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Transcript of Latin Grammar
Verbs with a person ending
Other verb forms
Without Subjunctive Nouns Cases/Declension Learn the noun table. Remember:
ablative ("by"/"with"/"from") What do they tell you? Gender The ending tell you if it is masculine, feminine, neuter. Not that important at GCSE. Number The ending will also tell you if the noun is singular or plural. Again, use the table to help. Prepositions These are words such as 'circum -around' , 'sub - under, beneath', and 'trans - across' which come before the noun.
I am traveling across the road.
They will match the noun it goes with. in+ ablative - in, on
in+ accusative - into, onto Remember! Pronouns These words go directly in front of the noun and usually describe something about it, such as whose it is Some examples are:
ego, mei - I, me
meus, mea, meum - my
nos, nostrum - our
is, ea, id - this, that, he, she, it, them Remember! tu, tui .......... you (singular)
vos, vestrum .......... you (plural)
tuus, tua, tuum .......... your, yours (singular)
vester, vestra, vestrum .......... your, yours (plural) The name of something Verbs Subordinate Clauses What are they? Part of a sentence without which the sentence would make sense but cannot stand alone itself. So have subjunctives, others don't. Purpose Clause Has the either the word 'ut' in it which is translated as 'in order to' or the word 'ne' in it which is negative and translated as 'in order not to'.
femina totum diem laborat ut liberi cibum haberent.
The woman was working hard all day so that her children could have food
noctem expectavimus ne ab hostibus videremur.
We waited for night in order not to be seen by the enemy. UT CLAUSE How to recognise the subjunctive I .......................................... -m
You (singular) ................... -s
S/he ............................... -t
We ..................................... -mus
You (plural) ..................... -tis
They ................................. -nt action/doing words Verbs with a Person Ending Matches noun it goes with Participle Imperative Prohibition Infinitive Comparative Adverb Superlative Adverb TENSE future present perfect pluperfect imperfect number case person active/passive? deponents look passive but are active A participle is an adjective formed from a verb. There are four that you need to know:
- Present Participle
- Perfect Passive Participle - come from verbs with a noun ending and are translated as 'having been'
- Perfect Active Participle - come from deponent verbs only and are translated as 'having'
-Future active participle - looks like PAP with '-ur-' between stem and ending The infinitive is the basic meaning of a verb.
For example 'Portare' meaning 'to carry'
It can be recognised by the ending:
-ire Compares two people or things. It is formed with an -ius (like the neuter singular form of the comparative adjective)
laetius more happy
The comparative is often followed by quam (than) just like the comparative adjective. '-issime' is added to the basic stem.
laetissime very happily Adjectives Describes the noun. It therefore matches the noun in gender, case, number. It always comes after the noun EXCEPT if it is to do with its size, when it comes before. Compares two people or things. The basic stem is the syllable -ior.
The comparative is often followed by quam (than).
dominus stultior est quam servus
the master is more stupid than the slave.
However this is not always the case.
dinunus stultior est survo
The master is more stupid than the slave. shows something is 'very ......'/'...est'
'issim' is added to the basic stem.
puella laerissima erat.
The girl was very happy. Adverbs Describe the verb.
Some are formed from the adverb by removing '-us' and adding '-e' to the stem.
There are others which are not formed from an adjective which tell you when, why or how something happened
mox (soon) Superlative Adjective Comparative adjective Direct order word, usually used in direct speech. Endings are:
-re Similarly to Infinitives, these are an order. However, they say 'Do not...'. They can be recognied by the presence of 'noli' or 'nolite' With Subjunctive Result Clause As well as having 'ut' (and 'non' in negative result clause) in it also has a word so 'so' such as:
The show that one thing has happened as a result of something
cibus talis erat ut eum edere no possem
The food was so bad that I could not eat it. UT CLAUSE Indirect Command This is when it is told that someone commanded someone to do something. Before the 'ut' comes an ordering word such as:
impero (I order)
oro (I beg)
rogo (I ask)
The 'ut' is then (as usual) followed a subjunctive.
senator civibus imperavit ut audirent
The senator ordered the citizens to listen.
(the verb iubeo (I order) uses the infinitive for an indirect command and therefore has not 'ut') UT CLAUSE 'Cum' meaning when 'Cum' + subjunctive means when.
This can be Imperfect subjunctive (when ......... had .......ed) or
Pluperfect Subjunctive (when ......... was ........ing)
When I was carrying
when we had carried Indirect Question Similarly to an indirect command, indirect questions report what was being asked. They included question words:
quo modo? (How?)
quo? (To where?)
The verb in the indirect question comes from imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive.
Servum rogavi cur taceret.
I asked the slave why he was silent. cur? (Why?)
quid? (What?) Verb of fearing These include a 'ne' instead of an 'ut'. To make a negative verb of fear a 'non' is added. They can be recognised by the presence of a fearing word:
timeo (I fear)
vereor (I fear, am afraid)
diu timebus ne urbs nostra caperetur.
We feared for a long time that our city would be captured.
timebam ne custos clamores non audiret.
I feared that the guard might not hear the shouts. NE CLAUSE Indirect Statement Reports speech. The subject of the statement is in the accusative and the verb becomes infinitive. (hence AKA accusative infinitive. The verbs used will be ones like:
dico (I say)
narro (I tell)
scio (I know)
sentio (I feel) etc
nuntius dixit navem appropinquare.
The messenger said the ship to be approaching
(i.e.) The messenger said the ship was approaching Relative Clause It uses:
qui, quae, quod (who, which)
It relates back to the noun which usually comes just before it. It agree with this noun in number and gender BUT NOT ALWAYS CASE.
servus, quem heri vidi, iterum adest
The salve, whom I saw yesterday, is here again.
ad + Gerundive This is an adjective made from a verb and is translated as 'x MUST be done'. It can be recognised by the presence of 'nd'.
urbs delenda est.
The city must be destroyed.
An 'ad' can be added to express purpose.
misit nutios ad regem necandum
He sent messengers to kill the king.
With intransitive verbs, the gerundive is nuetur and acts more like a noun.
festinandum est nobis
We must hurry. Ablative Absolute Include noun and participle (usually PPP) in ablative. It is ABSOLUTELY separate form the rest of the sentence. It is translated as 'With............., ..........................' It commonly comes at the start and is often separated by a comma.
his verbis auditis, puellae laetissimae.
With these words having been heard, the girls were very happy.