-
Tajfel and Turner
24 Dutch participants
Wanted realistic version of Milgrams experiment
Job interview - 15 stress remarks; 'If you continue like this you will fail'
Told that job required people who could handle stress
If they haltered - experimenter prompted
22/24 made all 15 stress remarks
Variations
Control Group -> No authority figure
None of the participants made all of the stress remarks
Psychological violence is easier to administrate than physical -> greater distance as effect comes after
Addressed issues with Milgrams study
Well controlled and
standardised = reliable
Same confederate
Same remarks
Higher eco-logical validity -> realistic task
Can compare with Milgram
Different culture =
comparison could be
a result of different culture - Can't generalise
Lab experiment = artificial and less valid
Diffuse responsibility
Social Categorisation
Individual needs to be part of a group
Social Identification
Individual adopts the groups norms and values
Taking on its argot
Social Comparison
Group compares itself against competitors

The individual adopts an 'in-group', 'out-group' mentality

In order to raise group self-esteem they lower the competing groups self-esteem; this is called the degradation process and favoritism of their own group
Variables that contribute to 'in-group' favouritism
Extent to which individual identifies with the 'in-group'
Extent to which there are grounds for making comparisons with 'out-group'
Relevance of comparison group in relation to 'in-group'
Evaluation of Agency Theory
Strengths
Many supporting studies such as Meeus and Raaijmaker; who also addressed issues with Milgrams experiment
It has practical application - can explain why the Natzi committed terrible acts under Hitler
It can explain different types of obedience - participants did not take responsibility and said they were doing what they were told but when they had to hold the learners hand obedience decreased as they had to take more responsibility because of the contact
Weaknesses
Other explanations -> Social power French; the authority figure can either punish or reward so they obey
Description of obedience rather than an explanation
Deterministic - Does not consider individual differences - why did 35% refuse?
Milgrams experiment had low mundane realism
Sherif et Al
Supporting Study
Evaluation
Aims
Procedure
Results and conclusions
Evaluation of Social Identity Theory
Strengths
Supported by Sherif's Robbers Cave study - results supported the theory because there was evidence of social identification and comparison and in-group favouritsm
Real world application - many in-groups in society from football teams to racial groups where they show prejudice towards each other
Weaknesses
Does not take into consideration individual personalities- some have a greater tendency to favour an in-group over an out-group
Realistic Conflict Theory by Sherif, suggests that groups tend to have more disagreement with each other when they are in struggle for resources and will be more cooperative with each other if they feel solidarity or have unified objectives
Doesn't measure how much prejudice there is and why some are stronger than others
Key Issues:
'Robber Cave Study'
Set up a field experiment to see how an 'in-groups' behaviors developed and how their perceptions and judgements affected behavior
How to reduce the friction between two groups

22 11-year old boys on a summer camp
They were matched on sports ability, IQ, background
Their parents were informed of the study
The boys were split into two groups

S1 IN-GROUP FORMATION- The groups were kept apart for a week for relations to develop
Hierarchies were established
The groups developed norms and values
Each group completed goals to help development
S2 INTER-GROUP RELATION & FRICTION- The groups were introduced and competitions set up to create friction
Tournaments set up
Points and rewards could be won
S3 INTERGRATION- The groups were introduced and set superordinate goals to achieve together to reduce friction
The intergration phase
Fixing the water tank
Pooling resources
Starting the truck

Data Collection
Gathered by observations;
rating the emerging relationships
sociometric measures- friendship pattens
experimental judgment
status positions and roles
hierarchies within groups
phrases and comments recorded
behaviors recorded
use of derogatory terms measured
rating of stereotyping
Stage One
Boys gave themselves names 'The Rattlers' and 'The Eagles'
Groups developed similarly
Both recognised a leader
Discussion over the existence of an 'out-group' which led to hostility; "They'd better not be in our swimming hole"
Stage Two
Wanted to compete each other - set up their own competitions
One discussed issues like protecting their flag
Name calling
Clear negative attitudes recorded - one burnt oppositions flag
Stage Three
Initial name calling; 'ladies first'
Groups remained within their groups for the film
Boys worked well together to complete tasks and rejoiced together
Both agreed to contribute equal resources, even though one group had fewer members
Superordinate goals reduced friction and increased co-operation
However friendship choices remained mostly within original groups
Boys identified themselves with their group; developing norms and values
Members of the 'in-group' talked up their abilities and ridiculed the 'out-group' showing evidence of social comparison
By introducing superordinate goals friction was reduced and inter-group relations developed
Careful planning and controls -> allowed cause and effect conclusions
Previous studies were used to show what what necessary (For example it showed that groups needed time to develop intra-group relations and structures and research showed that participants behaved differently when they knew they were being watched)
Different types data collected -> valid findings (participant observers, recording phrases and relationships)
Field experiment so participants behaved naturally
Boys were carefully matched therefore were potential friends and also any attitudes and behaviors could not have been down to background factors because they were all of the same culture
Ethical issues - boys were deceived about the nature of the camp and were not asked for consent. Debriefing also did not take place (However ethical guidelines were not written at the time)
Difficult to generalise as they were all 11-year old, American boys from specific backgrounds - restricted sample

Abu Ghraib
Agency would say...
Soldier joins the army in the autonomous state
Receive an order which places them in moral strain because the abuse of the prisoners goes against their moral code
However soldier diffuses responsibility of actions to authority figure - commander
Now in the agentic state
Social Identity would say...
Individual joins army as a need to be part of a group - love for his country or desire to fight justice - social categorisation
Soldier given uniform and training; adopting their argot in order to fit in - social identification
Soldier then adopts an in-group out-group mentality and begins comparing themselves with competing groups; prisoners creating a prejdice
To increase the soldiers self-esteem they will begin the degradation process; causing them to behave horrifically towards the prisoners; humiliating them
An American prison in Iraq where many were arrested for their political and religious views
Milgram would argue that this is situational obedience because it is the culture of the prison that has caused the immoral acts
The proximity of the LAF has an affect on obedience
Football Hooliganism
Football hooliganism refers to unruly, violent, and destructive behaviour by supporters of football clubs, including brawling, vandalism and intimidation
Agency would say...


Social Identity would say...
Cult Behaviour
A cult is a group of people outside what society considers to be normal
They usually follow a leader with strong beliefs
Agency would say...
Social Identity would say...
Agentic Factors:-
Proximity of the LAF
Proximity of the victim
Proximity of allies
Location
Situational obedience - culture of the situation determines obedience
Dispositional obedience - obedience is within in an individuals nature (socialised into them)
Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice - an attitude towards a group of people
Discrimination - acting on prejudice attitude
Sterotype - developing an idea about someone and applying it to similar people
Deindividuation - adopting a role within a group and losing identity
Degrading process - degrading enemy to make yourself feel better
In-group - individuals own group
Out-group - competing group
Inter-group - between two groups
Intra-group - relations within a group
Milgram concluded that people obey what they perceive to be an authority figure, even if it goes against their moral code
Memory
Forgetting
Levels of Processing
Craik and Lockhart
Evaluation
Multi-Store Model of Memory
Atkinson and Shiffrin
Evaluation
Godden and Baddeleys study suggests that ltm and stm are two separate stores in that they encode differently
stm - acoustically
ltm - semantically
Study of capacity suggests ltm and stm memory have different durations and capacities
stm - 7-/+ chunks for less than 30 seconds unrehearsed
ltm - both capacity and duration are potentially unlimited
Evidence from brain scans shows different parts are active in stm/ltm tasks - shows different sores
Beardsley -> pre-frontal cortex active during immediate stm tasks
Squire -> hippocampus active in ltm tasks
Glanzer and Cunitz found that in a study of remembering a list of words ps remembered the first and last word; this is the primacy effect - the word had already passed into the ltm and the recentcy effect - where the word was still in the stm
Believe that memory is a by-product of a process
Argued that there were 3 ways of processing information and this could be either maintenance or elaberative;
Maintenance rehearsal is keeping information in its original form; there are 2 types
Structural - encoding based on physical qualities
Phonemic - encoding based on its sound
However this is a shallow form of rehearsal
Elaborative rehearsal involves putting the information into an alternative form, giving it meaning
Semantic - encoding based on its meaning
The way that information is encoded affects how well it is remembered
Strengths
Weaknesses
Accused of being a description of how memory works rather than an explanation
Does not take into account of emotional factors on memory - repression
Time is a confounding variable that C&L didn't consider - evidence suggests the longer the time spent on encoding, the durability is increased
another variable is the meaningness of the memory
Can explain improvements on explicit memory but can't explain implicit recall (automatic)
Real world application - revision for exams or learning a language
Explains why some memories are more durable that others - accounts for diversity
Hyde and Jenkins devised a study which supports LOP - 24 participants were assigned to 5 different conditions; each condition was a different level of processing the words and results showed that semantically processed words were best remembered
Key Terms
Encoding - Process of creating a memory trace
STM - acoustically
LTM - semantically
Capacity - Amount that can be stored
STM - 7-/+ chunks
LTM - potentially unlimited
Duration - Length of time that a memory trace lasts
STM - 30 seconds unrehearsed
LTM - potentially unlimited

Information is received by the sensory organs to the sensory memory eg. eyes or ears
If attention to the information is given it will be transferred to the short term memory
If the information is rehearsed it is transferred to the long term memory; where it is stored
When the information is needed again it is retrieved from the long term to the short term memory in order to use it
This supports Milgrams results
A naturally occurring hierarchical relationship; doctor and nurse can create destructive acts of obedience
Supports Milgrams study
Contact between two groups isn't enough to reduce hostility
The boys developed norms and hierarchies

Support Milgrams study - But by setting up a more realistic version to test obedience
Also wanted to look at the hierarchical relationship between doctors and nurses
Observer on the ward - stopped if nurse went to carry out order
Situation where they could investigate obedience when the participant had time to think
The deeper the level of processing, the greater the strength of the memory
Strengths
Weaknesses
Some regard it as too simple - Tulving argues that there are 2 types of ltm; episodic and procedural. Episodic requires rehearsal but procedural do - doesn't account for
Evidence from flash-bulb memories suggests that info can pass straight into the ltm without rehearsal - so significant (resistant to trace decay)
Ignores emotional factors - Freud developed repression, where by individual deliberately forgets to protect against trauma
Key issue - Eye Witness Testimony
Cue Dependency
Tulving
Believe that there are two types of cues that aid retrieval
context - the place in which the individual is
state - the mood of the individual
Evaluation
Peterson and Peterson
To look at the duration of the short term memory
To provide support for MSM
90% remembered after 3 seconds
2% remembered after 18 seconds
24 participants
Listened to a non-sense trigram eg LH9
Then given a three digit number and had to count backwards in 3's for 3 seconds - this was to act as a distracter task to prevent rehearsal
The participant then have to recall the trigram
The procedure was repeated but the retention interval was increased; 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18
Concluded that information stays in the stm less than 18 seconds unrehearsed
It provides evidence for MSM - stm has a limited duration
Evaluation
Reliable -- Can be repeated as the procedure was standardised and there were careful controls
Same recall time for each
Same trigram was not repeated in consecutive trials
Lab experiment means strict controls - reliable
The task is artificial and lacks mundane realism
Low eco logical validity -> Not Valid
Difficult to operationalise recall - could have been due to lack of cues
It measured was it claimed to measure -> Valid
Godden and Baddeley
To investigate the effect of the environment on recall (Whether recall would be better if encoding and retrieval were in the same environment)
To provide evidence for Tulvings Cue Dependency theory
D/D - 13.5
W/W - 11.5
D/W - 8.6
W/D - 8.4
Recall is better when the context is the same at both encoding and retrieval (-The environment acts as a cue to remembering)
It supports Cue Dependency
18 participants (Divers club) - Field experiment
They were allocated to 4 conditions (In a freshwater site, Scotland)
Learn dry - recall dry
learn wet - recall wet
learn dry - recall wet
learn wet - recall dry
They had to learn 38 unrelated words of 2/3 syllables
Underwater - they were submerged, two at a time 20ft underwater and played a recording of the words, in blocks of 3 (4 seconds apart to ensure apparatus didn't affect hearing)
After 4 minutes the participants had to write the words down
Participants experienced each condition - repeated measures
Evaluation
Supports MSM and Trace Decay
Real World Application - Students know to successfully recall information they must rehearsed information more than 15 seconds
Unethical - participants may feel under pressure to perform well - (Weren't protected from harm)
Participants may have guessed the hypothesis of the experiment and may have acted accordingly - these demand characteristics may have caused the results to be invalid
It was a field experiment - in participants natural setting so it had high eco-logical validity
Lack of standardisation and control - other factors could have had an effect on recall
It has Real World application
However the task was artificial - lacked mundane realism
Support from other studies - Albernethy found that recall was higher when students encoded and retrieved information in the same classroom
in education - for revision remembering will be higher when that state or cue is the same
Useful for police investigation - to interview witnesses at the scene of the crime
The sample was limited- all students from the same divers club - difficult to generalise
Trace Decay
Hebb
Memories are physical neurological traces, called engrams
The more it is used/rehearsed the stronger it becomes
The brain has neurological pathways; made up of cells and synapses
This means that the synapses become closer and closer, until retrieval becomes implicit
If the memory if not used/rehearsed it will effectively break down and decay
According to this theory, you will have no recollection of this information if you try to learn it again because it will have disappeared
Nurses were debriefed after wards and reassured and given retrospective consent
It has helped the health sector look at the issue and as a result more care should be taken with regulations
22 nurses from different hospitals - how can we be sure that that one nurse is representative of all the nurses of that hospital
Doctor/nurse relationship - very specific - can't generalise
Vulnerable to social desirability and demand characteristics
Applicants were confederates - various points they complained
Ethical issues
placed in psychological harm
found it difficult to withdraw
Era-dependent - Holland at the time had a high rate of unemployment
Practical 1: Social Approach
Aim
o To investigate the effect of gender on obedience. (Milgram carried out a similar study, however he only used male participants decreasing its external validity. By using both genders in our study we could compare their results.)
o To do this we created a survey which would allow us to quantifiably asses what effect gender had on obedience in different situations.
Hypothesis
Alternative: Females will be more obedient than females
Null: Gender will have no effect on obedience
Procedures
1) After identifying the independent and dependant variables we composed a null and alternative hypothesis
2) We then began to think about our questionnaire, first making a list of potential legitimate authority figures
3) We then created questions based on these figures in different situation. We varied the questions from obedient and disobedient to avoid demand characteristics
4) In order to measure the level of obedience from the answers of the questionnaire we composed a likert scale, which read:-
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Unsure
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree
The answer which was the most obedient would score a 5 and the least a 1 e.g. If the question asked ‘Do you always obey your parents curfew?’ and the answer was ‘agree’ this would be an obedient answer and score a 4/5
5) We constructed a consent form for the participants to sign, stating what the study was about and the permission to use their results and our promise to keep them confidential
6) We asked 30 people, 15 males and 15 females for a fair set of results. Opportunity sampling was used because it was convenient and quick. In order to operationalize the variable we excluded any past and present psychology students, because they would know the reasons for our study leading to demand characteristics
7) The data was collected and divided into male and female responses
8) We then went through them, scoring them according to our scoring system in order to compare the results of the females and males
Findings
Our results showed that was almost no effect of gender on obedience. The mean result for both males and females was 31. However the modal score for males was 27 but 30 for the females showing a slightly higher level of obedience in females. The range for males was 11 and 12 for females expressing a very small effect of gender on obedience.
Reliability and Validity
We only used students in our participant group which could have had an effect on our results decreasing the validity because we only asked a certain age group. However results could be duplicated because results were quantitative, by handing out the questionnaire again.
Ethical Guidelines
One ethical guideline is that participants have the right to informed consent and to withdraw at any time which we addressed in the form of an ethical disclaimer.
Another right is to not be deceived, provided debrief takes place and an assessment of potential harm however we only carried out a survey so these were not necessary. Although participants were made aware of the purpose of this study through reading of the consent form.
Conclusion
To conclude we found that there was no or very little effect of gender on obedience, allowing us to accept our null hypothesis and reject the alternative.

Strengths Weaknesses
Reliable – all standardised May have suffered Demand Characteristics as they could’ve guessed the aim
Potential bias was removed as they were left to complete on their own Sample was limited as they were all students
Easy to analyse Limited answers and open to interpretation
Evaluation

Storage - Retention of information
Retrieval - The process of retrieving information in order to use it (from ltm into stm)
Chunking - The process of breaking information into smaller parts

Episodic LTM - This is the part of the memory which is responsible for storing information about events; requires rehearsal (eg first day of school)
Procedural LTM - This is the part of the memory responsible for knowing how to do things; doesn't require rehearsal (eg. ride a bike)
Semantic LTM - This is a part of the memory responsible for storing information about the world; requires rehearsal (knowledge about the meaning of words, as well as general knowledge. eg. London is the capital of England)
Key Terms
Repression - When the mind deliberately 'forgets' a memory in order to protect itself from the trauma attached (Freud)
Flashbulb Memory - Information passes straight into the ltm without rehearsal as it is so significant
Reconstructive Memory - This is a recall error, where by you fill in the gaps where you can't remember
Weakness
Difficult to measure trace decay - possibility that new information has displaced it or there has been interference
Some memories are resistant to trace decay - evidence from flashbulb memories show that they can be remembered very clearly
Jenkins and Dallenbach - tested whether time between encoding and recall led to forgetting; found those who remained awake before recall forgot more than those who slept which suggests that forgetting is the result of interference
Strengths
Physiological evidence supports the idea that there is a physical trace (But does not prove that it can decay)
Penfield probed the brains of epileptic patients and found that different parts of the brain held different memories
World World Application - Helps explain Alzheimers disease; who seem to lose memories rather than not being able to retrieve them suggests physical
Supported by Peterson and Peterson - as the length of the retention interval increased less trigrams were remembered as a result of decay
In some US states an individual can be convicted solely on an eye witness testimony The Devlin report in Britain has changed the law in England and Wales, so that there must be more evidence in order to persecute.
Eyewitness testimonies have been questioned regarding their reliability. They are vulnerable to issues that effect memory; such as
encoding
retrieval
An eyewitness testimony is a statement given in court by someone who saw the crime in question.
Three stages involved in the memory during eyewitness testimony
Witness ENCODES the event. This could be only partial or distorted or affected by a number of factors;
Biochemical factors could have affected memory, such as adrenaline because of the danger of the situation
If a weapon was involved, witnesses could have been affected by 'weapon focus' meaning that they did not give full attention to the event
The individuals schema may have affected what the saw - their perceived attitudes; stereotype
Witness RETAINS the information over a period of time. During retention the memory could have been affected by;
Interference may have occurred during the period of retention
The experience may have been emotional and traumatic that the individual repressed the event
The trace may have decayed as result of interference preventing rehearsal
Witness RETRIEVES memory from storage for jury. This could be affected by;
Lack of cues - according to Cue Dependent theory, recall is better when the individual is in the same state or context as encoding
As a result of interference or other factors the individual may reconstruct parts of the memory that they cannot recall, giving an unreliable testimony
Leading questions could affect the individuals respone - they want to help
Loftus carried out a study where by participants acted as a jury and sat in on a court case
In the first case they were only given circumstantial evidence and 18% found the defendant guilty
In the second case and eyewitness testimony was used and 45% of the jury convicted him as guilty
Bartlett - memory is reconstructive and that schemata are used when remembering
Sadava and McCreary found interviewing can sway results as both police and witness want to solve the crime and the witness will often comply with what the interviewer wants to hear
Concept of the flashbulb memory - so significant that the witness can remember the incident
Police have developed the Cognitive Interview, which is carried out at the scene of the crime and involves no leading questions
Much research looking at the reliability has been carried out in a laboratory setting; watching a film which in itself is unreliable as its artificial. & field experiments have recorded a high rate of reliability - Yuille and Cutshall
Practical 2: Cognitive approach
Aim: to see if
How far participants would go in obeying an authority figure
Whether obedience was situational or dispositioanl (He argued that the German race were naturally obedient)
http://www.edexcel.com/quals/gce/gce08/psych/Pages/default.aspx
Evaluation
Strengths
There was a range of data from multiple sources; both Mrs Reimer and Moneys observations and interviews, which gave qualitative data - increasing its validity
Reliable as Reimer's brother, Brain acted as a control to compare behaviour
There were no demand characteristics as he was not aware of the study - valid
Supported by Daphne Went, a happy female born a male
Ethics
Reimer's parentrs approached Money
They gave their consent
Money was a compenant psychologist to carry out the study (He had conducted valid scientific research before
Money - 1975
David Reimer was born a twin boy. However during a circumcision procedure, the baby's penis was damaged. His parents approached psychologist, John Money for help after hearing that he believed that it was possible to re-assign gender
Aim: to test the gender neutrality hypothesis and see whether it was possible to re-assign an infant male as a female
Procedure:
At 7 months the child's penis was ablated and hi parents approached Money
At 17 months the child was re-assigned;
Under going surgery and hormone replacement
Dressed in girls clothes, given a new hairstyle and name - Brenda
After 9 years the two twins made annual visits to Money, participating in interviews and observations
The parent reported back to Money with data (Money found the mother a good reporter
Brenda was dressed as a girl and treated as such at home, differently from her brother
At 4 years she was said to be neater than her brother
Children copied the same sex parent
Brenda wanted dolls for Christmas
Mother "I found that my son, he chose masculine things like a fireman or a policeman... and I asked her and she said she wanted to be a doctor or teacher"
She had Tom-boy traits; abundant energy, stubborn and the dominant twin
Money asked what animal she'd like to be after a visit to the zoo, she answered a monkey. When Money asked which sex, she said "A girl monkey, because I already am a girl"
Money concluded that Brenda's behaviour was 'normally that of a little girl' because her liking of wearing dresses, the intention to become a doctor/teacher and her comment about the girl monkey; compared with her brothers interests. Money disregarded evidence of masculine behaviour.
Conclusions:
With surgery and hormonal therapy it is possible to habilitate a baby with a grossly defective penis more effectively as a girl than a boy
Money concluded that Brenda, born Bruce was successfully re-assigned as a girl
However, although Money had said that Brenda was a happy young girl; she was told at 14 about her reassigning. Brenda decided that she did not like being a girl and under went surgery to become male, changing his name to David
At 30, David met psychologist Diamond and published his story. He said that he did not like wearing dresses, playing dolls and often beat up his brother
Conclusion:
Initially Money's case indicated that nurture is the strongest influence on upbringing/gender identity because his study was successful. However David Reimer's story shows that nature is the strongest influence, as he eventually became male again as he wasn't happy
Weaknesses
Reimer was not happy as a female and denied Moneys conclusion therefore not reliable
It was a unique case study so difficult to generalise findings
Money disregarded evidence that suggested that Reimer was not happy and presented masculine traits
Money continued despite warnings from Brenda's psychologist
The case study only was only followed up until 9 years old
The study was not controlled - unreliable
Mrs Reimer's feed back may have been biased and subjective
Ethics
Money interviewed the twins without an adult present
Reimer alledged that Money inspected their genitals and forced them into sexual postitions
Money is accused for not giving his participants interests priority, instead his research
Money accused of being incompenant as he ignored evidence/research that showed gender isn't neutral
Money misled the parents as he did not tell them that they'd have to reveal to Reimer
Nature - Nurture Debate
Axline - Dibbs
Dibs' school contacted psychologist Dibs after concerns over his withdrawn behaviour, reluctance to return home and aggressive behaviour
Axline aimed to find a way for Dibs to express himself and identify where he needed support
Axline was approached when Dibs was 5 years old
First Axline observed Dibbs in the classroom
After gaining consent from Dibs' parents, Axline set up a weekly session of an hour of play therapy
Dibs was able to play by himself freely, while being watched through a one way mirror
Axline collected data from observations and interviews with his teachers and parents
She tried not to interpret Dibs' responses and allowed him to express himslef freely; this she believed would help him find himself
During the sessions Dibs was recorded burying the papa doll and also locking him away. Axline found that Dibs' father had locked him away and often made judgements about him, this results in Dibs' aggression towards him.
Dibs' mother had taught him to read at the age of 2 as she feared him being mentally retarded. This had over stimulated Dibs, creating fear in him that he wouldn't live up to expectations. This consequently stopped Dibs speaking.
Axline concluded that Dibs parents lack of love towards him and expectation had caused Dibs to become withdrawn and aggressive as he was confused. By using play therapy Dibs was able to achieve catharsis.
Dibs' parents never wanted children and lacked love for him.
Freud would argue that Dibs had developed his super-ego prematurely as a result of his parents expectations. This meant that his psyche was dominated by his super-ego, meaning his ego had failed to balance the two. This caused him to become neurotic and fear being incorrect, consequently refusing to speak
Evaluation
Axline used different research methods - interviewing teachers and parents and observing behaviour = rich & in-depth data = valid
She asked other researchers their comments = objective = scientific
Vulnerable to experimenter effects as Dibs was aware of Axline
Cross-sectional study - one time and Dibs may have changed = not reliable
But used over participant design and was aiming to help Dibs
Can't be repeated because it was a specific case - not reliable
Another may not have come to the same conclusions = degree of subjectivity
Freud - Little Hans
Aim:
to understand Hans' pphobia of horses
to gather data to support his theories on he Oedipus Complex and psychosexual stages of development
Hans was 5 when his parents approached Freud
Freud met Hans and made notes and observations
Hans' father wrote letters to Feud with observations and notes from conversations
Hans dreamt about his penis and noticed that his mother and sister did not have one. When playing with his penis, his mother scolded him and threatened to cut it off -- Freud believed that this was evidence of castration fear in the Oedipus Complex. It also suopports the psychosexual stages of development as Hans was in the phallic stage and showed interest in his penis
Hans wished that his father would go away; this showed fear of his father and wanting the opportunity to posses his mother; evidence of the Oedipus Complex
Hans also showed an episode playing with dolls, where by he played the father and had a family with his mother; Freud argued this as evidence of a desire to posses his mother and by identifying himself as the father he had resolved the Oedipus Complex
Hans was afraid of horses, he dreamed of a black horse with white around its eyes and mouth. He was afraid of it biting his finger. Freud interpreted the horse to represent his father and his fear was castration fear
Freud concluded that his study provided evidence for the Oedipus Complex as Hans desired his mother and identified with his father. His interest in his penis suggested evidence for the psychosexual stages of development. And Freud said his dream analysis showed hoe unconscious desires can express themselves in dreams.
Evaluation
Longitudinal study means that Hans was followed for a period of time - valid
Freud made observations and he also received letters from Hans' father, which were rich and in-depth - validity
Ethical as Hans' parents approached Freud
Hans' natural setting - high eco-logical validity
No demand characteristics or social desirability as he wasn't aware of the study
No experimenter effects as there was none present
Father was a fan of Freud - data subjective - not valid
case study - of one unique individual - can't generalise
Dream analysis requires interpretation - subjective - not valid
Specific circumstance & lacked controls - can't be repeated - unreliable
FREUD
Consciousness
First = Oral stage
0-18 months
Focus of pleasure - mouth
Breast feeding
Fixated = obsessed with achieving oral stimulation
thumb sucking
cigarette smoking
over eating
over-fed -> needy / demand help
under-fed -> manipulate others
Second = Anal
2-3 years
Focus of pleasure - anus
Potty training & faeces
Fixated =
anal-explusive - messy (job reflects; building/art)
anal-retentive - stubborn and overly tidy
Third - Phallic
4 Years
Focus of pleasure = genitals
Assume gender - Oedipus/Electra Comlpes
Fixated = issues due to inappropriate learning of gender
self-assured
vain
reckless
incapable of loving another
Fourth = Latency
Fifth = Genital
Puberty
Focus of pleasure on the genitals
Friendships between opposite sexes
Psychosexual Stages of development
Id
Born with it
Contains unconscious desires
Seeks pleasure no matter what the costs
Operates on the Pleasure Principle
Psychotic
Super-Ego
Develops during the phallic stage - 3 years old
Care about how individual is perceived
Demands morality
Operates on the Morality Principle
Neurotic
Ego
Develops during the anal stage - 18 months
Realises that there are other people with their own needs
Balance the demands of the id and super-ego - moderates desires
In control
Operates on the Reality Principle
Freud believed that we have a tripartite personality
Puberty
No focus of pleasure
Prefer friends of the same sex
Each stage has a focus of sexual energy, 'libidinal energy' - if the stage is resolved, there is no energy remaining to protect the individual from lack of resolution of that stage. If it is not resolved, then energy remains behind and can cause problems in adulthood. This is fixation
Psychosexual Stages of Development
Develops unconscious feelings his mother
He is in competition for her attention with his father
By identifying with same sex parent, the child takes on their norms and values and adopts their gender
The super-ego develops with a conscience
Develops penis envy as she realises she does not have one
Blames her mother
Feels guilty for his feelings for his mother
Fears father will will castrate him
Castration fear
Focuses on the father because she thinks that he can give her one
Sees that an alternative replacement for penis is to have a baby
Id desires mother but super-ego sees feeling are wrong
Ego resolves conflict
Identifies with his father
She unconsciously wants a baby
Id desires father but super-ego feels guilt
Ego resolves conflict
Identifies with mother
Conscious Mind

Hold thoughts, ideas, emotions and other aspects of thinking of which the individual is aware
Preconscious mind
Holds thoughts and ideas that can be accessed and ready to be known about, but are not actually conscious at the time
Unconscious Mind
The main part of the mind - all thoughts originate here, some become conscious and some preconscious
Difficult to retrieve material
The ego protects itself from traumatic experiences by using defence mechanisms. These can either push a desire out of the conscious or transport it onto something safer
Repression - Thoughts are kept in the unconscious mind and are not allowed into the conscious mind, as if they've been forgotten
Denial - The individual denies/refuses an experience to protect i themselves from unhappiness/unacceptable thougts
Projection - Thoughts dealt with by saying that hey are someone else's thoughts, so that the ego can deal with the problems without problems from the super-ego
Key Issue - Do dreams have meaning?
Evaluation of Freud's theories
Ideas are about treating mental problems - allowed treatment for mental illnesses at the time
Does not use scientific methods, lacks credibility as we cannot prove or measure theories - unconscious, ego, oedipus complex
He generated his ideas from in-depth case studies which give supporting evidence (Little Hans) -> valid
Not generalisable as findings came from specific individuals
Case studies required interpretation; free association and dream analysis- subjective so not scientific
Freud worked with middle-class women in Vienna - limited and biased sample cannot generalise
The theory is limited because Freud only focused on development until puberty and only focuses on psychosexual development (Erikson developed the 'Eight stages of Man')
This unit looks at the impact of nature and nurture on gender development.
Nature believes that;
gender is the consequence of our sex (there is no difference between them)
Gender is determined at conception by the chromosomes received from the sperm
At six weeks gestation, alternative systems develop
Hormone production is either masculine or feminine
Nurture believes that;
Clear difference between sex and gender
Gender is determined post-natally
0-2 1/2 years are critical
2 1/2 - 5 years are sensitive
socialisation process is canalised
The central nervous system is made up of the brain and the spinal cord;
Information is recieved through the senses
The brain processes this; different areas of the brain are responsible for different functions ;
the cortex - problem solving
the amygdala - emotions centre
The brain processes a response
Sends messages via neurons, which transmit and receive chemical messages
Neurotransmitters are released across synapses
Neurotransmitters are produced in the nucleus of the neuron, they then travel along the axon until they reach the axon terminal and dendrites. They then pass over the synapse between two neurons and are received by receptors on the other neurons dendrites if they are the correct shape
The Role of the CNS
Hormones
Messengers carried in the blood
(they are received slower than neurotransmitters)
Produced in the endocrine gland
Affect growth, development and mood
Males produced testosterone, which stimulates testes growth during fetal development and makes them more aggressive and produced facial hair
Females produce oestrogen, this stimulates breast growth and makes them more emotional
Reproductive hormones dictate gender differences in the brain (memory) which are determined by genes
Brain Lateralisation
The brain is divided into two hemisphere; the right and the left
Left = language
Right = Visual spatial ability and perceptive
They are connected by the corpus callosum, a bundle of fibres
Males are lateralised so they predominately use the right hemisphere - better at tasks
Females have a larger corpus callosum - better at communication and decoding body language
Genes
Genes consist of a long strand of DNA that contains information that dictates how a person develops. 50% come from the father and 50% comes from the mother. Dominant genes always lead to a certain characteristic. A recessive gene must be present in both chromosomes to obtain a characteristic.
All behaviour is learned from our environment
We are born 'blank slates' with only the capacity to learn

Each individual has a genotype; this is their genetic constitution
They also have a phenotype; this is occurs when their genes interact with eachother and the environment
Gender Development
Gender is the consequence of the individuals sex, which is determined at conception. There are four stages to the development of gender
Sex is determined by chromosomes received during fertilisation. If the sperm contributes a Y-chromosome it will be male
All start female and have a gonadal ridge. At 6 weeks gestation, this beings to develop and differentiate into either the wolfian or mullerian ducts (external genitalia appears female) testes or ovaries
If a Y-chromosome is present, then the SRY gene produces protein to stimulate teste development
The hormone MIS (Mullerian Inhabiting Substance) prevents the growth of the mullerian ducts (uterus and fallopian tubes)
H-Y Antigen hormones are released to encourage teste growth and prevent ovary development
Androgen hormones are secreted to stimulates growth of the wolfian ducts
Evaluation
Strengths
Results of the biological explanations are based on tests that can be repeated (injecting rats with additional hormones and using MRI Scans)
Animal studies show that nature determines gender - Gorskhi's study showed a difference in brain structures between males and females- males have a larger chiasmatic nuclues - seen in MRI scans
David Reimer later said that Money's study did not work, which disproves his theory that a born males can be brought up as a girl
MRI scans show that there is a sex difference in the two hemispheres. Males use their right hemisphere dominantly and are better at visualspatical tasks
Females are more sensitive to noise at birth so there must be a biologicl difference
Weaknesses
It is reductionist because it does not consider the role and impact of nurture on gender development - it can't be concluded that nature determines gender
Studies of genes are usually carried out on animals, therefore results cannot be generalised because there are differences
Money first concluded that gender can be changed- Brenda behaved and appeared like a girl at the age of 14
Doesn't explain the differences in masculinity, which suggest that nurture must have some affect
Can't explain why in some cultures male behaviour can be seen as female in ours
Learning approach argues that it is our upbringing that determines our behaviour through imitation and reinforcement
The psychodynamic approach argues that we learn the appropriate gender behaviour from identifying with the same sex parent
Key issue - Is autism an extreme male brain condition?
Gottesman and Shields
Aims:
To see if schizophrenia is caused by genetics or environmental factors
(To replicate 11 other studies to see if the results are consistent) Previous studies showed a genetic basis however their methodology had been criticised
Procedure
Gottesman and Shields assessed hospital records from short-stay psychiatric patients (at Maudsley Genderal & Bethlam Royal) and found
24 MZ twins
33 DZ twins
They assessed their zygocity to prove which type of twin they were, using;
blood tests
finger print analysis
physical appearance
They collected data using
hospital records
personality tests
case histories
tape recordings (30 mins of verbal behaviour from semi-structured interviews)
This helped them see if both twins had schizophrenia
The twins and their parents were tested for disorganised thinking
There were four categories
both had
both schizophrenia or schizoprenic disorder
One with and other abnormal
One with and other normal
77% of MZ twins of severe schizophrenic parents also had schizophrenia compared to 15% of DZ
They found that 42% of MZ twins both had a diagnosis compared with 9% of DZ
They concluded that genetic factors seem to be responsible for the nature of most schizophrenics but fr it to occur, environmental triggers are necessary
Evaluation
It replicates 11 other studies -Inouye, who found a 74% concordance rate - potential for reliability
Addresses issues of previous studies - scientifically identified sample of MZ and DZ twins - potential valid
They used secondary and primary data and variety of data checks - valid
Descriptive rather than explanatory - no evidence found to explain illness - causality not found -- couldn't isolate biology or environment (suggested result from being prisoner of war)
It would've been useful to know more about what 'related psychosis' meant when describing the schizophrenia scale as it does not provide an explanation for the degree of abnormality, only points out a concordance rate - lacks depth
After Conditioning
During conditioning
Response
Any behaviour that the organism emits as a consequence of a stimulus
Reflex
A consistent connection between a stimulus and a response
Involuntary behaviour
Instincts or reflex actions that the organism cannot control
Voluntary Behaviour
Acts of free will
Key Terms
Stimulus
Any change in the environment that an organism registers
Extinction
Breaking the connection between a stimulus and a response
Spontaneous Recovery
Reforming the connection between a stimulus and response previously extinct
Generalisation
When a response gets transferred onto similar stimuli
Classical Conditioning
Association
Focused on involuntary behaviour
Example of Pavlov's dogs.....
Neutral stimulus - no response
Unconditioned response - natural response
Conditioned response - learnt response
Before conditioning
Bell = neutral stimulus
Food =
unconditioned stimulus
Salivating = unconditioned response
NS
UCS
UCR
CS
CR
Dog associates the bell with food
Watson and Rayner - Little Albert
Aims
To gather evidence for classical conditioning
To see if they could condition fear of an animal
To see if they could generalise this fear
To look at the affect of time on the conditioned response
Procedure
Albert was chosen because he had been reared from birth as his mother was a wet nurse
He was healthy and well developed with no emotional issues, so it was thought that the study would not affect him
Albert was tested for fear reactions before the experiment at 9 months
They introduced a white rat, cotton and other similar stimuli and Albert showed no fear response
They banged a hammer against a steel bar to make a loud noise and found that Albert trembled and had a sudden crying fit
At 11 months Albert was assessed again and found no fear towoards the rat; he wanted to reach out for it
As he reached out the steel bar was struck behind him - Albert jumped and fell forward
After a week they concluded that there had been some effect from conditioning as Albert reached out but did not touch
A couple days later, researchers attempted to transfer the fear on to similar objects
They found that there was an immediate negative response; tried to crawl away (rabbit, Santa mask, fur coat)
5 days later Albert was introduced to the rat alone, his reaction was less violent which suggested that the association had weakened
The experiment was moved to a dark lecture room - to study the affect of different surroundings
There was a slight fear towards the rat
The procedure was repeated when Albert was 1 year old to see whether the conditioned response had remained over time
Albert showed a negative response
Concluded that conditioned responses can occur after only a few pairings with stimuli (pairings may have to be repeated) And that conditioned responses can be generalised
Evaluation
The task and setting were artifical - lacked mundane realism - not valid
The setting and variables were controlled well and standardised - reliable
Evidence and support for classical conditioning in humans - Pavlov's study is difficult to generalise as it involved dogs
Not ethical - Albert was clearly distressed by the actions
&
they fears were not extinguished
(acceptable - thought he'd experience frightening things at nursery)
Mother pulled him out - no means of seeing if the responses could be extinguished
Reactions were carefully recorded with witnesses
Reinforcement
Anything that has the effect of increasing the likelihood of a behaviour being repeated
Positive Reinforcement
Anything that has the effect of increasing the likelihood of a behaviour bring repeated by using positive consequences (food)
Negative Reinforcement
Anything that has the effect of increasing the likelihood of a behaviour being repeated by using pleasant consequence when they stop (an unwanted one)
(must involve punishment before hand in order to take away)
Punishment
Anything that has the effect of decreasing the likelihood of a behaviour being repeated by using unpleasant consequences
Primary and Secondary Reinforcers
Primary = rewards that satisfy our needs; food, water, shelter, love,
Secondary = means that achieve primary needs (creates and opportunity to access primary)
Child misbehaving = take away secondary reinforce; attention
Operant Conditioning
Consequences
Individuals either continue or stop a behaviour based on the reward or punishment it receives
In order to reproduce a desired behaviour it must reinforced
In order to stop an undesired behaviour it must be punished
Positive reinforcement involves pleasant consequences when a desired behaviour is acted
Negative reinforcement involves pleasant consequences when an undesired behaviour is not acted - however this requires some form of punishment for the undesired behaviour first; so when it isn't repeated it can be taken away
Skinner said that for a behaviour to be repeated it must be continually reinforced; every time an action occurs
It can then be partially reinforced
Focus on voluntary behaviours
By Skinner

Continuous and Partial Reinforcement
Continuous = every time an behaviour is repeated it is rewarded/punished
Partial = behaviour is reward sometimes
There must be a role model who is modeling a particular behaviour
The observer records and retains the actions of the model
The observer assumes that imitation of that particular behaviour will bring the same rewards -- the observer calculates the perceived rewards of the behaviour -- Vicarious Reinforcement
Social conditioning
observation & imitation
By Bandura
Four criteria for imitation
attention
retention
reproduction
motivation
Vicarious Reinforcement
This is learning by observation of something being positively reinforced so it is imitated
The observer must identify with this model
The observer imitates the behaviour
If the behaviour is reinforced it will continue
If it is punished it will become extinct
Factors effecting imitation
Gender
Age
Status
Respect
Bandura, Ross and Ross
Evaluation
Aims:
To see if children would copy an adults behaviour towards a bobo doll
To see if children were more likely to copy a same sex model
To look at whether boys are more aggressive than boys
Procedure
72 participants were split into equal groups of females and males into 8 conditions
Original aggression levels were measured before the experiment and split equally between the two groups
Control group witnessed a non-aggressive model
Experimental group watched an adult hit, punch and kick a bobo doll
Children in all groups started to play with some toys before they were told
They were taken to another room, which included a bobo doll, mallet and other aggressive toys
The children were left to play and were watched through a one way mirror and their behaviour was recorded
The children who saw the aggressive adult wer more aggressive than those who witnessed a non-aggressive model
Generally the male model had more of an influence on behaviour than the girls
Boys copied the behaviour of the male model more than girls
1/3 of the children who saw the aggressive model copied their behaviour
They concluded that
Not all behaviour is the result of reward and punishment as Skinner suggesed
People are more likely to copy the behaviour of a model that is similar to them
The mass media could cause changes in the behaviour of its audience if its messages are not moderated
Large sample; 72 participants that included both boys and girls therefore results can be generalised - boys more likely to imitate aggression
Controlled most situational variables - lab conditions so it was a controlled environment (studies have shown that temperature has an affect on aggression)
It was a lab experiment so lacks eco-logical validity because the setting was natural (like a nursery)
The children were deliberately encouraged to be aggressive as model gave prompts -not valid
Reliable - controlled and standardised, can be repeated
Used a control group so results could be compared - valid
Crosses ethical boundaries -children were made more aggressive as a consequence and were not reformed
Sample restricted to children - impact on adult behaviour?
Real world application -Can be used in advertising and media
Comparing approaches explanations for gender
Biological
INHERIT
GENES
3PERSONAITY
EXPERIMENTS & ANIMALS
ALL CLAIM PARENTS HAVE A ROLE
GENDER acquired
Psychodynamic
Learning
NATURE - INHERIT GENES
NURTURE -LEARN BEHAVIOUR
SCIENTIFIC
CASE STUDIES
qualitative
OBSERVATIONS
SCANNING
TWIN STUDIES
NATURE & NURTURE
UNSCIENTIFIC (CAN'T BE FALSIFIED) &SUBJECTIVE
NO FOCUS ON CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCE
FOCUS ON CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES -
FIXATION
CONSCIOUS
CONSIDERS ROLE OF NORMS
identification
PARENT (S SEX)
MODEL (S SEX)
Gender Development
SIT
Child identifies with same sex parent
Becomes aware of the rewards as a result of their gender
Record behaviour
Realise if they copy then this behaviour should receive the same rewards - vicarious reinforcement
Copy behaviour
Assume gender
OC
Sees that behaving in a particular way receives rewards and in another way receives punishment
Copy -due to positive reinforcement and punishment
Therapies
Token-Economy
Based on the principle of Operant Conditioning (consequences)
It can be used to encourage replication of positive behaviours and extinction of negative behaviours
The process involves the application of a reinforcement schedule
A person in authority/of significance to the patient administers the award of the tokens
The tokens are secondary reinforcers and can be used in exchange for primary reinforcers
The schedule for the award of the tokens must be agreed by both parties (patient must know what they have to do in order to achieve a token)
It must consistently applied
The patient must be consulted on what the token can be exchanged for
Aversion Therapy
Based on the principle of Classical Conditioning
Used to extinguish negative behaviours or increase the likelihood of them not being repeated
Involves association of something negative with the behaviour that the subject wants to be extinguished
For example - emetic drugs have been used for therapy for alcholism
Before = emetic drug UCS -> Vomiting UCR
During emetic drug UCS + alcohol CS -> vomiting UCR
After alcohol CS -> vomiting CR
Between stages 2 and 3 the subject has learned a different response to the alcohol
During treatment non-alcoholic drinks must be taken without the emetic drugs to prevent generalisation
Key issue: Is anorexia learnt?
Evaluation
It can be carried out by almost anyone - doesn't require a trained therapist and so can be applied in a community
The effect of the token economies does not tend to be long lasting once the patient has achieved the rewards - the incentive to change ones behaviour is diminished
Much evidence suggests that it only modifies behaviour inside the institution it takes place - when they return they revert back - doesn't generalise
Evaluation
Has been successful in treating alcoholism (usually accompanied with another form of therapy)
It has been banned in government services such as NHS because of the ethical issues - potential harm &labels certain behaviours as unacceptable
Very little follow up to such studies to test for longevity or spontaneous recovery
An eating disorder
Extremely underweight by 15% below should be
Characterised by refusing or eating very little
The individual sees themselves as 'fat' when they are in fact painfully thin
Often lose interest in socialising, feel the cold easily, feel tired and have stomach problems
It is common in vocations such as modeling and ballet
It is thought that 1% of girls in school/ uni have the disorder
Common in the western world - media
Affects mainly female
SIT:-
A girl sees a role model who is thin and beautiful
They associate beauty with being thin
She then identifies with the model
She records and retains the models behaviour; dieting and losing weight
She perceives the rewards of the models behaviour and thinks by copying them, she will also receive the same rewards; beauty and attention, success
She imitates the model
If the behaviour is reinforced, the behaviour will be repeated
More likely to imitate same sex models who you respect
OC
Negative reinforcement = peers and media tease those who are 'fat' and are envious of those who are thin
Positive reinforcement = compliments and attention on weight loss
Crisp et al found that dancers and models are more likely to develop the disorder - exposed and encouraged to be thin
Lai found more cases of anorexia in Hong Kong when it had become more Westernised - exposed to media interpretations of beuatiful and positive reinforcement
Reason for not in other cultures - different social norms so less emphasis on being thin (some find bigger women attractive) learn different behaviours
Biological has found a 60% concordance rate of the disorder in MZ twins suggesting its genetic
Result from high levels of serotonin - feel anxious so stop eating to reduce levels becomes continuous
Everyone is exposed to the media, so why doesn't everyone develop the disorder?
Psychodynamic suggests it is a conscious regression - the use of the defence mechanism to return to a child like state; wanting to be free from adult responsibilities - no breasts
Doesn't explain why it usually develops in adolesence
Focus on individuals and their goals - likely to be success full as it is tailored to them
Found to work in schools - real world application- O'Leary and O'leary found maybe because rewards are powerful and immeadiate
Practical difficulties - time consuming and specific - have to work together
Evaluation
Great deal of evidence to support - learned behaviour is visible = stong
Practical application - therapy and media
eg explaining why violence on tv or games may be copied
Lack of validity -behaviour not exhibited immediately so difficult to test for observational learning (specific behaviour and specific time)
Studies carried out on animals - difficult to generalise to humans
(often monkeys - similar in evolutionary terms so quite strong)
Evaluation of operant and classical conditioning
Studies use experimental methods and controls - scientific and cause and effect conclusions can be drawn
(Skinner isolated animals so conrtolled variables
Practical application - both can be applied to therapies (token economy)
Use animals - cannot generalise easily to humans
Laboratory experiments - lack mundane realism - artificial - lack validity
Evaluation
Test observational behaviour in experimental conditions - using scientific methods - valid
Explanations should mean that different cultures exhibit different gender behaviour but there are developmental sequences similar across cultures
Animal studies also show that operant/classical conditioning can explain animal behaviour - reliable
In new-born babies there are gender differences that cannot be learned - girls are more sensitive to noise and maintain eye contact with a silent adult than boys -Can't explain gender differences in gender behaviour
mental aspects (ego)
Physiological aspects
Gender assigned
Don't consider brain or hormonal differences
Cause and effect relationships
B=hormones & characteristics
L=rewards & behaviour
Consent to harm poduced
Does not change the reason for the behaviour
Brain Scanning techniques
MRI
look at structure
injected with contrast ye
provides contrast to show relevant are
then passed through a tube of a string magnetic field that measure radio waves emitted by the nuclei in hydrogen molecules
PET
measure activity
injected with glucose and radioactive tracer to provide small positively charged particles
Head placed in
area of high activity - glucose uptake shows area of activity
claustrophobic
stressful
invasive - injection
noisy
have to concentrate
limited knowledge
High validity - accurate
High reliability - repeat
stressful
injection
difficult to pin-point exact area
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