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Bilingual Education

Definition, brief historical timeline, and arguments for creating inclusive classrooms through this pedagogical model.

Marigold Holmes

on 1 December 2013

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Transcript of Bilingual Education

Bilingual Education
What is bilingual education?
Bilingual education allows for a transfer of native language skills into English, which in turn leads to a faster acquisition of English. This is supported by research that suggests being literate in one language makes it easier to learn literacy in another language. (Kwong, 2000; Tse, 2001)
Bilingual Education vs English Monolingual Education
Transitional Bilingual Education
inclusive classrooms
through the appreciation of
linguistic diversity

Maintenance Bilingual Education
How has bilingaul education evolved in the U.S. during the 20th & 21st Centuries?
Nationality Act - the first federal language 
law passed by Congress institutes an English speaking requirement for naturalization.
U.S. enters World War I, providing the catalyst for restricting non-English language use in schools.
Indian Affairs Bureau's official policy prohibiting native languages is rescinded; although the policy continues to be practiced into the 1940’s and 50’s.
Bilingual education is revived by Cuban immigrants in Miami.
Full bilingual program implemented in Dade county,Florida for Cuban immigrants.
Bilingual Act of 1968 - provides federal funding to school districts in an effort to incorporate native language. Following the passage of this law, many states enact their own bilingual laws.
Bilingual and Bicultural education policies inaugurated in Chrystal City, Texas.
Non-English speakers are questioned about their loyalty. Many states
enact English-only laws. Many schools begin restricting non-English language use, and most school systems discontinue the study of German. Anti-German sentiment
quickly turns to hostility towards all non-English languages. By the mid 1920’s 
bilingual education disappears from the American Educational landscape.
Many Cubans immigrate to Miami in the aftermath of a revolution in their country. They establish their own bilingual schools, which lead to the eventual establishment of a bilingual school in the 
Miami school system.
The school district implements an unprecedented district-wide policy that calls for bilingual and bicultural education, prompted by the demands of Chicano students to speak Spanish, study Chicano history, and be taught by Chicano teachers. From this struggle, La Raza Unida (the United People) is born.
Lau v. Nichols
- Supreme court rules against English-only instruction.
Meyer v. Nebraska - arbitrary restrictions on teaching of languages other than English outside of regular school hours as is deemed unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.
Brown v. Board of Education - segregation of education by race is ruled unconstitutional.
National Defense Education Act - enacted to promote foreign language education.
A class action suit brought forth by eighty-year old Kenny Lau on behalf of 1,800 students in the San Francisco School district over the district's English-only instruction policies in schools serving predominantly Chinese speaking students. The supreme court rules that schools without special provisions to educate language minority students violate the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Ruling prompts federal government to publish materials in nearly 70 languages and also allocate 68 million dollars for bilingual education.
National Association of Bilingual Education is founded.
Anti-bilingual Ordinance passed by residents of Dade County, Florida.
Ordinance prohibits any voluntary expenditure "for the purpose of utilizing any language other than English, or promoting any culture other than that of the U.S." The ordinance, though repealed in 1993, marks the beginning of growing anti-immigrant sentiment in the U.S.
Proposition 187 passed by California Residents
This proposition makes it illegal for children of undocumented immigrants to attend public schools; however, the federal courts rule this proposition unconstitutional.
Proposition 227
- abolishes bilingual education and mandates English-only instruction in the California school system.
Passed by an overwhelming majority of votes (61 to 39 percent).
Proposition 203
- repeals bilingual education and mandates English-only instruction in the Arizona school system.
Known as "English for Children", this proposition, similar to California's Proposition 227, was passed by a majority vote (63 to 37 percent).
Why not English monolingual education?
Bilingual education allows for a seamless continuation of education in core subjects such as math, science, and social studies because students understand the language of instruction, the curriculum may be built upon students' past knowledge and experience, and students are able to communicate with their instructors, preventing them from falling behind in these areas (Farah, 2000; Kwong, 2000; Tse, 2001).
Bilingual education provides the appropriate level of academic challenge without the added burden of foreign language comprehension, which may lead to frustration and lack of interest in the subject (Kwong, 2000).
Bilingual education enables students to participate in activities beyond language instruction such as civic engagement and community-based research projects which foster the development of political awareness, allows students to adapt more quickly to the U.S. and become informed citizens of the U.S. (Farah, 2000).
Bilingual education assists students new to the U.S. with their adjustment to new environments and the development of a healthy bicultural identity through interaction with role models such as teachers, peers, and historical figures from the student's native culture (Kwong, 2000).
Why bilingual education?
English only education lacks support, guidance, and role models from the students' native cultures; the expectation to replace their cultural identity with a new American identity leads to unhealthy identity development (Kwong, 2000).
Use of two or more languages in school - by the teachers or students or both - for a broad range of activities including instruction and social activities.

Use of language(s) as the medium of instruction, not as the subject being taught.

In the U.S. today, bilingual education is a pedagogical model that utilizes native language to teach and engage English Language Learners' (ELL) and their families.
But Bilingual education is not simply a label used to describe teaching in more than one language. Rather, it is a complex phenomenon, as evidenced by the many forms and models of bilingual education.

The goal of this type of bilingual education is assimilation to the dominant curriculum. It attempts to shift the student from using native language to using mainstream (English) language
Bilingual Education Models
Two-way Bilingual Education
The goal of this type of bilingual education is to preserve the student's native language and associated cultural identity.
Static maintenance = preserving language competency at the level of the student entering a school.
Developmental maintenance = developing the student's native language competency to fluency and biliteracy; fosering cultural pluralism.
Two forms of Bilingual Education
(Baker, 2011)
Student is placed in an English-speaking classroom and is expected to learn the content material presented and taught in English even though he or she may still be learning. Technically, this is not bilingual education.
Both native and non-native English speakers are placed in the same classroom and instructed in both languages alternately. The aim of this bilingual model is for both groups of speakers to become fluent in the other language.
Non-English speaking students are placed in ESL classes for part of the day and receive individual and concentrated instruction on English language by specially trained ESL teachers. For the remainder of the day, they are placed in English-speaking classrooms and expected to learn subject content taught in English.
English as a Second Language (ESL)
Children are instructed in a non-English language for the entire school day. Immersion programs are usually designed to teach “majority language speakers” (standard English speakers) a foreign language. These programs tend to be successful in fostering bilingualism.
(University of Michigan, n.d.)
ESL Teachers are not trained in content area so children in ESL programs may not receive appropriate instruction in other subject courses (Kwong, 2000).

Furthermore, learning is delayed until English is learned and students cannot take other core courses such as Math and Science in a timely manner (Farah, 2000).
English monolingual courses often render newly arrived students with a sense of isolation and frustration (Kwong, 2000).
Under English monolingual education, students are placed in low level courses and thus are often denied access to college-track and other vocational education. (Kwong, 2000)
Emotional Benefit
Transfer of Previous Skills
Academic Challenge
Understandable instruction
Emotional Challenges
Lack of Academic Challenges
Instructional Challengese
Lack of opportunity to transfer previous skills
English language acquisition is delayed becausenative langauge literacy and academic skills 
are no longer developed and there is no 
support for transferring native langauge 
skills into English and deciphering similarties 
and differences between langauges (Kwong, 2000).
Emotional Challenges
Bilingual education has been proven to play a crucial role in supporting both English acquisition and native language maintenance.
(Nieto, 1997)
"English imposition in schools is a form of colonialism because it denies students' native languages, cultural histories, and life experiences thereby preventing them from developing a critical perspective on social issues."
(Beykont, 2000)
"Bilingualism is key for the survival and success of language-minority students. Culturally, bilingualism allows young people to stay connected to their community of origin and integrate with the English-Speaking Community, Politically, bilingualism enables language minority students to develop a healthy identity, an authentic voice, and a positive self-image. Pedagogically, bilingualism enhances students' cognitive development and access to academic and career opportunities."
(Beykont, 2000)
Goals of Bilingual Education

teaching English
fostering academic achievement
acculturating immigrants to a new society
preserving a minority group’s linguistic and cultural heritage
enabling English speakers to learn a second language
developing national language resources
Baker, 2011
Merits of Bilingual Education
provides meaningful and equitable instruction
is built on tolerance and appreciation of other linguistic and cultural groups
enables students to develop multiple linguistic and cultural understanding
promotes appreciation for diversity
(Garcia, 2009)
(National Association for Bilingual Education, 2013)
(National Association for Bilingual Education, 2013)
The Cycle of Bilingual <-> English-Only in U.S. Education
Bilingual education embraced
Early 1900's
Monolingual English education policies enforced
Mid 1900's
Bilingual education revived!
Congress ratifies the Bilingual Act of 1968
English-only movement gains momentum
The Controversy continues
Under the Obama administration, educational reform has been given a priority. Some say that federal funding programs such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (2009) places too much emphasis on standardized tests and will only reinforce English-only policies. Others are hopeful that increased funding and federal mandate for educational reform will open windows for states to incorporate bilingual education as the model to foster academic achievement and success among English Language Learners.
In 1939, Ohio becomes the first state to pass a law advocating for bilingual education.
In 1917 the U.S. enters World War I, spurring questions of loyalty toward non-English speakers, especially German speakers.
In 1998, California residents overwhelmingly pass Prop. 227, banning bilingual education and mandating English-only curriculum. Other states follow suit.
My Belief
Bilingual Education creates inclusive classrooms that celebrate the unique identites of every student
The basis of my conviction....
But how can bilingual education be implemented in times of limited resources and increased diversity?
Remember, bilingual education is more than just using the ELL student's native language!!

inclusive classrooms

- In addition to allowing students' the use of their own languages, draw upon their own cultural knowledge as resources for learning (Franquiz & Reyes, 1998).
Schools may not be able to provide teachers who can fluently communicate with every single student in their native language. However, equity may be maintained if classrooms foster inclusivity and respect for the unique linguistic and cultural identity of every student.
in-between spaces
and allow
- Allow students to "mix" English and their native language as well as the native language(s) of other students in the classroom (Franquiz & Reyes, 1998).
Draw upon students'
Funds of Knowledge
- Incorporate students' "historically accumulated and culturally developed bodies of knowledge and skills essential for household or individual functioning and well being" (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzales, 1992). In other words, capitalize on students' skills sets aquired from their life experiences .
Engage Parents
- don't simply involve them, but create classrooms with them. Don't lead with the mouth (simply providing information and "telling" them), but lead with the ears (listen to what parents think, dream, and worry). See parents as partners for student's learning. Utilize their knowledge and expertise for teaching the students (Ferlazzo, 2011).
My Belief
Beykont, Z. F. (2000). Bilingualism is powerful. In Z. F. Beykont (Ed.).
Lifting every voice: Pedagogy and politics of bilingualism
. (pp.3-6). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Group.

Baker, C. (2011).
Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism
. Tonawanda, NY: McNaughton & Gunn.

Farah, M. H. (2000). Reaping the benefits of bilingualism: The case of somali refugee students. In Z. F. Beykont (Ed.).
Lifting every voice: Pedagogy and politics of bilingualism
. (pp. 59-70). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Group.

Ferkazzim K, (2011). Involvement or Engagement? Educational Leadership, 10-14. Retrieved fromwwwhttp.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership.aspx

Franquiz, M.E. & DeLaReyes, M. (1998). Creating inclusive learning communities through English language arts: From Chanclas to Canicas.
Language Arts, 75
, 211-220.

Garcia, O. (2009).
Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective.
West Sussex, Uk: Wiley & Sons.

Kwong, K. M. (2000). Bilingualism equals access: The cast of Chinese high school students. In Z. F. Beykont (Ed.).
Lifting every voice: Pedagogy and politics of bilingualism
. (pp. 43-52). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Group.

National Association of Bilingual Education (2013).
What is bilingual education?
Retrieved from http://nabe.org/BilingualEducation#why.Bilingual.Ed

Moll, L. C., Armanti, C. A., Neff, D., & Gonzalez N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms.
Theory Into Practice, 31
, 132-140. Retrieved from http://www.Sonoma.edu/users/f/filp/ed415/moll.pdf

Niento, S. (1997). We speak in many tongues; Language diversity and multicultural education. In J.V. Tinanjero & A. F. Ada (Eds.)
The power of two languages: Literacy and biliteracy for Spanish-speaking students
. (pp. 73-46). New York, NY: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill.

PBS on-line (n.d.).
The bilingual education timeline
. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/roots_in_history/bilingual_timeline1.html

Rethinking Schools. (2013). history of bilingual education. Retrieved from http://www.rethinkingschools.org/restrict.asp?path=archive/12_03/langhst.shtml

Tse, L. (2001).
Why don’t they learn English? Separating fact from fallacy in the U.S. language debate.
New York: Teacher’s College, Columbia University.

University of Michigan. (n.d.).
Bilingual education
. Retrieved fromhttp://sitemaker.umich.edu/370blinged/home

(Baker, 2011; PBS on-line, n.d.; Rethinking Schools, 2013)
by Marigold S. Holmes
TCE 576, Fall 2013
Oregon State University
Best Practices in Corvallis, OR
Two program options:
English-Spanish Dual Immersion for all grades
English only for 3rd, 4th, 5th grade
Highly trained ESOL Teachers for every level and program option
Well established Spanish/English dual language immersion program

School Climate
Robust study body representing many countries and languages
Nurturing environment
High expectations for safe, responsible and respectful behavior
Encourages students to learn life skills such as independence, responsibility, and caring for others
Buddy classes between upper and lower grads
Numerous co-curricular and educational support services
Special services staff including Behavior Support, Physical Education, and Music Specialist
Afterschool programs
Enrichment opportunities such as Lego robotics, Science Club and partnerships with OSU
•Spanish immersion
Spanish is the primary language used in classrooms
Most activities are carried out in Spanish
English is used as needed
Bilingual teachers
Teachers and parents work as teams to serve students
Tailored to the skills of 3 to 6 year old children
Curriculum based on literature, music and art activities

School Climate
Warm and friendly environment
Educationally stimulating programs

Garfield Elementary School
English as a Second Language Magnet site)
La Flauta Magica
(Bilingual Pre-School)
Full transcript