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The Roaring Twenties

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Maritza Morris

on 4 November 2018

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Transcript of The Roaring Twenties

Signs everywhere of impending doom
The New Deal (1933-1940)
Unemployment 25% and Higher
“Economic depression cannot be cured by legislative action or executive pronouncement.”
—Herbert Hoover, Message to Congress. Dec, '30.
Causes for Great Depression
Life During the Great Depression
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Poverty and Starvation: “on the dole”

Herbert Hoover's (1929-1933) Attempts
“Fireside Chats”

Writing to the president and first lady: “Down and Out in the Great Depression” (doc)

Monday, November 10, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
BLACK TUESDAY- October 29, 1929
Stock Market Crash- Signals economy in tailspin

Recovery of the Economy

National Industrial Recovery Act
, included the Public Works Administration (PWA) and the National Recovery Administration (NRA)

Instability of World Economy
Smoot- Hawley Tariff Act, 1930

The 3 R's- Relief, Recovery, Reform
The First New Deal, 1933-1935
The Second New Deal (1935-1940)
Relief and Recovery
The Roaring 20's
Influenza pandemic 1918-1920 40 million dead (700,000 U.S.)
Economic instability (inflation, strikes, unemployment)
Red Scare
and Palmer Raids (1919-20)

Recovery and the "Roaring" economy
purchasing power and buying on credit (“time”)

Politics in the 1920s: pro-business

Warren Harding
pre-progressive pro-business politics
Teapot Dome Scandal

Calvin Coolidge
Continued minimizing the federal government's role in American life

Herbert Hoover
Continues business expansion
* expansion of the mass media
* Motion pictures (1927 first “talkie” The Jazz Singer)
(GugliemoMarconi, 1920; NBC 1926) &
*The automobile revolution
*Consumer culture and advertising
“Lost Generation”
: Hemingway, Fitzgerald-- found commercial America vulgar
“New Woman”
*Results of Prohibition: organized crime, speakeasies, “bathtub gin” & bootleggers

Conservative Backlash
Trial of
Sacco & Vanzetti
Melting Pot

Restricting immigration:
National Origins Act (1924)
and quotas

Rebirth of the
Ku Klux Klan
(Birth of a Nation)

Scopes “Monkey” trial
, Dayton, TN, 1925
•Clarence Darrow vs. William Jennings Bryan
Modernists vs. Fundamentalists

Post- WWI Meltdown
Totally unsustainable
Large scale domestic consumption of products
Fewer marriages, more divorces/ dissertions
Birth control information legalized, 1936
Prohibition repealed, 1931 (21st amendment)
Migrant workers, Hobos, Deportations
African Americans- last hired, first fired
Emergency Relief and Construction Act, 1932

Hoovervilles, Hoover Flags, Hoover Blankets
Bonus Army, 1932
Long Depression and Agriculture
Overproduction and Decline of Purchasing Power
Consumer Debt
Banking and Business Weakness
Relief of Suffering
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
Reform the Financial System:
*Emergency Banking Act, 1933

*Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Opposition to the New Deal
Supreme Court Weighs in: Many acts unconstitutional
Court Packing
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
National Youth Administration (NYA)
Social Security Act
National Labor Relations Act and Board
Did the New Deal save the U.S. economy?
The Great Depression and The New Deal
Chapter Objectives:
Explain the underlying causes of the depression, and evaluate President Hoover's attempts to help the economy.
Describe the experiences of both urban and rural Americans during the depression, and explain ways in which the depression affected American politics.
Evaluate FDR's actions designed to alleviate the effects of the depression, and discuss the opposition he faced.
Discuss the most significant long-term effects of the New Deal.
Chapter Objectives
Describe the consumerism that developed in America during the early 20th century, especially after WWI.
Describe the various kinds of leisure activities that became popular during in America during the 1920's.
Discuss the strong reaction among various groups in America to the changing cultural mores of the 1920's.
1929: 5/6 cars in the world belonged to Americans
Reasons for Attacking Traditional Protestant Morality:
Loss of biblical authority
Decline of universal morality
Keep taxes down
Keep business profits up
Gave business more credit for expansion
High tariffs helped American manufacturers, new technology created opportunity
"The chief business of the American people is business... the man who builds a factory, builds a temple- the man who works there, worships there"
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