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Transcript of GMF O.O
* What are genetically modified foods?
* What techniques are use in GMF?
* What is the Procedure to make GMF?
* How is this technology utilized?
*What problems are solved or created by the use of this technology?
*What is the future for this technology?
*Who benefits from this technology?
*What is the cost?
Genetically modified foods (GMFs) have had their genes altered through the use of gene technology. These foods are altered in laboratories in which the genes are modified through a process called transgenesis. Once the changes to the genes have been made, there are trial plantings of the crops. The GMFs are then destroyed when a change has been made, or if they are deemed unsafe for consumption. When teh GMF has finally reached the stage in which it is ready and safe for consumption, it is then introduced to the food market after passing government regulations.
This technology was initially utilized to improve the crop's protection against viruses, insects, and herbicides. It is also utilized to provide the product at a lower price for the consumer with a benefit. Such a benefit would be nutritional benefits such as added vitamins.
* What is it's significance in reserach?
Genetically Modified Foods, also known as GMOs, is when a DNA trait from one organism is extracted and put into a completely different organism in order to create a desired and specific outcome.
There are two ways to go about enhancing these said crops.
-Breeding: Conventional breeding methods can be very time consuming. Also, it’s often not accurate.
-Genetic engineering: Can create plants with a desired trait very rapidly. Also, it has increasingly great accuracy. Not only can genes be transferred from one plant to another, but genes from non-plant organisms can also be used.
For example, the Artic Flounder can withstand very harsh and freezing temperatures. So, scientists decided to extract the DNA trait that allows it to stay warm in cold temperatures, and insert that DNA trait into tomatoes. Farmers have a problem with tomatoes freezing overnight due to low temperatures. This way, once they’ve grown with the trait from the Artic flounder, they will be able to withstand freezing temperatures at night. As a result, Farmers increase their profit by selling these genetically modified tomatoes.
*Although it can be said that the science and technology behind genetic modification is still in its early genetically modified foodstages, the possibilities seem hopeful for scientists. As new ways are discovered on how to create better genetic modified foods, time can only tell if such a future is looming nearby. With new discoveries of genetic modification in some of the most important food staples around the globe come a host of new benefits.
*In the future, the development of genetically modified food is seen not only to help make them taste better or stay longer, it can also be used to help develop foods that can greatly improve health. The future is bright for developing genetically modified food products that contain more essential nutrients. Genetically modified food can also be developed to help fight disease. Not long into the future, genetically modified food can help in the fight for cancer
The bacterium Agrobacterium can infect plants, which makes it a suitable carrier for delivering DNA. The bacterium is prepared in a special solution to make its cell walls more porous. The selected gene is inserted into a bacterium extra chromosomal DNA molecule (called a plasmid) and dropped into the solution. The solution is heated, which allows the plasmid to enter the bacterium and express the new gene.
The genetically altered bacterium (or recombinant) is allowed to recover (is ‘rested’) and grow and, depending on the plasmid, make extra copies of the new gene. The bacterium is then allowed to infect the target plant cells so it can deliver the plasmid and the new gene into the cells to be transformed.
The selected DNA is attached to microscopic particles of gold or the metal tungsten. Like firing a gun, these DNA-laden particles are shot into the target cells using a burst of gas under pressure.
Calcium phosphate precipitation
The selected DNA is exposed to calcium phosphate. This mixture creates tiny granules. Target cells respond to these granules by surrounding and ingesting them (endoocytosis), allowing the granules to release the DNA and deliver it to the host nuclei and chromosome(s).
The prepared target cells are immersed in a special solution with the selected DNA. A short but intense electric shock is then passed through the solution. The result is small pores/tears in the cell walls, which allow the new genetic material access to the nuclei. Then, the cells are placed into another solution and encouraged to repair their breached walls, locking the ‘donor’ DNA inside the cell. The selected DNA is incorporated into the host chromosomes to provide the host with a new gene.
The gene responsible for the organism’s undesirable trait is identified. One method of ‘silencing’ that particular gene is to attach a second copy of the gene the wrong way around. This technique is used to prevent plants like peanuts and wheat from producing the proteins (allergens) commonly responsible for human allergies. Another approach is to insert foreign DNA within a gene to ‘inactivate’ it.
Bacteria contain restriction enzymes that form part of the bacterium’s ‘immune system’ against invasion by another organism or bacteriophage (a bacterial virus). The restriction enzymes attack the foreign DNA by cutting it into precise sections and preventing it from being inserted into the bacterium’s chromosome.
Different bacteria produce different restriction enzymes that cut any DNA at different places, making the DNA ‘sticky’ in some cases, which means they can be ‘pasted’ directly onto the target organism’s prepared DNA.
Using these restriction enzymes from bacteria, molecular biologists can ‘genetically engineer’ the DNA for ‘insertion’ into target (host) cells to modify gene traits. The molecular biologist then uses another enzyme (DNA ligase) to fuse the new gene sequences into the chromosome.
Alternatively, instead of ‘pasting’, the new gene may be inserted into a bacterium’s extra chromosomal DNA molecule (a plasmid), which carries invasion genes that allow it to invade the target cell and deliver the gene. An example of this is the invasion of plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Lipofection (or liposome transfection)
Small bubbles of fat called liposomes are used as the carriers of selected DNA. The target cells and the liposomes are placed into a special solution. The liposomes merge with phospholipids in the cell membrane, allowing the DNA entry into the cells for inclusion in the chromosome.
The selected DNA is injected into a fertilised ovum (female egg cell) through an extremely slender device called a glass capillary tube. The genetically modified egg is then transplanted into the prepared uterus of a receptive female and allowed to grow to term. This method ensures that almost every cell in the developing organism’s body contains the new DNA but not all the offspring will carry the transgene (is deemed a ‘transgenic’ animal).
A virus that will invade the target cells but not cause damage or death is chosen. The selected DNA is added to the genetic makeup of the virus and then the virus is allowed to infect the target. As the virus invades cells and replicates, the selected DNA is added to the target cells.
Crop losses from insect pests can be staggering, resulting in devastating financial loss for farmers and starvation in developing countries. Farmers typically use many tons of chemical pesticides annually. Consumers do not wish to eat food that has been treated with pesticides because of potential health hazards, and run-off of agricultural wastes from excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers can poison the water supply and cause harm to the environment. Growing GM foods such as B.t. corn can help eliminate the application of chemical pesticides and reduce the cost of bringing a crop to market.
Medicines and vaccines often are costly to produce and sometimes require special storage conditions not readily available in third world countries. Researchers are working to develop edible vaccines in tomatoes and potatoes. These vaccines will be much easier to ship, store and administer than traditional injectable vaccines.
Herbicide toleranc e
For some crops, it is not cost-effective to remove weeds by physical means such as tilling, so farmers will often spray large quantities of different herbicides (weed-killer) to destroy weeds, a time-consuming and expensive process, that requires care so that the herbicide doesn't harm the crop plant or the environment. Crop plants genetically-engineered to be resistant to one very powerful herbicide could help prevent environmental damage by reducing the amount of herbicides needed. For example, Monsanto has created a strain of soybeans genetically modified to be not affected by their herbicide product Roundup. A farmer grows these soybeans which then only require one application of weed-killer instead of multiple applications, reducing production cost and limiting the dangers of agricultural waste run-off
There are many viruses, fungi and bacteria that cause plant diseases. Plant biologists are working to create plants with genetically-engineered resistance to these diseases
-Those who benefit the most from Genetically Modified Foods are typically Farmers. Crop losses, due to pests, can be extremely staggering and result in financial loss for Farmers and starvation in developing countries. In order to not lose so much of their crops, they tend to use tons of chemical pesticides per year. Because of the use of so many pesticides, consumers prefer to not purchase these chemical covered foods due to possible health hazards. By producing GMO foods, Farmers eliminate the use of chemical pesticides, reduce the cost of bringing a crop to market, and grow significantly more crops.
-Genetically Modified Foods can also benefit the consumers. There are many viruses, fungi, and bacteria that cause plant diseases. Plant biologists are working to create plants, GMOs, with genetically-engineered resistance to such plant diseases. Also, nutrition must be taken into account when discussing with the consumers and how they benefit from GMOs. Malnutrition is common in third world countries where impoverished peoples rely on a single crop such as rice for the majority of their diet. This is why scientists create food with additional vitamins and minerals. These genetically advanced foods can prevent nutrient deficiencies. Lastly, the consumers can benefit from the medicinal benefits, such as edible vaccines. These hold great potential in third world countries where transport costs, poor refrigeration and needle use has complicates the vaccine administration. Also, without the need of needles and syringes, infection is less likely to spread.
GMF are a controversial topic.
*the crops are believed to be more flexible with regards to growing practices. Less labour may be needed to produce the crop, which could translate into savings for the farmers. However, farms may have to be restructured over the long-term, which will allow farms to accommodate these changes to growing practices. Such adjustments could be expensive, which might detract from the short-term cost benefits that occur from increased productivity and reduced labour.
Fighting Cholera With GM Foods
Reducing Poverty Through GM Food Production
Making Crops More Resilient
At the same time, growing GM foods means that workers on a farm must learn new skills for managing the crops as well as becoming educated and proficient in newer growing practices.
*In comparison with conventional crop seeds, GM seeds are more expensive. The value of GM technology is considered 'worthy' of such an increase according to the manufacturers because the seeds have beneficial traits such as resistance against weeds, pests, disease or other factors.
*The report cites that farm subsidies and lower crop prices as well as reduced exports because of a poor reputation for GM foods in common export countries have all had an overall loss effect in the billions of dollars. This particular report did find GM crops to have a lower market value, compared to non-GM products in countries where GM products were not favoured