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Unification of Germany- Part 2 with answers

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Elisabetta Paoli

on 2 December 2015

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Transcript of Unification of Germany- Part 2 with answers

The Unification of Germany
Part 2 (p. 155 - 171)

The Danish War 1864
p.158-159
1.1863 Danish king died without
an hei
r, crown passed to
Christian IX
2. The German duchies: Schleswig-Holsteiner
put forward own claimant :
Duke of Augustenburg
3. King
Christian IX
violated the 1852
Treaty of London
by annexing Schleswig to
Denmark
4. .'. the German confederation sent
army
to
Holstein
on behalf of
Augustenburg
5. Bismarck's aim was to take advantage of the war to become
more powerful in the north by annexing Schleswig-Holstein
6. He sought for help from
Austria
and independently from the Confederation, the 2 armies invaded the duchies with the excuse that Danish king
had broken agreement.
7. At the
London Conference
in 1864 no agreement between the fighting countries was found.
8. However, without Britain's support
Denmark
decided to surrender.

The results of the Danish War (p.159-160)
The Schleswig-Holstein question
1. In Oct. 1864 with the
treaty of Vienna
Denmark gave up its rights in
Schleswig-Holstein
2. Schleswig-Holstein were to be governed jointly by
Prussia
and
Austria
. Tensions arouse between
Prussia and Austria
3. Duke Frederick VIII (German: Friedrich Herzog von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg;), succeeded nominally as the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from 1863 while Prussia actually took overlordship and real administrative power.
4. In August 1865 at the Convention of:
Gastein
Austria and Prussia agreed that
A wld gvern Holstein
and
P wld govern Schleswig
5. Bismarck strengthened Prussia's army because
a war agst Austria had become inevitable
6. He also met Napoleon III to secure his help against
Austria
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of the New German Empire (Reich)
Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire
(1870 - 1871) p. 167- 171
Bismarck faces Prussia's Strengths and Weaknesses
p. 156, 158
1. STRENGTHS:
Prussia's economic boom (p. 156)
Zollverein: promoted, encouraged circulation and exchange of goods in the German states
Prussia had a good
education
system .'. developed know-how for industry
Possessed plentiful supplies of
coal, iron and steel
Capitalists like
Krupp
played important role.
2. WEAKNESSES (p. 158)
Prussia's territories stretched across
central Europe
Opposition of Austria of Prussia's domination of
north Germany
(Austria had
double the population
and
larger army
)
German states opposed
Prussian expansion
Liberals opposed
Bismarck

German states 1863
The Ems Telegram and War with France 1870 (p. 164)
1. French Emperor (Napoleon III) demanded that William
renounced support of Hohenzollern candidature
forever.
2.William refused but from Bad Ems sent Bismarck a telegram to inform of days events.
3. Bismarck reduced the text to give the impression that
King William was rude towards the French
4. The reduced telegram was published and the French demanded
war
5. France declared war on Prussia on 19 July. Bismarck's achievement: France declared war not Prussia.
6. Bismarck called upon southern German states to
support Prussia
7. The Franco-Prussian war was considered a great national war and brought about National Unity.
Franco-Prussian relations
(p 164)
1. Gains for Prussia after Treaty of Prague: majority of
Germans
were now part of
North German Confederation
2. Nationalist pressure asked to complete
unification
3. Napoleon III needed d
iplomatic and territorial success
to prove that France was
the greatest power in Europe.
4. In 1867 the Dutch king agreed to sell
Luxembourg to France
provided that t
he Prussian king agreed.
5. Bismarck did not want to start war with France yet, so he asked
the European powers
to
settle the matter
6. At a conference in London, Luxembourg
was declared neutral
7. For France this meant no
territorial gain
8. Years 1867-70 were
peaceful
The 7 weeks war and the North German Confederation p. 160
1. 1866 War btwn Prussia & Austria became inevitable: to settle matter of Schleswig-Holstein and to decide
who shld control Germany
2. Alliance with Italy: Italy wld support Prussia, in return Italy
cld annex Venetia
3. Prussia had support of north German states but most large states (eg.
Saxony, Hanover, Bavaria
) supported
Austria
4. Austria appealed to the confederation to settle the matter of
Holstein-Schleswig
Bismarck responded by
occupying Holstein
but this did not lead immediately to war.
5. Bismarck proposed
to reorganize the Confederation to exclude
Austria
,
to set up a national parliament elected by
universal suffrage
to put all troops in Nothern Germany under
Prussia
6. Austria asked the Diet to censor Prussia. Prussia occupied
Hanover
,
Hesse-Cassel and Saxony .
Prussia withdrew from Confederation and declared it
dissolved
The Polish revolt (1863)
p. 158
In 1863 Russian Poles (Catholics) revolted against
Russia
.
Bismarck offered
Russia
support against
Russian Poles
because
had little sympathy for them
Tsar Alexander II refused the offer because
had enough force to crush the revolt
The agreement between Prussia and Russia was known as
Alvensleben Convention
This agreement allowed
Russia
to
follow Polish rebels
into Prussia
.
The agreement alienated
France
,
Britain
and liberal opinion in Germany.
However, the agreement between
Prussia
and
Russia
was useful in 1866 (war against Austria) and 1870-1(war against France)



The Hohenzollern candidature 1868-1870 (p.165)
1. Revolution in Spain search for new king request to Prince Leopold (of Hohenzollern family - family of King
William, Hohenzollern family
)
2. Bismarck in favour of Leopold, William I worried of
Nap III's hostility
. Bismarck persuaded William to
accept candidature
but Leopold did not wish to accept Spanish throne
3. Bismarck insisted and in June, William gave
his consent
.
4. France threatened war - French ambassador in Berlin, count
Benedetti
warned William I. William I did not want war with France esp. over Spanish candidature.
5. Leopold's candidature was withdrawn.
1. German troops were
mobilised
by using 6
railway lines
to French frontier.
2. On 3rd September Napoleon
surrended
,
Nap III
was taken prisoner
3. In Paris, the emperor was
deposed
. New govrnment of
National Defence
continued the war. Paris was
besieged
. In January 1871 the French were
forced to sign an armistice
.
3. The treaty of Frankfurt imposed harsh conditions on
France
.
Alsace and Lorraine were annexed to Germany
, France had to pay
indemnity of 5000 million francs
, German army of occupation
remained in in France until indemnity was paid
4. Bismarck did not want France to be a
threat
in the future, Alsace and Lorraine were rich in
iron ore
5. War against France created a united Germany,
a new Reich.
6. The new Reich was a Federal state
but the real power in the hands of

the new German Emperor
(William I of Prussia)

The seven weeks war against Austria 1866
1. Bismarck issued an ultimatum to 3 German states :
Hanover
,
Hesse-Cassel
and
Saxony
to side with Prussia
2. Ultimatums were rejected .'. Prussian forces
occupied them
3. The War against Austria (p. 161)
Prussian army under General
Moltke
was strong: had doubled its
expenditure
,use of railways to transport troops. Austrian army had more
men
, support from
most German states
, central position.
Italian declaration of war = Austria had to
divide her forces
Prussian troops advanced from t
he north
using
5
railway lines.
Prussia won a great victory at
Koniggratz or Sadowa

on 3rd July
4. Austria asked for peace because
she feared the break up of
her Empire.
A Moderate Peace treaty
- if Austria was treated severely she
wld hv become the ally of France
(p.161)
- Germany did not want provinces like
Austrian Silesia, Bohemia
nor govern Austria.
1. Austria agreed to Prussia's annexation of
Holstein-Schleswig
2. Prussia annexed
Hesse-Cassel, Hanover, Nassau, Frankfurt
3. The German Confederation was replaced by
North German Conferation
dominated by
Prussia
4. Austria surrendered
Venetia
to
Italy
5. The southern states of
Bavaria, Wurttemburg, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt
retained their independence.
The TREATY OF PRAGUE
(August 1866)
FRENCH ISOLATION
1. Britain remained neutral - did not want France to invade .....
2. Italy would not help France as French troops were in Rome
3. Prussia had an areement of mutual help with Prussia in case of war
4. Austria did not want to have another war with Prussia and so did not help ...
Full transcript