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Peacekeeping in Canada
Transcript of Peacekeeping in Canada
not found in UN Charter Background
Information First peacekeeping mission established in 1948 in the Middle East
First deployment of peacekeeping military force in 1956, in response to the Suez crisis
Initially developed to resolve conflict between states
Peacekeepers were not a part of the conflict; rather, they observed the ceasefire from the ground The Changing Role of Peacekeeping More Missions After the Cold war, there was in increasing demand for UN peacekeeping missions.
35 peacekeeping missions have been initiated since 1990. As of 2004, 14 of these missions are still ongoing.
By mid- 1990s, there were nearly 80,000 UN peacekeepers deployed around the world. Peacekeeping Within States Rather than keeping the peace between the states, peacekeepers were now charged with creating the peace "within" the states, often in situations of civil war.
In these situations there may not be a clear area of conflict, but rather fighting is spread throughout a country's entire territory. More Actors Peacekeeping began to accept organizations other than the United Nations, such as NATO and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and the Organaization for African Unity. Peace "Making" Peacekeeping is increasingly becoming a matter of creating peace where none exists. Changing Role of Peacekeepers Modern peacekeeping involves training and restructuring local police forces; conducting elections: facilitating the return of refugees; monitoring human rights; promoting sustainable democracy and economic development. More Diverse Skills Peacekeepers require a more diverse set of skills
Military personnel work with police experts to develop security in conflict-affected societies.
Some experts may include: judges and prosecutors to develop judiciaries and run courts, media, health, tax and social advisors, child protection experts, facilitators and mediators..etc. Humanitarian Interventions Peacekeeping includes actions that can be classified as humanitarian interventions. Persian Gulf War In August 1990, The Iraqi army invaded Kuwait (a small but oil-rich southern neighbor)., which Saddam Hussein made claims that Kuwait historically "belonged to Iraq.
Canada joined an American-led coalition ( with 35 other countries) to liberate Kuwait.
In the late 1990's and in early 1991 the Canadian forces and other coalition countries moved into the region and began/prepared for the battle.
A Canadian field hospital with 530 personnel operated with the British division and were caring for both the British and Iraqi wounded.
No Canadian forces died during the Persian Gulf War Yugoslavia Yugoslavia was composed of a number of ethnic groups that were hostile towards each other and the tension and violence rose.
Various ethnic groups broke away and formed independents states (e.g. Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia), in the post communist era this led to civil wars in which the goal was to consolidate new ethnic nation-states by killing or driving out those who were different. This was known as: ethnic cleansing.
The three ethno-religious groups; Serbs (Orthodox), Bosnians (Muslim) and Croats (Catholic)
Bosnia's desire for independence led to civil war between it's three ethnic-religious groups.
Fighting continued in Bosnia and in 1992, the UN peacekeeping UNPROFOR was established in Sarajevo.
UN troops became involved and tried to keep peace with no avail.
Croatian forces began to attack Canadian soldiers, who then launched a full-scale assault to reoccupy the ceasefire zone.
The Croatians left the religion, but before they left they committed murder, rape and known acts of destruction.
The Peacekeeping mission in Bosnia became known as the worst battle involving Candians since the end of the Korean War. Somalia, 1992 900 soldiers of the Canadian Airborne Regiment (CAR) were sent to Somalia on a peacekeeping mission called UNISOM.
CAR arrived at a desperate time, when the country had been through a famine, civil-war and had no government.
During the deployment of CAR in Somalia reputations were damaged for Canadians.
shooting of Somali intruders at the Canadian compound.
the beating and death of a teenager in custody of CAR soldiers
When these events became known the Canadian government disbanded CAR and called a commission of inquiry into the whole affair.
There was no ceasefire. Rwanda, 1994 When Rwanda was under rule of the "Tutsis' the country was forced to follow all rules and forced to live in fear.
A civil war broke out and caused devastating losses.
Approximately 1 million Tutsi and moderate Hutu people in Rwanda were killed in attacks. Most were civilians who were unarmed and defenseless.
Days after the indecent in Somalia the first UN mission to Rwanda (UNAMIR) was set-up.
The Rawada genocide is widely recognized as an extreme failure of the international community to protect people who were victims.
Romeo Dallaire, was the former head of the UN peacekeeping force of Rwanda and has written a book describing the atrocities that he witnessed.
General Dallaire sent an urgent warning to UN headquarter explaining that an informant told him that the Hutu were planning to register all Tutsi in order to exterminate them. He pleaded for 2000 more peacekeepers to be added to his equipped force of 3000 men.
He believed that the UN could have stopped the slaughter of thousands of rwandans if the UN would have responded to his pleas. Koscovo, 1995 In January 1999, Serb forces massacred Kosover citizens in the Kosovo village village of Racak.
In order to stop Serbian persecution, NATO authorized and undertook an intensive bombing campaign against a member of the United Nations, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
All members of NATO, including Canada, participated in the bombing campaign.
NATO planned to launch a land offensive. A multinational force made up of NATO troops (including Canadians) entered Kosovo to keep peace. Future of NATO After the Iron Curtain collapsed and the Cold War came to an end, there was no longer a value for a collective defense alliance.
Even after tragic events like 911, critics would claim that Americans, no longer need NATO due to their unrivaled military power. NATO Actions Since Cold War Heavily involved in the Balkans
1999, NATO carried out bombing campaign against Serbia to prevent ethnic cleansing against ethnic Albanians
Completed mission brought order to new democracy in Macedonia
NATO troops now keeping peace in Kosovo and Bosnia and involved as part of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan NATO Membership April 1999, NATO expanded its membership to admit Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary.
Accepted seven new members
Some critics believed accepting more members into NATO would dilute its influence
On the other hand, some believed accepting small countries could be useful in providing niche capabilities
New NATO members pledged to contribute 200,000 new troops to the Alliance May 2002, at a summit meeting in Rome, President Bush, President Putin, and NATO heads of state and government met to establish "NATO-Russia Council"
NATO and Russia working together on projects focusing on areas such as combating terrorism, peacekeeping, civil emergency planning and nuclear non-proliferation NATO-Russia Council November 2002, NATO members met at a summit in Prague to discuss reforms to NATO
NATO leaders agreed to "Prague Capabilities Commitment" (an agreement between the European Allies to "spend smarter", use their resources, and pursue specialization)
Agreed to to the NATO Response Force (NATO's forces would be organized into highly-ready land, air and sea forces capable of carrying out missions anywhere in the world
consisted of ~25,000 troops
NATO leaders invited seven new democracies
Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia to join alliances Prague 2002