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Transcript of tgs
Johann Georg and Ann Regina
Kant lived in poverty
his parents were devout members of a Protestant sect know as Pietism Pietism: a German religious movement whose members strongly believed in religious experience and biblical study born on April 22, 1724 in the town of Königsberg Education: Kant's elementary education was at Saint George's Hospital School and then at the Collegium Fredericianum
he remained there from 1732 until 1740
In 1740 Kant entered the University of Königsberg.
he became a private tutor for 7 years in order to have enough time and money to continue his education
Kant spent 1755-1770 as a lecturer
he finally achieved a professorship at Königsberg
in 1770 *Theoretical reason tries to assess the way things are Theoretical reasons: Philosophical theories/key ideas: Practical reason decides how the world should be and what individuals should do primary concerns was clarifying how it is that human come to know things
the area of reasoning by which we come to know how the laws of nature, the laws of cause and effect, govern human behaviour Practical reason: ethics: philosophical study of moral actions Kant's ethics: moves beyond scientific and empirical knowledge to the moral dimension guiding human behaviors
humans act not only on impulse as affected by laws of nature, but also out of conscious choice based on principles he believed that you have to aim to do good to achieve a moral life
he recognized that in the field of ethics we cannot arrive at the same type of certainty as we can in mathematics
he believed that in order for us to pursue the supreme good we need the 3 practical principles: God Freedom Kant wrote 14 books in total, but his most
famous book was The Critique of Pure Reason in 1781 Body of Work " May you live your life as if the maxim of
your actions were to become universal law" Quotes: Cont. Cont. Ethics "Science is organized
knowledge. Wisdom is organized life" "There can be no doubt that all our
knowledge begins with experience" “We are not rich by what we
possess but by what we can do without” “Always treat people as ends in
themselves, never as means to an end.” Freedom Immortality Immortality God His other books included:
Answering the Question: What is
Enlightenment, Critique of
Judgement and Critique of
Practical Reason Hogarth painted Act III of The Beggar's Opera 1729 Contemporaries 1724-1804 in order to achieve the
supreme good we need God's
help Kant argues, humans are by nature free so to have the duty to do something, we must be able to do it since achieving the supreme good is such an immense task there's immortality, a life beyond Good Will is the will to do our duty for no other reason than that it is our duty. Kant believed that everyone must find good as individuals Ethics cont. The good will Kant's ethical theory is known as
deontology deontology: ethics that branch dealing with duty,
moral obligation, and right action. morality is derived from rationality Kant's use of moral maxims Categorical imperative: what's right is right, what's wrong is
wrong rationality: the state of having good sense and sound judgment 3 maxims: ends vs means: universality: do to others what you would want them to do unto you Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end and never merely as a means to an end moral authority: very rational being must so act as if he were through
his maxim always a legislating member in the
universal kingdom of ends. Summary of his philosophical
theories by: Jenny and Paulyn Mark Challenge What would be the positives and negatives if everyone in the whole world followed Kant's philosophy? Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Sanctus for
his later Mass in B minor.