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Unification of Germany- Part 2 with answers
Transcript of Unification of Germany- Part 2 with answers
Part 2 (p. 155 - 171)
The Danish War 1864
1.1863 Danish king died without
r, crown passed to
2. The German duchies: Schleswig-Holsteiner
put forward own claimant :
Duke of Augustenburg
violated the 1852
Treaty of London
by annexing Schleswig to
4. .'. the German confederation sent
on behalf of
5. Bismarck's aim was to take advantage of the war to become
more powerful in the north by annexing Schleswig-Holstein
6. He sought for help from
and independently from the Confederation, the 2 armies invaded the duchies with the excuse that Danish king
had broken agreement.
7. At the
in 1864 no agreement between the fighting countries was found.
8. However, without Britain's support
decided to surrender.
The results of the Danish War (p.159-160)
The Schleswig-Holstein question
1. In Oct. 1864 with the
treaty of Vienna
Denmark gave up its rights in
2. Schleswig-Holstein were to be governed jointly by
. Tensions arouse between
Prussia and Austria
3. Duke Frederick VIII (German: Friedrich Herzog von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg;), succeeded nominally as the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from 1863 while Prussia actually took overlordship and real administrative power.
4. In August 1865 at the Convention of:
Austria and Prussia agreed that
A wld gvern Holstein
P wld govern Schleswig
5. Bismarck strengthened Prussia's army because
a war agst Austria had become inevitable
6. He also met Napoleon III to secure his help against
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of the New German Empire (Reich)
Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire
(1870 - 1871) p. 167- 171
Bismarck faces Prussia's Strengths and Weaknesses
p. 156, 158
Prussia's economic boom (p. 156)
Zollverein: promoted, encouraged circulation and exchange of goods in the German states
Prussia had a good
system .'. developed know-how for industry
Possessed plentiful supplies of
coal, iron and steel
played important role.
2. WEAKNESSES (p. 158)
Prussia's territories stretched across
Opposition of Austria of Prussia's domination of
double the population
German states opposed
German states 1863
The Ems Telegram and War with France 1870 (p. 164)
1. French Emperor (Napoleon III) demanded that William
renounced support of Hohenzollern candidature
2.William refused but from Bad Ems sent Bismarck a telegram to inform of days events.
3. Bismarck reduced the text to give the impression that
King William was rude towards the French
4. The reduced telegram was published and the French demanded
5. France declared war on Prussia on 19 July. Bismarck's achievement: France declared war not Prussia.
6. Bismarck called upon southern German states to
7. The Franco-Prussian war was considered a great national war and brought about National Unity.
1. Gains for Prussia after Treaty of Prague: majority of
were now part of
North German Confederation
2. Nationalist pressure asked to complete
3. Napoleon III needed d
iplomatic and territorial success
to prove that France was
the greatest power in Europe.
4. In 1867 the Dutch king agreed to sell
Luxembourg to France
provided that t
he Prussian king agreed.
5. Bismarck did not want to start war with France yet, so he asked
the European powers
settle the matter
6. At a conference in London, Luxembourg
was declared neutral
7. For France this meant no
8. Years 1867-70 were
The 7 weeks war and the North German Confederation p. 160
1. 1866 War btwn Prussia & Austria became inevitable: to settle matter of Schleswig-Holstein and to decide
who shld control Germany
2. Alliance with Italy: Italy wld support Prussia, in return Italy
cld annex Venetia
3. Prussia had support of north German states but most large states (eg.
Saxony, Hanover, Bavaria
4. Austria appealed to the confederation to settle the matter of
Bismarck responded by
but this did not lead immediately to war.
5. Bismarck proposed
to reorganize the Confederation to exclude
to set up a national parliament elected by
to put all troops in Nothern Germany under
6. Austria asked the Diet to censor Prussia. Prussia occupied
Hesse-Cassel and Saxony .
Prussia withdrew from Confederation and declared it
The Polish revolt (1863)
In 1863 Russian Poles (Catholics) revolted against
had little sympathy for them
Tsar Alexander II refused the offer because
had enough force to crush the revolt
The agreement between Prussia and Russia was known as
This agreement allowed
follow Polish rebels
The agreement alienated
and liberal opinion in Germany.
However, the agreement between
was useful in 1866 (war against Austria) and 1870-1(war against France)
The Hohenzollern candidature 1868-1870 (p.165)
1. Revolution in Spain search for new king request to Prince Leopold (of Hohenzollern family - family of King
William, Hohenzollern family
2. Bismarck in favour of Leopold, William I worried of
Nap III's hostility
. Bismarck persuaded William to
but Leopold did not wish to accept Spanish throne
3. Bismarck insisted and in June, William gave
4. France threatened war - French ambassador in Berlin, count
warned William I. William I did not want war with France esp. over Spanish candidature.
5. Leopold's candidature was withdrawn.
1. German troops were
by using 6
to French frontier.
2. On 3rd September Napoleon
was taken prisoner
3. In Paris, the emperor was
. New govrnment of
continued the war. Paris was
. In January 1871 the French were
forced to sign an armistice
3. The treaty of Frankfurt imposed harsh conditions on
Alsace and Lorraine were annexed to Germany
, France had to pay
indemnity of 5000 million francs
, German army of occupation
remained in in France until indemnity was paid
4. Bismarck did not want France to be a
in the future, Alsace and Lorraine were rich in
5. War against France created a united Germany,
a new Reich.
6. The new Reich was a Federal state
but the real power in the hands of
the new German Emperor
(William I of Prussia)
The seven weeks war against Austria 1866
1. Bismarck issued an ultimatum to 3 German states :
to side with Prussia
2. Ultimatums were rejected .'. Prussian forces
3. The War against Austria (p. 161)
Prussian army under General
was strong: had doubled its
,use of railways to transport troops. Austrian army had more
, support from
most German states
, central position.
Italian declaration of war = Austria had to
divide her forces
Prussian troops advanced from t
Prussia won a great victory at
Koniggratz or Sadowa
on 3rd July
4. Austria asked for peace because
she feared the break up of
A Moderate Peace treaty
- if Austria was treated severely she
wld hv become the ally of France
- Germany did not want provinces like
Austrian Silesia, Bohemia
nor govern Austria.
1. Austria agreed to Prussia's annexation of
2. Prussia annexed
Hesse-Cassel, Hanover, Nassau, Frankfurt
3. The German Confederation was replaced by
North German Conferation
4. Austria surrendered
5. The southern states of
Bavaria, Wurttemburg, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt
retained their independence.
The TREATY OF PRAGUE
1. Britain remained neutral - did not want France to invade .....
2. Italy would not help France as French troops were in Rome
3. Prussia had an areement of mutual help with Prussia in case of war
4. Austria did not want to have another war with Prussia and so did not help ...