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Transcript of Strategies
The idea for the 1963 March in Washington was envisioned by A. Philip Randolph, a long-time civil rights activist dedicated to improving the economic condition of black Americans. Events
Student activism provided the spark that gave new life to the Civil Rights Movement. On February 1, 1960, four students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College (now University) demanded service at a Woolworth lunch counter in Greensboro and continued to sit after their demands were refused.In two weeks, students in eleven cities held sit-ins, primarily at Woolworth's and S.H. Kress stores. Soon stores put signs in the window, saying "NO TRESPASSING," "We Reserve the Right to Service the Public As We See Fit," and "CLOSED - In the Interest of Public Safety." People During the period 1955–1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations between activists and government authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to crisis situations which highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans. Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955–1956) in Alabama; "sit-ins" such as the influential Greensboro sit-in (1960) in North Carolina; marches, such as the Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities. People Civil rights demonstrators challenged the counter's "whites only" policy beginning in October 1960. Managers picked a white woman named Exie Barber to serve the counter's first black customers in the mid-1960s, when the ban was lifted. Exie Barber died in 1998, but John Barber remembers his mother telling the story. " Organization In 1942, CORE began protests against segregation in public accommodations by organizing sit-ins. It was also in 1942 that CORE expanded nationally. James Farmer traveled the country with Bayard Rustin, a field secretary with FOR, and recruited activists at FOR meetings. Events
The first sit-in on February 1, 1960 in Greensboro, North Carolina, is said to have been the catalyst for an entire movement, including the birth of SNCC. Roommates Joseph McNeil and Izell Blair, and Franklin McCain and David Richmond, students at predominately black North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, were the participants. They planned the night before, purchased some small things at the Woolworth's store in Greensboro, and then sat down at the lunch counter reserved for whites. SIT-Ins Freedom Rides
The concept originated in the 1940's with CORE, a non-violent group out of Chicago trying to end racial discrimination. In 1947, responding to a Supreme Court decision outlawing discrimination in interstate travel, CORE sponsored a Freedom Ride that they called a "Journey of Reconciliation." They rode buses throughout much of the upper south and established that most people would not create incident for those choosing to sit where they pleased. People Organizations Events
On Mother's Day, May 14, the Freedom Riders split up into two groups to travel through Alabama. The first group was met by a mob of about 200 angry people in Anniston. The mob stoned the bus and slashed the tires. On Mother's Day, May 14, the Freedom Riders split up into two groups to travel through Alabama. The first group was met by a mob of about 200 angry people in Anniston. The mob stoned the bus and slashed the tires. In 1961, the Freedom Riders set out for the Deep South to defy Jim Crow laws and call for change. They were met by hatred and violence -- and local police often refused to intervene. But the Riders' efforts transformed the civil rights movement. In the 1950s the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People was involved in the struggle to end segregation on buses and trains. In 1952 segregation on inter-state railways was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. This was followed in 1954 by a similar judgment concerning inter-state buses. In February 1965 a group of University of Sydney students organised a bus tour of western and coastal New South Wales towns. Their purpose was threefold. The students planned to draw public attention to the poor state of Aboriginal health, education and housing.
Freedom Summer, (also known as the Mississippi Summer Project) was a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters. The project also set up dozens of Freedom Schools and Freedom Houses in small towns throughout Mississippi to aid the local black population. The project, which was opposed by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and barely welcomed by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference was organized by the only two groups working on Civil Rights in Mississippi. People Organizations
Hundreds of activists and thousands of mostly white college students from around the country came to the Magnolia State to help black citizens to register to vote and to aid in solving other social problems that hampered black advancement. The organizers of this project hoped that they could bring national and international attention to the racist and often violent means white Mississippians used to deny blacks the vote. They hoped that the spilling of white blood would compel the federal government to act. Freddom Summer marked the climax of intensive voter-registration activities in the South that had started in 1961. Organizers chose to focus their efforts on Mississippi because of the state's particularly dismal voting-rights record: in 1962 only 6.7 percent of African Americans in the state were registered to vote, the lowest percentage in the country. The Freedom Summer campaign was organized by a coalition called the Mississippi Council of Federated Organizations, which was led by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), and included the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Freedom Summer was a 1964 voter registration project in Mississippi, part of a larger effort by civil rights groups such as the Congress on Racial Equality (core) and the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (sncc) to expand black voting in the South. The Mississippi project was run by the local Council of Federated Organizations (cofo), an association of civil rights groups in which sncc was the most active member. About a hundred white college students had helped cofo register voters in November 1963, and several hundred more students were invited in 1964 for Freedom Summer, a much-expanded voter registration project.