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Science Chapter 16: Bones, Muscles and Skin

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Sabrina Fonda

on 21 May 2013

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Transcript of Science Chapter 16: Bones, Muscles and Skin

Chapter 14: Bones, Muscles, and Skin Lena Kernus and Sabrina Fonda Lesson 1: Body Organization and
Homeostasis The levels of organization in the human body consists of cells, tissues, and organs Lesson 1: Body Organization and
Homeostasis (continued) Homeostasis provides balance in the body Lesson 2:The Skeletal System Your framework, or skeleton, is made of all the bones in your body Lesson 2: The Skeletal
System (Continued) Bones are complex, living structures that undergo growth and development The Muscular System Your body has three types of muscle tissue -
skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle. The Muscular System Involuntary muscle is a muscle that is not under conscious control. The Skin The skin covers and protects the body from injury, infection, and water loss, regulates body temperature, eliminates wastes, gathers information about the environment, and produces vitamin D. The Skin Three simple habits can help you keep your skin healthy -
Eat a healthy diet, keep your skin clean and dry, and limit your exposure to the sun. The cell membrane forms the outside boundary of the cell The control center of a eukaryotic cell that directs the cell's activities and contains the information that determines the cell's form and function. The material within a cell a cell apart from the nucleus is called the cytoplasm http://instruct.westvalley.edu/svensson/Cells/08Cells.htm https://sites.google.com/site/iilyear4/three-types-of-muscle-tissue Skeletal muscles must work in pairs because muscle cells can only contract, not extend. Cells 5-10-13 9th Period Cells carry on the processes that keep organisms alive
Cells also grow and reproduce
Complex organisms are composed of many cells in the same way a brick building is composed of many bricks
Cells are quite tiny, and most cannot be seen without a microscope http://biophysics.homestead.com/muscular.html http://www.edzone.net/~fulton/high/winkler/team1b/Body%20Tissues%20and%20Membranes%20Chap4.htm The next largest group of organization is a tissue
A tissue is a group of similar cells that perform the same functions
The human body contains four different types of tissue; muscle tissue, nervous tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue Muscle tissue can contract or shorten.
By doing this, muscle tissue makes
parts of your body move Voluntary muscle is a muscle that is under conscious control. A tendon is a strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone. http://www.pennmedicine.org/encyclopedia/em_displayimage.aspx?gcid=8956&ptid=2 Epithelial tissue covers the inside and outside surfaces of your body. Some epithelial tissue, such as your skin, protects the delicate structures that lie beneath it. The lining of your digestive system consists of epithelial tissue that allows you to digest and absorb the nutrients in your food. There are about 600 muscles in your body. http://www.physioshop.co.uk/muscular-system-flexible-laminated-chart.html Nervous tissue directs and controls the muscles. Nervous tissue carries electrical messages back and forth
between the brain and other parts of the body. Connective tissue provides support for your body and connects all its parts. Bone tissue and fat are connective tissue. http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/picture-of-the-skin http://gardenofeaden.blogspot.com/2013/04/what-is-homeostasis.html http://peer.tamu.edu/curriculum_modules/cell_biology/module_1/index.htm The outer layer of the skin. The inner layer of the skin. Strands of hair that grow within the dermis An organ is a structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue
All organs perform a specific job
Each organ in your body is part of an organ system, which is a group of organs that work together to perform a major function 1. Circulatory system: Transports materials to and from cells
2. Skeletal system: Supports and protects the body
3. Digestive system: Breaks down food and absorbs nutrients
4. Nervous system: Detects information from the environment and controls body functions
5. Endocrine system: Controls many body processes by means of chemicals
6. Respiratory system: Takes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide
7. Muscular system: Enables movement of the body and internal organs
8. Excretory system: Removes waste http://www.eastwestdaily.com/dr-wilsons-tips-for-healthy-skin/face-cucumber Cancer is a disease in which some cells in the body divide uncontrollably. Repeated exposure to sunlight can damage skin cells. http://www.whatswrongwithmyfamily.com/2013/05/05/on-sun-and-skin-cancer/ http://fmsscience7.edublogs.org/2013/01/28/organism-organization/ The basic unit of structure and function in a living thing. All the systems in your body work together to maintain homeostasis
Homeostasis is the process an organism's internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment A group of similar cells that perform the same function. A structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue. A group of organs that work together to perform a major function in the body. A living thing. A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell. Homeostasis in Action
To see homeostasis in action, all you have to do is take your temperature when the air is cold. Then, take it again in an overheated room. No matter what the temperature of the air around you, your internal body temperature will be close to 37 degrees C. Two or more elements that are chemically combined. Maintaining Homeostasis
Your body has various ways of maintaining homeostasis. For example, when you are too warm, you sweat. Sweating helps to cool your body. On the other hand, when you're cold, you shiver. This action produces heat to keep you warm. Rod-shaped cell structures that convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions. Small grain-like structures in the cytoplasm of a cell where proteins are made. A long, whiplike structure that helps a cell to move. A small, round cell structure containing chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones. Stress and Homeostasis
Sometimes things can happen to disrupt homeostasis. As a result, your heart may beat more rapidly and your breathing may increase. Stress is the reaction of your body to potentially threatening, challenging, or disturbing events. Adrenaline gives you a burst of energy and prepares your body to take action. If stress is over quickly, your body soon returns to its normal state. Homeostasis is restored after just a few minutes of rest Pop Quiz! 1. What are the three types of muscle tissue?
2. Do skeletal muscles work separately or in pairs?
3. How many muscles are in the human body?
4. What are three functions of the skin?
5. What is one way to keep your skin healthy?
6. What are the levels of organization in your body?
7. What are the four types of tissues?
8. What is homeostasis?
9. A ________ is a strong connective tissue that holds joints together.
10. What are two ways to take care of your bones? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Skeleton_diag.png http://hes.ucfsd.org/gclaypo/skelweb/skel04.html Your skeleton has five major functions. It provides shape and support, enables you to move, protects your organs, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and other materials until your body needs them. Shapes and Supports
Your skeleton determines the shape of your body. The backbone, or vertebral column, is the center of the skeleton. If you run your finger down the center of your back, you can feel the 26 small bones that make up your backbone that are called vertebrae. without your vertebral column you would not be able to bend or twist. Movement and Protection
Your skeleton allows you to move. Most of the body's bones are associated with muscles. The muscles pull on the bones to make your body move. Bones also protect many organs in your body. For example, your skull protects your brain and your ribs protect your heart and lungs. Production and Storage of Substances
Some of your bones produce substances that your body needs. The long bones in your arms and legs make certain blood cells. Bones also store minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. When the body needs these minerals, the bones release small amounts of them into the blood. http://visual.merriam-webster.com/human-being/anatomy/skeleton/types-synovial-joints_1.php What the Skeletal System Does Tissues Organs and Organ Systems Homeostasis Joints of the Skeleton Immovable Joints
Some joints in the body connects bones in a way that allows little or no movement. These are called immovable joints. The bones of the skull are held together by immovable joints. New kinds of skin cancer are found every year. Movable Joints
Most of the joints in your body are moveable. Moveable joints allow the body to make a wide range of movements. The bones in moveable joints are held together by strong, connective tissues called ligaments. Most joints have a second type of connective tissue called cartilage, which is more flexible than bones. Cartilage covers the end of bones and keeps them from rubbing against each other. In addition, a fluid lubricates the end of the bones, allowing them to move smoothly over each other. Supports other tissues and has scattered cells. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone http://aikidopurbalingga.blogdetik.com/category/kesehatan/ Bones-Strong and Living Bone Structure
Beneath the bone's outer membrane is a layer of compact bone, which is hard and dense, but not solid. Small canals run through the compact bone. These canals carry blood vessels and living cells within the bone. Just inside the femur's compact bone is a layer of spongy bone. Spongy bone has many small spaces within it. Spongy bone is lightweight but strong and is also found at the ends of bones. The spaces in many bones contain a soft connective tissue called marrow. There are two types of marrow- red and yellow. Red bone marrow produces some of the body's blood cells. Yellow marrow stores fat that can serve as an energy reserve. Bone Strength
The structure of bones make them strong and lightweight. About 20% of an average adult body weight is bone. Bones are hard because they contain minerals- primarily phosphorus and calcium Bone Growth
Bones are alive- they contain nerves and tissues such as blood and nerves. Because they are alive, bones also form new bone tissue as you grow. Even after you grown, however, bone tissue continues to form within your bones. Sometimes, new bone tissue forms after an accident. For example, if you break a bone, new bone tissue forms to fill the gap between the broken ends of the bone. Bone Development
As an infant, most of your skeleton was cartilage but overtime, most of the cartilage was replaced with hard bone tissue. The replacement of cartilage by bone tissue is usually complete by the time you stop growing, but not all of your body's cartilage is replaced by bone. Even in adults, many joints contain cartilage that protects the ends of bones Taking Care of Your Bones Diet
One way to help ensure healthy bones it so eat a well-balanced diet. A well-balanced diet includes enough calcium and phosphorus to keep your bones strong while they are growing. Meats, whole grains, and leafy green vegetables are good sources of both calcium and phosphorus. Dairy products, including yogurt, are good sources of calcium Exercise
Another way to build and maintain strong bones is to get plenty of exercise. Weight-bearing activities such as running, skating, and dancing help your bones grow stronger and denser. Osteoporosis
As people become older, their bones begin to lose some of the minerals the contain. Mineral loss can lead to osteoporosis, a condition in which the body's bones become weak and break easily. Osteoporosis is more common in women than it is in men. Regular exercise and a calcium-rich diet throughout life can help prevent osteoporosis
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