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Emerging Adulthood

CED 612 - Developmental Counseling: Emerging Adulthood
by

April Marshall

on 8 April 2015

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Transcript of Emerging Adulthood

Characteristics of an Emerging Adult
New life stage for those 18-25 years of age
More education
Later marriage
Fewer births

BIOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Growth and Strength

BIOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT:
Psychopathology
Emerging Adulthood:
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
In-Class Activity
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Dialectical Thought
Dialectical thought is the most advanced cognitive process
COGNITIVE GROWTH and
HIGHER EDUCATION
Family Connections
Emerging Adults and their Parents
Linked lives
Today, there are stronger links between parents and children than in the past, partially due to the fact that many emerging adults are not married, pursue further education, are looking for financial stability, etc.
Securely attached infants are more likely to become happily married adults, avoidant infants may be hesitant to marry
Degree of parental involvement varies by culture
Up next week:
Adulthood!
Emerging Adulthood
Ch. 17, 18, 19 (Berger, 2011)
Lauren, Tami, Michelle, April & Sara

Why?

Globalization

has created a trend where young adults can put off
"adult roles"

and seek more education and independence than older generations typically ever had.
On the flip side
--this age range is also well suited for hard physical work and safe reproduction.

BIOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT:
Good Health Habits
BIOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: Taking Risks
Gender considerations
Leading causes of death
Edgework
Drug Abuse Drug Addiction
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:
Countering Stereotypes
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:
Morals & Religion
Why attend college?
Intimacy
Any questions
Love, romance, and lasting connection are important for emerging adults but the timeline for these events to occur is being pushed back (i.e. marrying at an older age)

Sternberg (1988) components of love:
passion
intimacy
commitment
“ideal” love contains all three elements, but can be difficult to achieve for some people
In Search of Love
"Hookups" may be common among emerging adults
Popularity of social networking
Cohabitation = living together, also common at this age, may have plans to get married or not
Changes in marriage patterns:
12% of men and 20% of women aged 20-25 are married
Fewer adults are getting married and more are divorced
Divorce rate is half the marriage rate - 3.6 compared to 7.3 of 1000, because fewer people are marrying (not more divorces)
In Search of Love
Similarity may solidify commitment:
homogamy
- marriage among individuals with similar values, attitudes, interests, goals, SES, religion, ethnic background, and local origin
heterogamy
- marriage among individuals with dissimilar values, attitudes, interests, goals, SES, religion, ethnic background, and local origin
social homogamy
- similarity of a couple’s leisure interests and role preferences, found to increase commitment but not essential for relationship success or stability
Strong, active bodies
Bodies Designed for Health
Homeostasis
Organ Reserve
Muscle Reserve
Appearance
Sexual Activity
Emotional Stress (Monogamy, STIs)
Purpose of Sex
marry young because of pressure and sexual desire ( vs. abstinence)
REPRODUCTION
1/4
RECREATION
1/4*
orgasm without commitment
*more men than women
RELATIONSHIP
1/2*
dominant purpose in this life stage
*more women than men
Increased incidences in this stage
Diathesis stress model
Mood Disorders
Bipolar Disorder
Depression
Anxiety Disorders
Hikkomori
Schizophrenia
"Except for dementia, emerging adults experience
more of every diagnosed disorder than any older group
.

The rate of serious mental illness is
almost double
that for adults over age 25" (SAMHSA, 2009).
Exercise
Nutrition
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Social Norms
Why take risks?
Approval, Admiration, Influence of others
Curbing Alcohol Abuse in College
"social norms approach"
Conflict
Demand/withdraw interaction


Intimate Partner violence
~ 12% of all men claim to have physically abused their partner in some form over the past year
common among emerging adults

At least 10% of relationships experience partner violence
Self-deception and dishonesty raise violence rates

Two types of conflict:
Situational couple violence
Intimate terrorism
POSTFORMAL THOUGHT
Time management
Delay discounting
Subjective & Objective thought
Cognitive Flexibility
Every card in a pack has a letter on one side and a number on the other. Imagine that you are presented with the following 4 cards, each of which has something on the back. Turn over only those cards that will confirm or disconfirm this proposition:
If a card has a vowel on one side, then it always has an even number on the other side
.
E
7
K
4
Cognitive flexibility is necessary to counter stereotypes
Stereotype threat:
thought in a person's mind that his/her own appearance or behavior will be misread to confirm another person's prejudiced attitudes
idea
proposition
statement of belief
opposing idea,
proposition or
statement that
opposes thesis
new idea that integrates thesis and antithesis, representing new and more comprehensive
level of truth
The process (not necessarily the outcome) of moral thinking improves with age

Gender differences in moral thinking
Carol Gilligan (1981, 1990)
Girls = Morality of Care
Boys = Morality of Justice
Primarily: secure better jobs; learn specific skills
Secondarily: gain a general education, appreciation of ideas
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Dialectical Thinking
Constant integration of beliefs and experiences
"Comfort collides with the desire for growth"
For the class:
Can you think of other examples?
Culture's effect
on dialectical thought
Asians tend to think holistically, about the whole rather than the parts, seeking synthesis
N. Americans tend to pay close attention to one (or few) details; open to more possibilities and less likely to conclude that only one correct answer exists
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:
Morals & Religion
Q: Is the college environment necessary for the shift in young adults' moral reasoning that often occurs?
Rest (1993)
Nucci & Turiel (2009)
A: It depends.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Morals and Religion
Defining Issues Test (DIT)
Developed by James Rest
Assess level of moral development through ranking possible solutions to moral dilemmas
Ranking of items leads to a number score, which correlates with other aspects of adult cognition, experience, and life satisfaction
DIT score generally rises with age as adults become less bound by doctrine, less self-serving, and more flexible and altruistic
COGNITIVE GROWTH and HIGHER EDUCATION
Thinking becomes more reflective and expansive with each year of college
Cognitive Growth and Higher Education
Changes in students
Massification
Gender
Study time
Cognitive Growth and Higher Education
Changes in institutions
Diversity
New techniques for teaching classes
What
do
students
get
out of attending college?
Encourages learning
and moral thinking
(Benjamin 2003)
"...a transforming element in human development"

Increased presence of non-traditional students


Least wealthy are most likely to benefit AND most likely to drop out
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Crisis of identity begins in adolescence, but is not usually resolved until adulthood.
Emerging Adulthood:
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
military
mission work
apprenticeships
internships
college
industry
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: Ethnic Identity
Half of 18-25 year olds in U.S. and Canada are African-American, Asian, Latino, or Native American
Ethnicity is a significant aspect of political identity
Most emerging adults identify with a specific ethnic group(s)
Time for more diverse friendships and acquaintances
Ethnic identity is complex, pervasive, and affects language, manners, romance, employment, neighborhood, religion, clothing and values.
ETHNIC IDENTITY
A little higher ed is better than no higher ed
Public vs. Private institutions
College promotes cognitive development
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: Vocational Identity
PERSONALITY in Emerging Adulthood
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: Intimacy
Rising self-esteem
More say in decisions
Control of "worrisome" behavior
"People are from Earth."
Full transcript