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Enlightenment and French Revolution

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Douglas Buchacek

on 6 April 2017

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Transcript of Enlightenment and French Revolution

The Age of Enlightenment
Enlightenment: an intellectual movement in the 1600s and 1700s that stressed reason and thought and the power of the individual to solve problems.

Much of the Enlightenment was spent thinking about the proper role of government in society.

Pre-Enlightenment Development of Government:

- Code of Hammurabi: first written law code

- Athenian Democracy:
- Cleisthenes - all citizens can participate in the Assembly.
- Pericles - pay public officials

- Roman Republic
- 12 Tables
- Three branches of government: Executive, Legislative, Judicial

- Magna Carta
- signed in 1215 by King John of England.
- Guaranteed basic political rights and limited the king's power:
- no taxation without representation
- right to trial by jury

- Creation of English Parliament:
- 1295: legislative assembly in England
- House of Commons: knights and land-owning citizens
- House of Lords: Nobles
The Enlightenment and Government
Thomas Hobbes:

-- Wrote the Leviathan, in which he basically says that all humans are selfish and wicked and naturally want to kill and steal from each other.

-- Wrote that in order to prevent this, people subjected themselves to governmental authority. In exchange for law and order (and for not being killed by neighbors), people accept a ruler over them. This is called a "social contract."

-- Of all types of government, a monarchy was best suited to create a social contract to benefit people.

-- Hobbes was kind of a downer.
John Locke

-- Locke was a little more upbeat.

-- Unlike Hobbes, Locke believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves.

-- Because they could learn from the past, Locke thought that self-government was possible, instead of Hobbes' autocratic monarchy.

-- Locke believed that all people had natural rights: life, liberty and property. All people are born free and with these rights.

-- Government, therefore, should be created in order to protect these rights. If that government fails to do that, it is the right of people to overthrow that government and create a new one.
Hobbes and Locke were two of the Biggies. However, they were just two of many thinkers of their day. A whole host of thinkers started, um, thinking about things. These people were known as "philosophes," which is the French word for "philosopher."
The philosophes had some key ideas:

Reason: Truth is discovered through reason and logical thinking.

Nature: There are "natural laws" for economics and politics, just like there are for nature.

Happiness: One doesn't have to wait for heaven to be happy; happiness can be found on earth.

Progress: Society and humankind can be perfected.

Liberty: Humans are entitled to freedoms such as religion and speech.
Causes of the French Revolution
Causes:

1) Enlightenment ideas

2) Example furnished by the American Revolution.

3) Social and economic problems:

Old Regime:

French society during the Enlightenment was dominated by the Old Regime and its estates system. The estates were similar to classes. Two of the estates were known as "privileged." Privileged estates could hold high office and did not have to pay most taxes.

First Estate: Roman Catholic clergy. Owned 10% of French land. Provided education and relief services to the poor, and gave 2% of its income to the government.

Second Estate: Rich Nobles. 2% of the population. Owned 20% of the land. Paid no taxes.

The Third Estate was not privileged. It was divided into 3 groups itself.

Bourgeoisie: Middle class: bankers, factory owners, merchants, professionals, skilled artisans. Often believed in ideas of the Enlightenment. Paid very high taxes.

Urban workers: tradespeople, apprentices, laborers, servants. Often jobless and hungry.

Peasants: 80% of the population. Paid half their income to the nobles, church and government.
Based on your readings about Enlightenment thinkers and ideas, and given your knowledge of European history and politics, which thinker/idea is MOST revolutionary? Which was the most radical?
What does this cartoon say about the Estates System?
American Revolution
France had supported the American Revolution, which was largely based on Enlightenment ideals. While most of the French population supported the Revolution for its Enlightenment ideals (Freedom of Speech, Representative government, etc), the French nobility and the Privileged Estates supported the Americans in order to fight the British.

But after the Revolution, members of the lower estates started to think that maybe all that Enlightenment stuff about liberty and whatnot was pretty cool.
Economic Troubles
WIRE: War Is Really Expensive

France's support for American revolutionaries was costly and France was heavily in debt. This hit the Third Estate especially hard. Crop failures in the 1780s caused the price of bread to double. People faced starvation, yet still had to pay much of their money in taxes.

At the same time, French royalty was on a spending binge. Marie Antionette was especially guilty on this measure.
French Revolution Assignment
In groups of 4, you will create a visual display of the events of the French Revolution:

The Events/Things:

Napoleon takes control of France's army

Reign of Terror

Storming of the Bastille

National Assembly is formed

Tennis Court Oath

Esates-General

Rights of Man

Directory

Coup d'Etat
Information about these events can be found on pages 653 - 664 of your book. Figure out their order, and then figure out which of the images I gave you correspond to which events (this will be fairly easy). Put the images on a poster paper, with the date of the event and a brief summary below it.
Science!
Scientific Revolution:
new way of thinking about the natural world, based upon careful observation and a willingness to question accepted beliefs.


Began in the 1500s and
influenced by the Reformation, the Renaissance and the Age of Exploration.
Although science had advanced in some parts of the world in the
Dark/Middle Ages
, scientific discovery in Europe was limited (think: Monty Python and the witch weighing the same as a duck).

Science was limited to what the Greeks and Romans thought and what was in the Bible.
This started to change in the 16th Century:

Renaissance/Exploration influenced the scientific revolution:

1) newly "discovered" lands contained people and animals not mentioned in the Bible.

2) Exploration required new tools: navigation requires instruments and geographic information so that sailors can find their way at sea -> astronomy!
Geocentric Theory v. Heliocentric Theory
Traditional thought said that the Earth was the center of the universe and that the sun rotated around the earth. Though challenged by Aristarchus (way back in Greece), scientific "authority", the Church, and common sense suggested that this was the case. This is known as the "geocentric theory".

Geocentric theory: idea that the earth is the center of the universe and that the sun (and everything else) circles the earth
:
- Ptolemy: Greek astronomer who favored the geocentric theory.

Nicolaus Copernicus
: Polish astronomer who questioned geocentric theory. Suggested that
the earth and the other planets rotate around the sun: heliocentric theory
.

Tycho Brae
: recorded the movements of the planets over years.

Johannes Kepler
: used Brae's data to figure out that planets move around the sun in elliptical orbits.

Galileo Galilei
:
Built a telescope; observed the stars and the planets and figured that Copernicus and Kepler (and Aristarchus!) were generally correct: the earth and planets orbit the sun.

Published a book: Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632): challenged church authority on geocentric theory: the Catholic Chuch believed the geocentric theory.

Galileo was called to Rome and accused of heresy: ordered to sign a confession and renounce his ideas and observations. His book was banned and Galileo was jailed for the rest of his life.

Galileo's inquiry was based on ideas of
Alhazen
, and Arab scholar who lived in the 11th century (the 1000s). Alhazen read the ideas of the Greeks (Aristotle, Plato and Euclid) and
created a method of inquiry that evolved into the scientific method.
Scientific Method:
1. Ask a Question
2. Research
3. Construct a Hypothesis
4. Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment
5. Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion
6. Communicate Your Results
Effects of the Enlightenment
American Revolution
Many of the Founding Fathers were heavily influenced by Enlightenment thinkers and incorporated their ideas into the US Constitution.

John Locke:

Montesquieu:


Rousseau

Voltaire


Beccaria
Representative and limited government.

Power divided among legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

Public election of president and Congress.

Freedom of speech and religion in the Bill of Rights.

Bill of Rights protects the accused, and prohibits cruel and unusual punishment.
French Revolution
Revolution in France occurred in 1789.

Causes:

1) Enlightenment ideas

2) Example furnished by the American Revolution.

3) Social and economic problems:

Old Regime:Old Regime/Estate System: Two of the estates were known as "privileged." Privileged estates could hold high office and did not have to pay most taxes.

First Estate: Roman Catholic clergy. Owned 10% of French land. Provided education and relief services to the poor, and gave 2% of its income to the government.

Second Estate: Rich Nobles. 2% of the population. Owned 20% of the land. Paid no taxes.

The Third Estate was not privileged.
It was divided into 3 groups itself.

Bourgeoisie: Middle class: bankers, factory owners, merchants, professionals, skilled artisans. Often believed in ideas of the Enlightenment. Paid very high taxes.

Urban workers: tradespeople, apprentices, laborers, servants. Often jobless and hungry.

Peasants: 80% of the population. Paid half their income to the nobles, church and government.

France had supported the American Revolution:
- Privileged Estates: Support Americans to fight the British.

- Unprivileged Estates: Support the Americans because of Enlightenment ideals: freedom of speech, representative government, etc.

Support for the American Revolution strained the French economy, which led to unrest.

Results:

- June 17, 1789: National Assembly established to create a constitutional monarchy.

Constitutional Monarchy: a system of government in which the monarch's power is limited by the law.

- Storming of the Bastille (July 14, 1789): Considered official start of the French Revolution.

- French monarchy overthrown: establishment of constitutional monarchy. This lasts until September 1791 when a republic is declared.

- Rights of Man: liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression: also guaranteed equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion.

- Reign of Terror: eliminate "Enemies of the Revolution."

Long-term effects:

- Napoleon's rise as emperor of France: Napoleon Bonaparte seizes power in France: 1799.

- Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon conquers much of Europe: defeated in 1815.

- Congress of Vienna: 1815: reorganize Europe after Napoleon's defeat.
Faced with growing unpopularity, King Louis XVI called for a meeting of representatives of all three estates called the Estates-General. This meeting was divided between the privileged estates who wanted to do little to change, and the 3rd estate, which called for drastic measures. Representatives of the 3rd Estate, frustrated that they were always out voted, walked out of the meeting and formed their own assembly.

June 17, 1789: National Assembly established to create a constitutional monarchy against the wishes of the king.

Constitutional Monarchy: a system of government in which the monarch's power is limited by the law.

Louis XVI retreated to his palace at Versailles after refusing to recognize the National Assembly and locking the 3rd Estate Delegates out of the assembly hall in Paris.

Fearing that Louis would use force against the National Assembly, people began gathering weapons. On July 14, 1789, looking for gunpowder, the revolutionaries stormed the Bastille, a prison in Paris. The Storming of the Bastille is seen as the start of the French Revolution.











Storming of the Bastille.

- French monarchy overthrown

- Rights of Man: liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression: also guaranteed equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion.

- Reign of Terror: eliminate "Enemies of the Revolution."

Long-term effects:

- Napoleon's rise as emperor of France: Napoleonic Wars.
The Age of the Enlightenment
Hey, you kids! Look here!
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