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Reporting Category 2 United States STAAR Review

US History STAAR Review
by

Donna Sue Perkins

on 29 July 2016

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Transcript of Reporting Category 2 United States STAAR Review

Reporting Category 2
Geography & Culture
United States History
STAAR Review
12 Questions From This Category Will Be On The STAAR Test
Impact of Geographic Factors
Causes & Effects of Migration & Immigration on American Society
Relationship Between Population Growth & Modernization on the Physical Environment
Relationship Between Arts & the Times Arts Were Created
National Identity
Donna Sue Perkins
December 2013
Credits :

Some Material was adapted from a TAKS review prepared by Kip Harmon, Revised by Scott Crossno and Laura Ewing
Assembled by Pearland and Dawson High School Social Studies Departments


The wind & the storm surge at high tide was overwhelming.
In January of 1917, President Wilson outlined 14 points to achieve peace without victory fearful a defeated and humilated Germany would cause another war. The Allies and Central Powers developed plans that did not share Wilson’s terms for peace. Wilson’s plans for dealing with the war were widely unsupported by Americans and particularly by the Senate. Wilson had to build a basis of support in the U.S. for “keeping peace,” as neutrality was no longer possible, given the circumstances of engagement to this point in the war.

Both legal & illegal immigration have caused the growth of port cities & industrialization. The northeast has a very high population densities; causing decreased availability of housing & land. Overcrowding can cause pollution & declines in the quality of life & health in cities. Nativism & other anti-immigration attitudes can be caused by illegal immigration.
Urban areas grew larger and denser throughout the early twentieth century; by the 1950's, the population of suburbs and exurban areas becomes more pronounced, and the population of the United States begins to resemble its current distribution.
By August 1916 the Department of Interior oversaw 14 national parks, 21 national monuments, and the Hot Springs and Casa Grande Ruin reservations, but there was no unified leadership or organization to operate them. Congress passed what is often known as the Organic Act, which established the National Park Service and placed all the existing parks under its management. The legislation established the basis for the fundamental mission, philosophy, and policies of the National Park Service.
Environmental Protection Agency
Born in the wake of elevated concern about environmental pollution, EPA was established on December 2, 1970 to consolidate in one agency a variety of federal research, monitoring, standard-setting and enforcement activities to ensure environmental protection. Since its inception, EPA has been working for a cleaner, healthier environment for the American people.
Endangered Species Act
Under the ESA, species may be listed as either endangered or threatened.

“Endangered” means a species is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

“Threatened” means a species is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future.
However, in 2005 Kelo v. City of New London brought a new twist to takings clause jurisprudence. Whereas prior to the Kelo ruling, the government would acquire property for public use directly, in the Kelo case the Supreme Court upheld the use of eminent domain to take private property for commercial development that was assumed to indirectly provide a positive impact for the public.
African-American literature explores the issues of freedom and equality long denied to Blacks in the United States, along with further themes such as African-American culture, racism, religion, slavery, a sense of home, segregation, migration, and feminism.
Though beginning in the 1920’s, did not rise to popularity until the 1970’s; blending of several genres (gospel, jazz, blues & folk) of music to form the distinct sound
In mass communication, the term popular culture refers to messages that make limited intellectual and aesthetic demands through content that is designed to amuse and entertain audiences.
Harry Truman
As President, ended segregation in the military; Proposed his “Fair Deal” including full employment and fair employment practices bills, federal control of the unemployment compensation program, a large housing program, & the development of natural resources; When Truman attended the Potsdam Conference at the end of WWII; he became suspicious of the Soviet intentions under Stalin. This eventually affected his leadership in the early years of the Cold War & led to the Truman Doctrine, where US supported Greece & Turkey in their attempt to ward off communist threats.
Contributions of People of Various Racial, Ethnic, Gender & Religious Groups Shape American Culture
Andrew Carnegie
Created “Gospel of Wealth” doctrine; philanthropist
The United States is sometimes described as a "melting pot" in which different cultures have contributed their own distinct "flavors" to American culture.
Legislative anti-immigrant efforts cumulated in the Immigration Act of 1924, which put quotas on the number of immigrants allowed to enter from certain (nonwestern European) countries. By basing the quotas on the 1890 census, law makers privileged immigrants from northern European countries.
American Movement to Assimilate Immigrants and America Indians
Supervising producer & host of top-rated, award-winning tv show, The Oprah Winfrey Show for two decades; global media leader & philanthropist
Thomson explained that the motto E pluribus unum alludes to the union between the states and federal government, as symbolized by the shield on the eagle's breast. The thirteen stripes "represent the several states all joined in one solid compact entire, supporting a Chief, which unites the whole & represents Congress."
IN GOD WE TRUST was first used on paper money in 1957, when it appeared on the one-dollar silver certificate.
(November 26, 1832 – February 21, 1919) was an American feminist, abolitionist, prohibitionist, alleged spy, prisoner of war and surgeon. She is currently the only woman ever to receive the Medal of Honor.
Impact of Physical & Human Geographic Factors
Event
Human Geography
Physical Geography
Settlement of the Great Plains
Plains Indians settled here first.
Middle of the country
Extreme temperatures & climate
(hot summers, cold winters)
Flat, wide open spaces which were excellent for farming
Klondike Gold Rush
Thousands suffering from an economic depression left their lives behind in the late 1800’s seeking to make their fortunes
Alaska was seen as a large & distant source of raw materials
Panama Canal
The US supported the revolution of this country & in exchange was given permission to build this & control a territory five miles around this structures
48 miles of international waterways between the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans that saves the 8,000 mile journey around the southern tip of South America(Cape Horn)
Dust Bowl
Farmers misused their land by over planting and not rotating crops. Millions of acres became useless, forcing hundreds of thousands to leave their homes.
Years of sustained drought dried up the lands, winds carried clouds of dust and sand
Levee Failure in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina
Engineering Failure
America struggled to readjust to the post-wartime economy and suffered a series of economic, social and political hardships that greatly impacted the nation for years.
While President Wilson prepared Americans on the home front, the Wilson administration also mobilized military efforts to help the Allies defeat the Central Powers. In 1918, Wilson communicated his objectives – known as the Fourteen Points. The Allied Powers did not share Wilson’s goals and wanted to make Germany pay reparations. Germany eventually signed the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919. Germany accepted sole responsibility for the war, agreed to pay reparations to Allied countries, to give up land and colonial holdings, and to reduce military size and arms. The United States struggled with Wilson’s desire to sit among the other Allied nations in a League of Nations.
Changes in Political Boundaries from Statehood & International Conflicts
Causes & Effects of Changing Demographic Patterns of Migration within the United States
Event
Push/Pull Factor
Consequence of Event
Westward Expansion
In order to prepare for “total war”, America transformed the economy and the role of government in the United States. People at home manned the “home front” and participated through expanding the industrial capacity of the economy.
From the earliest settlement of the US, people wanted to move west. Manifest Destiny was the belief held before the Civil War that America should reach from sea to sea. The west is often seen as an area rich with opportunity for new beginnings
Overcrowding, lack of jobs, financial distress have often pushed people to move West in American history. The government helped people move west through the acts such as The Homestead Act which gave land to people in the late 1800’s. Westward expansion caused conflict with native populations already living there. The government forcibly removed Indians to reservations to make room for expansion. Technological innovations such as the railroad made expansion easier.
Rural to Urban
The movement from rural to urban centers began with the industrialization in US history. As factories grew, so did the opportunities to work.
Urbanization created many challenges: safe, adequate, affordable housing
Access to public services & education
High demand for transportation created pollution
Tension between social classes
Great Migration
African Americans moved north & west to seek employment opportunities in industrial cities. Many followed friends & family who previously migrated.
Urban populations of African Americans increased dramatically. They were still greeted with racism & found housing shortages & crime. However, many organizations like the National Urban League & NAACP were formed & help to adjust. Some of the new neighborhoods became vibrant centers of African American culture, such as Harlem.
Rust Belt to Sun Belt
Areas like Detroit, Michigan & Gary, Indiana, which had been the center of American Industry built on coal, iron , & steel, saw huge losses of population when factories closed. People moved to the south to the Sun Belt to find new jobs.
Some of the jobs lost in the Rust Belt were due to manufacturing industries moving to Mexico & overseas. Workers have had to find new careers. Industries like automobiles have needed government assistance to stay afloat. Many cities have struggled. Detroit declared bankruptcy in 2013.
Legal & Illegal Immigration
Impact of Popular American Culture on the World over Time
Pop culture is entertainment, music and sports.
Popular culture is distributed across many forms of mass communication including newspapers, magazines, radio, television, movies, music, books and cheap novels, comics and cartoons, and advertising. It contrasts with high cultural art forms, such as opera, classical music and artworks, traditional theater and literature.
Expansion of Economic Opportunities & Political Rights
WEB DuBois

Early civil rights leader, published The Souls of Black Folks” in 1903 & helped found the NAACP in 1909; Advocated for Pan-Africanism ( all African descent people should fight oppression together) & believed in black separatism
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Leader of the Civil Rights Movement; preached nonviolent approach & demanded equal rights for African Americans ; assassinated in 1968
Rosa Parks

African American civil rights activists; in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955 refused to give up her seat on the city bus to white man; led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Sonia Sotomayor
First Hispanic to serve on the Supreme Court; nominated by President Obama
Jane Addams
Founded Hull House in Chicago to help poor immigrants; part of social reform movements
Susan B. Anthony
Advocate for women’s suffrage
The Black Panthers
Radical group in the 1960’s who advocated armed self-defense & revolution to end black oppression; more militant than MLK & other civil rights leaders but also established daycare centers & medical clinics
William Jennings Bryan
Important politician of the time; Supported prohibition, women’s rights, income tax; gave famous “Cross of Gold” speech attaching tariffs; prosecuted John Scopes in the “monkey Trial” for teaching evolution
Andrew Carnegie
Accumulated huge wealth in the railroad & steel industry, used the Bessemer process to create steel; Developed “Gospel of Wealth” doctrine in which he believed it was the duty of the wealthy to use their money to improve conditions for all
César Chavez
Fought discrimination against migrant workers & Hispanics; founded the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee union
Thurgood Marshall
Distinguished Lawyer; appointed to the US Supreme Court in 1967 & established a record for supporting the voiceless American
Barack Obama
First African American President; elected in 2008
Sandra Day O’Connor
First Woman appointed to the US Supreme Court
Betty Friedan

Wrote The Feminine Mystic; co-founded NOW – National Organization of Women
Hector P. Garcia
Mexican-American physician & civil rights advocate; organized the American GI Forum in 1948 to initially improve veteran benefits & enhance medical attention, but it soon expanded to address educational & vocational training, housing, public education, poll taxation, voter registration hospitalization & employment
Marcy Garvey
Publisher, Journalist, & Black Nationalist; founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association & African Communities League
Warren Harding
President in the 1920’s, advocated “Return to Normalcy” (meaning life before WWI) & “America First” campaign to encourage industrialization & a strong economy independent of foreign influence
Dolores Huerta
Advocate & Lobbyist for farmworker’s rights
Ronald Reagan
President in the 1980’s ; grew the US economy through ”Reaganomics”, influenced the end of the Cold War, advocated a strong military to deter aggression against the US
Phyllis Schiafly
Political conservative known for her anti-feminism & campaign against the Equal Rights Amendment; she believed you could be a mother & have a career, too; wrote & co-authored several books
Lionel Sosa
Founder of largest Hispanic advertising agency in Texas (Sosa, Bromley, Aguilar, Nobles & Associates)
César Chavez

Fought discrimination against migrant workers & Hispanics; founded the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee union
Martin Luther King, Jr.

Leader of the Civil Rights Movement; preached nonviolent approach & demanded equal rights for African Americans ; assassinated in 1968
Susan B. Anthony
Advocate for women’s suffrage
Rosa Parks
African-American civil rights activist; refused to give up bus seat to white man
Ida B. Wells
American reformer & leader in the anti-lynching crusade & women’s suffrage movement
The Tuskegee Airmen
Determined young men who enlisted to become America’s first black military aviators at a time when the US military still practiced racial segregation. They participated in over 15,000 sorties and earned over 100 Flying Crosses.
Jonathan Trumball, Sr.
The only colonial governor who supported the America cause/side in the American Revolution
People from around the world have been attracted to the US since the very beginning. Pull factors include our economy, freedoms, education systems,etc. Because it is so attractive, not everyone follows immigration laws.
Population Growth and Distribution of the United States
Census maps of population distribution paint a picture of the westward expansion and general urbanization of the United States.
Population distribution maps from the mid-nineteenth century show a vast and unsettled midsection of the country that is gradually filled in as the frontier shrinks and closes entirely by 1890.
National Park System
Yellowstone National Park Act, 1872
The Act signed into law on March 1, 1872, established the world's first true national park. It withdrew more than two million acres of the public domain in the Montana and Wyoming territories from settlement, occupancy, or sale to be "dedicated and set apart as a public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people." The establishment of the park set a precedent for placing other natural reserves under federal jurisdiction.
Act to Establish the National Park Service, 1916 (Organic Act)
In 1972, President Nixon declared that conservation efforts in the United States aimed toward preventing the extinction of species were inadequate and called on the 93rd Congress to develop comprehensive endangered species legislation. Congress responded, and on December 28th, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 was signed into law.
When Congress passed the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1973, it recognized that our rich natural heritage is of “esthetic, ecological, educational, recreational, and scientific value to our Nation and its people.” It further expressed concern that many of our nation’s native plants and animals were in danger of becoming extinct.
The purpose of the ESA is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. It is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Commerce Department’s National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). The FWS has primary responsibility for terrestrial and freshwater organisms, while the responsibilities of NMFS are mainly marine wildlife such as whales and anadromons fish such as salmon.
All species of plants and animals, except pest insects, are eligible for listing as endangered or threatened. For the purposes of ESA, Congress defined species to include subspecies, varieties, and, for vertebrates, distinct population segments.
Impact of the Fifth Amendment Property Rights


It was understood that individual rights must sometimes yield to societal rights and that representative governments must accordingly provide the greatest good for the greatest number. The growth and development of the United States ultimately would bring challenges to existing property lines, and it was necessary for an amendment to provide rules governing the acquisition of property.
As such, the takings clause empowers the government to exercise eminent domain in order to take private property; however, such takings must be for public use and provide adequate compensation to landowners. Throughout most of American history this balance of individual and societal rights hinged on the government’s fidelity to the cornerstone principles of public use and just compensation, and in many respects it still does.
Effects of Culture of the United States History
Cultural Movement
Effect on US History
Tin Pan Alley
Known for era of songwriting when many musical ideas mixed together to form American Popular Music; started in the late 1800’s in New York City
Harlem Renaissance
African American literature movement, the Harlem renaissance exalted the unique culture of African Americans & redefined African American expression.
Beat Generation
Also known as the Beat Movement; a group of American writers who emerged in the 1950’s ; elements of beat culture embraced originality & individuality in the way people thought & acted
Rock & Roll
Form of popular music that evolved from the 1950’s from rhythm & blues; characterized by the sue of electric guitars, a strong rhythm with an accent on the offbeat & youth-oriented lyrics
Chicano Mural Movement
Beginning in the 1960’s, artists began using the walls of city buildings, housing projects, schools & churches to depict Mexican-American culture
Country Western Music
Characteristics & Issues in US History Reflection Among Genre
Genre
Reflection
Art
American art encompasses the history of painting and visual art in the United States. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, artists primarily painted landscapes and portraits in a realistic style based mainly on Western painting and European arts. A parallel development taking shape in rural America was the American craft movement, which began as a reaction to the industrial revolution.
Developments in modern art in Europe came to America from exhibitions in New York City such as the Armory Show in 1913. After World War II, New York replaced Paris as the center of the art world. Since then many American movements have shaped Modern and Postmodern art. Art in the United States today covers a huge range of styles.
The tradition of protest songs in the United States is a long one that dates back to the 18th century and colonial period, the American Revolutionary War and its aftermath. In the 19th century topical subjects for protest in song included abolition, slavery, poverty, and the Civil War amongst other subjects.
Music
The African American Civil Rights Movement had an outpouring of powerful and enduring music: “People Get Ready” by the Impressions; “Say it Loud, I’m Black and I’m Proud” by James Brown, and countless freedom songs from the frontline of protest such as “Keep Your Eyes on the Prize” and “We Shall Overcome” all spoke directly of the struggle for racial justice.

Societal changes over time can be seen by the types of movies and films produced.
“Ballad of the Green Berets”—a 1966 chart-topper that celebrated the “fearless men” of an elite US Army corps working to stem the tide of communism in Vietnam.
Film
The industry, then, provided in explanation of America's wars for the public and acted as an unofficial government agency.
Feature films also created a realistic image of the battlefield for non-combatants, often using actual combat footage for added reality.
During most of America's wars the film industry made a positive contribution to the war effort. This was achieved in a variety of ways: explaining the causes of the war, revealing the evil nature of the enemy, the sacrifice of Americans and the importance of the home front.
Societal changes over time can be seen by the types of literature written. Ex: American literature during the 1920s stressed themes concerning need for self-definition and the changing role of women in society.
Characteristics of Southern literature include a focus on a common Southern history, the significance of family, a sense of community and one’s role within it, a sense of justice, the region's dominant religion (Christianity)and the burdens/rewards religion often brings, issues of racial tension, land and the promise it brings, a sense of social class and place, and the use of the Southern dialect.
Literature
In the 20th century civil liberties, civil rights, women's rights, economic injustice, politics and war were among the popular subjects for protest in song. In the 21st century, the long tradition continues.
Political, Social, & Economic Contributions of Women
Suffragette & member of the WCTU – Women’s Christian Temperance Union
First Lady, appointed by President Truman as a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly & became the first chairperson of the preliminary United Nations Commission on Human Rights
Advocate & Lobbyist for farmworker’s rights
First Hispanic to serve on the Supreme Court; nominated by President Obama
Oprah Winfrey
Sonia Sotomayor
Dolores Huerta
Frances Williard
Jane Addams
Founded Hull House in Chicago to help poor immigrants; part of social reform movements
Eleanor Roosevelt
American culture encompasses the customs and traditions of the United States, including language, religion, food and the arts.
Nearly every region of the world has influenced American culture, as it is a country of immigrants, most notably the English who colonized the country beginning in the early 1600s.
U.S. culture has also been shaped by the cultures of Native Americans, Latin Americans, Africans and Asians.
The dominant response to the new diversity was to try to streamline it to promote assimilation into a view that defined American identity as English-speaking, Protestant, and Anglo-Saxon.
The Americanization movement that emerged during these years focused assimilating the new immigrants into American society.
This movement included proponents of
nativism (opposition to any foreign influences)
and reformers genuinely concerned with improving the impoverished health and working conditions of the new urban immigrants .
Americanization efforts focused on providing classes in English civics primarily to adult, male immigrants. In addition, groups pushed for legislation to limit immigration in general or exclude certain groups from entering the country. These included:
Anti-Catholic laws that had been passed in the early 1880s in response to the increased presence of Irish
• The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
• Laws restricting Japanese, passed between 1905 and 1924,
• Laws retracting Filipinos in the 1920s and 1930s (Daniels, 1990).
Congressional Medal of Honor
Vernon J. Baker
1941, Vernon Baker was assigned to the segregated 270th Regiment of the 92nd Infantry Division, the first black unit to go into combat in WWII. Baker, one of the most decorated black soldiers in the Mediterranean Theater, earned a Purple Heart, Bronze Star and Distinguished Service Cross. In 1996, he was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Alvin York
One of the most decorated Americans during WWI. He received the Medal of Honor for leading an attack on a German machine gun nest, taking 32 machine guns, killing 28 German soldiers and capturing 132 others.
Roy Benavidez
born in Cuero, Texas, on August 5, 1935. He was the son of a sharecropper & orphaned as a child; dropped out of school in the seventh grade; worked as a migrant farm worker and traveled as far as Colorado to harvest sugar beets. Benavidez joined the Army in Houston, Texas, in 1955. Saved 8 soldiers under extreme fire in Vietnam while injured so badly was placed in a body bag; spit in doctors face to let him know he was alive
Mary Edwards Walker
“In God We Trust
The motto IN GOD WE TRUST was placed on United States coins largely because of the increased religious sentiment existing during the Civil War.
Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase received many appeals from devout persons throughout the country, urging that the United States recognize the Deity on United States coins
From Treasury Department records, it appears that the first such appeal came in a letter dated November 13, 1861. It was written to Secretary Chase by Rev. M. R. Watkinson, Minister of the Gospel from Ridleyville, Pennsylvania

The Congress passed the Act of April 22, 1864. IN GOD WE TRUST first appeared on the 1864 two-cent coin.
A law passed by the 84th Congress (P.L. 84-140) and approved by the President on July 30, 1956, the President approved a Joint Resolution of the 84th Congress, declaring IN GOD WE TRUST the national motto of the United States.
“E Pluribus Unum”
Origin and Meaning of the Motto Carried by the American Bald Eagle
E pluribus unum is the motto suggested by the committee Congress appointed on July 4, 1776 to design "a seal for the United States of America." The below sketch of their design accompanied a detailed description of their idea for the new nation's official emblem.
A motto's purpose is to express the theme of a seal's imagery – especially that of the shield.
The center section of this shield has six symbols for "the Countries from which these States have been peopled": the rose (England), thistle (Scotland), harp (Ireland), fleur-de-lis (France), lion (Holland), and an imperial two-headed eagle (Germany).

Linked together around the shield are 13 smaller shields, each with the initials for one of the "thirteen independent States of America."

On August 20, 1776, this first committee submitted their Great Seal design to Congress (including Benjamin Franklin's idea for the reverse side).
Although their design was not approved (and two more committees would be appointed), their motto E Pluribus Unum was selected by Charles Thomson in 1782 when he created the final Great Seal whose centerpiece is the American bald Eagle: in his beak a scroll, inscribed with this Motto. "E pluribus unum".
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