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Rwandan Genocide

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Rana Sarhan

on 11 September 2013

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Transcript of Rwandan Genocide

Rwandan Genocide
The Rwandan genocide is historically one of the shortest yet also bloodiest genocides of all time.
The genocide lasted only 100 days, but in that short time span an estimated 800.000 -1.000.000 people were killed.

Approximately 20% of the country's population.
In the small central African country of Rwanda, there was a deep running history of tension between the two major ethnic groups; the Hutus and the Tutsis. When the Belgian colonists settled in Rwanda in 1916, they created identity cards that specified the two ethnicity groups.
The Belgians originally considered the Tutsis superior to the Hutus.
The Belgians found it easier to enforce Tutsi superiority because they were the majority population.
When Belgium granted Rwanda their independence in 1962, the Hutus took over.
In the after math of the genocide, the Rwandan government refused to call it a
genocide
; instead insisting that it was merely a
civil war.
*1959 marked the end of the Kings of Rwanda and resulted in 'The Hutu Revolution' killing 20,000 Tutsis
*1963-1967 about 100,000 Tutsis killed with machetes
Hutus targeted the Tutsis long before 1994
President Habyarimana's plane is shot down after he signed a peace treaty with the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF).
Still unsure who did it, but Hutus automatically blamed the Tutsis.
This was the perfect excuse the Hutus needed to begin the massacre.
April 6, 1994
The Hutus start killing the Tutsis.
During the genocide:
-Women were systematically
raped
-Children were
murdered
-Tutsis were
tortured
*Bad economy/high unemployment blamed on Tutsis
*Segregation of neighborhoods
*Tutsi kids have to carry ID cards to school
*Kids (a.k.a. the Hutu children. Tustis had been kicked out of school before the massacre) are taught in school that the Tutsis are dangerous
Hutus created "The Ten Commandments"
-Was a list of rules against Tutsis
1). A Hutu is a traitor if he:
a). marries a Tutsi woman
b). befriends a Tutsi woman
c). hires a Tutsi woman as a secretary or concubine
8). Every Hutu should stop having mercy on the Tutsi
6. The majority of the education sector, i.e. school pupils, students, teachers, must be Hutu.
10. The Social Revolution of 1959, the Referendum of 1961 and Hutu ideology must be taught at every level to every Hutu. Every Hutu must spread this ideology widely. Every Hutu who persecutes his Hutu brother because he has read, spread and taught this ideology is a traitor.
*Used fear to turn the Hutus against the Tutsis
*Encouraged people to kill Tutsis
*No Tutsis should be spared (including children)
Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines
Radio show Mille Collines (RTLM) est. 1993
Tutsis were called cockroaches and snakes
The Tutsis were favored originally by the Belgians because they looked more "European", with a lighter skin tone and sharper nose.
-
800,000
to
1 million
Tutsis were killed in
100 days
approximately on a scale
8000
per day
333
per hour
7
per minute

-
More than 6
men, women and children were
murdered every minute
of every hour of every day

-Between
250,000
and
500,000
women were
raped


-
More than 67%
of women who were raped were infected with
HIV
or
AIDS
-
75,000
survivors were
orphaned
The UN's Involvement
The leader of the UN mission in Rwanda, Romeo Dallaire, wrote later: "We watched as the devil took control of paradise and fed on the blood of the people we were supposed to protect."
1-6 were Tutsi
7-12 were Hutu
Two years before the outbreak of the genocide, the U.N. deployed 2,500 troops in Rwanda. They observed the tension and informed the international community of the massacre that would surely occur.
The Rwanda Genocide ended only when the RPF took over the country.
The RPF were a trained military group consisting of Tutsis who had been exiled in earlier years, many of whom lived in Uganda.
The RPF were able to enter Rwanda and slowly take over the country. In mid July 1994, when the RPF had full control, did the genocide stop.
Rwandan Refugees Camp in Zaire UN referred to as "a Revision of Hell"
-For example Genocides like the Holocaust lasted for many years and were meticulously planned by an organized group with a charismatic leader.
-Rwandan Genocide had no "leader"
-Was locals killing out of vengeance
-Not a systematic killing

- Rwanda was a very poor country so most of the killings were done by the closest tools they could find because bullets were expensive.
so they used : -Machete
-Hippopotamus Hide Whip
-Knives
-Spears
-Before the genocide HIV and AIDS were a problem
-Systematic raping of women caused the number of people with AIDS to increase exponentially
-passing it on to their children
-People have called AIDS in Rwanda the genocide that keeps on killing

*
Cockroaches became military slang as offensive and dehumanizing as the word 'nigger' is in America
*
Tutsi were called cockroaches because "they came out at night and were hard to kill"
*
Tutsis were also referred to as trees because of their historical height difference
*
Hutus called out "Cut the tall trees. Clean your neighborhood. Do your duty."
Stereotypical


*Hutu and Tutsi status was passed down from the father and when the killings began children of mixed marriages were of their father status so those with a Hutu father and a Tutsi mother lived, while those with a Tutsi father and a Hutu mother were killed.
* It is said that under Belgian control things became so separated that Belgians actually sent scientists to Rwanda to measure the nose lengths of Hutus and Tutsis

*The result of their studies: Tutsi noses are on average.... 2.5 milimeters longer than a Hutus
-At first the United States refused to acknowledge the killings that occurred as a genocide.
- France was the only country from the UN to respond by sending in troops called 'Operation Turquoise'
-Unfortunately France's motivation was not to save lives, but instead to build up their alliance with the Hutu
-France helped Hutu war criminals escape so they wouldn't have to answer for their crimes
The legacy of the genocide lives in the families that were torn apart.
-
1 in 4
households in Rwanda are now headed by children, the eldest sibling
-about
20,000
children were conceived of rape during the genocide
-Women and children who were raped or conceived in rape (and are now HIV positive because of it) have been rejected by their families
-the population or Rwanda is now
70% female
"Some people did not even find someone
to kill because there were more
killers than victims"
Sadi Bugingo
(47yrs old)-
*Accused of taking part of the

killing

of

2,000 people
(mostly Tutsi)
*Plead "
not guilty
"
*Trial in

Norway
*If found guilty he has a max. sentence of

21 years

in prison
*Trial started
Sep. 25, 2012
*Expected to last months with a verdict in

2013
Trails are still going on today.
Current Trial:
Now, because of marriage between the two, and the progression of time, it is almost impossible to differentiate between them.
Anyone helped Rwanda?

A lot of denying that happened and those that could have helped remained "idle" !
for example:
America didn't use military forces to stop the massive killings.
The U.N. was aware and did nothing.
The French government supported Hutu politics.
International response ?
The international community largely remained on the sidelines during the Rwandan genocide.
The event that sparked the Genocide
Rwanda consisted of 3 main races:
*
Hutu

they were farmers .

(over 80% of the population)
*
Tutsi

they were cattle farmers.

(about 10% of the population)
*
Twa

they were hunters.

(NOT involved in the genocide)
Interahamwe

Since the genocide, they have been forced out of Rwanda, and are currently a terrorist group hiding in the Congo and Ugandan forest

Rwandan Genocide= Interahamwe vs. RPF
"Those who fight together"
"Interahamwe" is a Hutu paramilitary organization.
Up to, during, and after the genocide, this is the militia that backed the Hutu-led government and killed thousands of Rwandans.
Fr
an
ce
's Role in the genocide :
"Operation Turquoise"

French lead military organization mandated by the UN in 1994.
On June 18th, the French government made an announcement stating the organization of a 'safe zone.
'They said they would be contributing to the security and protection of displaced persons, refugees and civilians in danger in Rwanda.
Evacuated persons into danger areas resulting in more deaths.
Controversial because people did not know if it was truly to help the people of Rwanda or was a failed attempt to prop up the genocidal Hutu regime.
Operation expired on August 21st.

What it means to be HUMAN ?
The extermination of a group of people goes directly against the rights we all have as humans. The Tutsi people were treated as less than human by the Hutu killers. The Hutus also lost some of what it means to be human as they killed without the morality or emotion that is part of our basic instincts.


Social Injustice
Genocide is a social injustice for obvious reasons. It stems from racism and inequality. The Hutu’s called the Tutsi people 'cockroaches', burned their homes, and destroyed families for no reason. It is a prime example of prejudice and discrimination leading to violence.
Linking the Rwandan Genocide
How it All began?
Colonization: Germany
Colonization: Belgium
POPULATION
Who Are the Hutu and Tutsi?
PROPAGANDA
THE LEGACY
The Rwanda Genocide Ends
Genocide or Civil War ?
Clearly, the massacres in Rwanda constituted
GENOCIDE
, so why didn't the world step in to stop it?
There has been a lot of research on this exact question. Some people have said that since Hutu moderates were killed in the early stages then some countries believed the conflict to be more of a civil war rather than a genocide.
Other research has shown that the world powers realized it was a genocide but that they didn't want to pay for the needed supplies and personnel to stop it.
Following WWII and the Holocaust, the United Nations adopted a resolution on December , 1948, which stated that "The Contracting Parties confirm that genocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent and to punish."
Every soul has a story
How the courts dealt with the genocide?
(ICTR)
JUSTICE
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda :
is an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan Genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda.
Location
Arusha , Tanzania
Composition
The tribunal consists of
16
judges in four "chambers" three to hear trials, and one to hear appeals.
+
In addition, there are
9
ad litem judges,
(assigned to Chambers II and III)
=
making
25
in all.

*
There is an additional pool of 9 further ad litem judges who may be called on in the case of a judge being absent.
Jurisduction
The tribunal has jurisdiction over genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, which are defined as violations of Common Article Three and Additional Protocol II of the Geneva Conventions (dealing with war crimes committed during internal conflicts).
Trial against "Hate Media"
The trial against "hate media" began on October 2000. It is charged with the prosecution of the media which encouraged the genocide of 1994.
3 men were
charged
with genocide, incitement to genocide, and crimes against humanity, before and during the period of the genocides (2 men whom in charge for the RMC as well as the director and editor of the Kangur newspaper )
On December 2003, the court found all three defendants

GUILTY
and sentenced two of them to life imprisonment and the other to imprisonment for 35 years.
4 years later in 2007..their sentences was reduced to 30; 32 and 35 years of imprisonment because of the

“Appeals Chamber”
who partially allowed appeals against conviction.
Charges?
Guilty?
Appeals Chamber
Finally...
Do you really think that we can depend on Human kind?

Clearly, the history's answer is...
RWANDA !
Citation :
www.about.om
www.history.com
www.itcr.org
www.wikipedia.com
www.youtube.com
www.prezi.com
www.un.org/unlibraries
Full transcript