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Ben Mahoney

on 19 November 2009

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Transcript of Personality

What is Personality?
Personality can be defined as:
a set of unique yet unstable characteristics that set people apart.
general style of interaction with the world
Ones emotions, thoughts, attitudes, temperaments, that combine to effect our behavior
Some people believe that personality is basically the same across all situations
Some believe that the situation effects people's personality
There are 4 main types of personality theories:
1) Psychoanalytic
2) Trait
3) Humanistic
4) Social - cognitive
Psychoanalytic Approach
This theory postulates that:
most personality resides in the subconscious
a sequential movement through periods
* oral stage (birth to 18 mths)
* anal stage (18 mths to 3 years)
* phallic stage (3 to 6 years)
* latency stage (6 years to puberty)
* genital stage (puberty onwards)
Freud’s Five Stages
Failure to successfully complete any of these stages results in over compensation or under compensation in that area
This has a large influence on the id, super ego, and the ego
The ID:
the id is the primary driving force of personality.
completely subconscious
Drives instinct
Desires pleasure
Super Ego
Partly conscious and subconscious
Strives for social perfection
Is very idealistic
Is sensitive to punishment and reward
Largely conscious
deals with reality
has to mediate between desire (id) and social perfection (super ego)
Personality Defense Mechanisms

1) Repression
2) Regression
3) Reaction Formation
4) Rationalization
5) Displacement
6) Sublimation

See handout...
Trait Threory
Traits are considered:
habitual thoughts, patterns and emotions
fixed personal attributes
predictive of human behavior
Trait Theory
Gordon Allpot (1897-1967) was considered the early pioneer
Thought that psychoanalysis was too 'deep', and that behaviorism wasn't 'deep enough'.
Big Five Personality Traits
appreciation of art, curiosity, imagination
distinguishes between imaginative people and 'down to earth'
High score means unconventional beliefs, low scores mean means conservative
Self discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement
preference for planned vs spontaneous events
High score means you avoid trouble and gain success, but negatives are perfectionism and workaholic tendencies
Marked by external engagement with the outside world
Seek out other people with lots of energy
High score means that you are a sociable person who enjoys others company, low scores means that you are a little shy and enjoy more time alone
a tendency to be cooperative rather than antagonistic
agreeable individuals tend to get along with others more easily
Low scores means that you are less likely to be helpful, more self interested and unfriendly
tendency to feeling depression, anxiety and anger
They interpret normal situations as threatening, and small problems as unsolvable
Those who score low tend to be more relaxed, stable and positive.
Humanistic Theory
This theory postulates:
humans are basically good and interested in furthering humanity
that humans need to take responsibility for their own existence
Humanistic Personality Theory
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are credited as being the leading theorists
Tried to explain the purpose of war for mankind and the ultimate need for peace.
Big inspiration for the 'self help' books that are still popular today.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Basic Humanistic Principles:
1) Live in the present and not in the past or the future
2) You must take responsibility for your own actions
3) Negative actions don't mean a bad person. All humans are born good
4) One should always be trying to improve. One can only be happy through self knowledge
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs:
More motivation than personality,
but also tries to explain human traits
5 levels of needs:

5) Physiological
4) Safety
3) Love/Well being
2) Esteem
1) Self actualization
Social Cognitive Theory
Social Cognitive Theory
Early theories developed by Albert Bandura (1925)
Postulates that there are 2 main influences
1) Internal - emotions, personal attributes
2) External - environmental issues including other people
Observational Learning
postulates that humans can alter their personality through observation
people can read, see, and hear things that will change the way they think and act
Children where shown a video of violent acts, and then the children were broken into 3 groups:
1) punished
2) rewarded
3) no consequence
The children that weren't punished displayed aggressive behavior.
This displays learned behavior
No Homework!!!
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