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Sarah Chrzanowski

on 18 September 2015

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Transcript of Bacteria

Prentice Hall : From Bacteria to Plants
You may not know it, but today, millions of bacteria coat your skin. As you read this, they swarm inside your nose, throat, and mouth. There are more of these organisms living in your mouth than there are people who are living on Earth. Bacteria are everywhere- in soil, rocks, Arctic ice, volcanoes, and in all living things!
Cell Structures
The cell wall is the outermost structure of a bacteria cell. If you think of a baseball, the leather exterior is like a cell wall.
Reproduction in Bacteria
Bacteria reproduces both asexually and sexually.
Two Kingdoms of Bacteria
The Bacteria Cell
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (lay vuhn hook) discovered bacteria when he used his microscope to look at scrapings from his teeth.
Cell Shapes
Asexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction= a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.
Sexual Reproduction
Bacteria are prokaryotes.

What does prokaryote mean?
Prokaryote= The genetic material in their cells is not contained in a nucleus.
Bacteria = single celled
The genetic material (DNA) just floats around in the cell.
The shape of the bacteria helps identify what type of bacteria it is.
Bacteria is either one of three shapes:
Strep throat bacteria= spherical
Inside the cell wall is the cell membrane. It is like the guard dog that controls what materials go into and out of the cell.
1. Cell wall
2. cell membrane
3. cytoplasm
(site o plaz um)
Inside the cell membrane is the cytoplasm. It contains gel- like material.
4. ribosomes
Inside the cytoplasm
are ribosomes. They are
chemical factories where
proteins are made.
4. genetic material
Inside the cytoplasm is the
cell's genetic material, which looks
like tangled string. It contains
instructions for all the cell's
helps the cell to move
Scientists group or classify organisms based on their characteristics/cell structure. The groups they break them into are called Kingdoms.
The two kingdoms are:
1. archaebacteria
2. eubacteria
-this type of bacteria closely resemble (looks like) Earth's first life forms.
- can live in
extreme environments
(hot, salty, muddy, acidic, in sewage)
- These bacteria make things
- they do
live in extreme environments, but they do live everywhere else, like your skin or in your nose!
- they are either useful or harm
- They help maintain some of Earth's physical conditions and help other organisms to survive.
Binary Fission
= a process in which one cell divides to form two identical cells.
Bacteria can reproduce by binary fission.
1. The cell duplicates its genetic material.
2. The cell divides into 2 separate cells
3. Each new cell gets its own complete
copy of the parent cell's genetic material and some of the parent cell's ribosomes and cytoplasm.
Some bacteria reproduce sexually.
Sexual reproduction
= two parents who combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents.
The sexual reproduction is called
1. One bacterium transfers some of its genetic material into another bacterial cell through a thin, threadlike bridge that joins the two cells.
2. After the transfer, the cells separate.
Survival Needs
1. Must obtain food
2. Respiration
3. Endospore Formation
What do bacteria need to survive?
Obtaining Food

(make their own food)
in two different ways:
1. capture and use the sun's energy
2. use energy from chemical substances in their environment to make their food.
Bacteria can be autotroph or heterotroph.
consume autotrophs or other heterotrophs
examples of food: milk, meat, decaying leaves, etc.
= the process of breaking down food to release its energy.
Most bacteria need oxygen to break down their food, however, some do not.
Endospore Formation
Sometimes the conditions in the environment make it difficult for bacteria to grow. For example, food sources disappear or wastes can poison the bacteria. Some bacteria can survive in these harsh conditions by forming endospores.
- a small, rounded, thick-walled, resting cell that forms inside a bacterial cell. It contains the cell's genetic material and some of its cytoplasm. It can resist freezing, heating, and drying so it can survive for many years. It is light, so a breeze can lift it and carry it to a new place that is a more suitable environment. It opens up and begins to grow and multiply.
Bacteria and The Living World
These are ways people depend on bacteria to help.
1. Fuel
2. Food production
3. Environmental Recycling
4. Environmental Cleanup
5. Health and Medicine
The archeabacteria that live in oxygen-free environments, such as thick mud at the bottom of lakes and swamps,
produce a gas called methane
during respiration.
Methane is a gas we use to light our gas stoves or grills and heat our houses.
Food Production
Bacteria helps produce some food, but it also makes other food spoil.
The activities of helpful bacteria produce cheese, yogurt, apple cider, pickles, and more. Bacteria that grow in a jar of cucumbers will turn them into pickles. Bacteria that grow in milk will turn it into sour cream, yogurt, and cheese.
Some bacteria cause food to spoil when they break down the food's chemicals, and usually make it smell or taste bad. People have developed methods to prevent food from spoiling, such as refrigerating, drying, heating, etc.
Environmental Recycling
Decomposers- organisms that break down organic matter.
Decomposing bacteria ("nature's recyclers") break down materials for other living things to reuse. For example, the decomposing bacteria will break down dead leaves and turn it into soil and nutrients for plants.
Some eubacteria live on the roots of some plants, such as peanuts, peas, and soybeans. There, they convert nitrogen gas from the air into nitrogen compounds the plant uses to grow.
Environmental Cleanup
Some bacteria can convert dangerous chemicals in oil into harmless substances.
Scientists have used these bacteria to help clean up oil spills in the ocean and gasoline leaks under gas stations.
Health and Medicine
Many bacteria in your body keep you healthy. In your intestines, bacteria helps you digest your food. Some bacteria make vitamins that you need. Others prevent harmful bacteria from making you sick.
There is such thing as a medicine producing bacteria! By manipulating the genetic material of bacteria, scientists created bacteria that could make human insulin to help people with diabetes.
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