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context clues

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by

Cindy Zepeda

on 17 September 2016

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Transcript of context clues

aka Context Clues
Chapter 1: Vocabulary in Context
Types:
Examples
Synonyms
Antonyms
General Sense of Sentence/Passage
One more thing...
Suggest the meaning of an unknown word by listing examples.

The adverse effects of this drug, including dizziness, nausea, and headaches, have caused it to be withdrawn from the market.

Adverse is the unknown word. Dizziness, nausea, and headaches are negative effects, so adverse must mean counter or unfavorable.
Examples
A synonym is a word that means the same or almost the same as the unknown word. A synonym may appear anywhere in a passage to provide the same meaning as the unknown word.
2. Synonyms
An antonym means the opposite of another word. They are often signaled by words and phrases such as however, but, yet, on the other hand, and in contrast.
3. Antonyms
Textbook authors often define important terms. You'll know they're important terms if they're in italics or boldface type. Authors may also provide examples. Pay particular attention to these words.
1.
Nocturnal
creatures,
such as bats and owls
, have highly developed senses that enable them to function in the dark.

Nocturnal means:
a. feathers b. living c. active at night


Check Your Understanding

Practice

1. Today I had to deal with one
mishap
after another. I couldn't find my keys, I dropped a bowl of soup at lunchtime, and my computer crashed twice.

Mishap
means
a. unlucky accident b. event c. unexpected question


Check Your Understanding

1. Fresh garlic may not
enhance
the breath, but it certainly does improve spaghetti sauce.

Enhance
means
a. improve b. certainly c. breath
Practice
1. Speaking in front of a group
disconcerts
Alan. Even answering a question in class embarrasses him.

Disconcerts
means:
a. answers b. embarrasses c. speaks
Check Your Understanding

1. Many people have pointed out the harmful effects that a working mother may have on the family, yet there are many
salutary
effects as well. (Hint: The opposite of salutary is harmful.)

Salutary
means:
a. well-known b. beneficial c. hurtful

Practice

1. Many politicians do not give
succinct
answers. They prefer long ones that help them avoid the point. (Hint: If politicians prefer to give long answers, what kind of answer do they usually not give?)

Succinct
means:
a. brief b. accurate c. complete

4. General Sense of the Sentence/Passage
Sometimes you must draw conclusions based on the info given with the word. Asking yourself questions about the passage can help you make a fairly accurate guess about the unknown word's meaning.
Check Your Understanding

1. A former employee,
irate
over having been fired, broke into the plant and deliberately wrecked several machines. (Hint: What would be the employee's state of mind?)

Irate
means:
a. relieved b. very angry c. undecided


Practice
1. The lizard was so
lethargic
that I wasn't sure if it was alive or dead. It didn't even blink. (Hint: Would an animal that seemed dead be green, inactive or big?)

Lethargic
means
a. green b. inactive c. big


Questions?
2.
Mundane
activities such as
doing the laundry or dishes or going food shopping or reading the newspaper
help me relax.

Mundane
means:
a. exciting b. painful c. ordinary


3. Instances of common
euphemisms
include
"final resting place"
(for grave),
"intoxicated"
(for drunk), and
"restroom"
(for toilet).

Euphemisms
means:
a. unpleasant reactions b. answers c. substitutes for
offensive terms
Check Your Understanding Answer Key

1. c
2. c
3. c
2. Some mentally ill people have
bizarre
ideas. For instance, they may think the TV is talking to them or that others can steal their thoughts.

Bizarre
means:
a. limited b. ordinary c. odd

Practice Answer Key

1. A
2. C
2. Because my friends had advised me to
scrutinize
the lease, I took time to examine all the fine print.

Scrutinize
means:
a. examine b. advise c. print

3. The presidential candidate vowed to discuss
pragmatic
solutions. He said the American people want practical answers, not empty theory.

Pragmatic
means:
a. vow b. theory c. practical
Practice Answer Key

1. B
2. B
3. C
2. As soon as I made a
flippant
remark to my boss, I regretted sounding so disrespectful.

Flippant
means:
a. regretted b. sounding c. disrespectful
3. Although the salesperson tried to
assuage
the angry customer, there was no way to soothe her.

Assuage
means:
a. angry b. salesperson c. soothe
Check Your Understanding Answer Key

1. A
2. C
3. C
2. Trying to control everything your teens do can
impede
their growth. To advance their development, allow them to make some decisions on their own. (Hint: The opposite of impede is advance.)

Impede
means:
a. block b. predict c. improve

3. During their training, police officers must respond to
simulated
emergencies in preparation for dealing with real ones. (Hint: The opposite of simulated is real.)

Simulated
means:
a. made-up b. mild c. actual
Answer Key

1. B
2. A
3. A
Answer Key

1. A
2. B
3. B
2. Although investments in the stock market can be
lucrative
, they can also result in great financial loss.

Lucrative
means:
a. required b. financially rewarding c. risky
3. "I've seen students
surreptitiously
check answer sheets during exams," said the professor. "However, until today I never saw one openly lay out a cheat sheet on his desk."

Surreptitiously
means:
a. legally b. secretly c. loudly
Answer Key

2. Despite the
proximity
of Ron's house to his sister's, he rarely sees her. (Hint: What about Ron's house would make it surprising that he didn't see his sister more often?)

Proximity
means:
a. similarity b. nearness c. superiority
3. The car wash we organized to raise funds was a
fiasco
--it rained all day. (Hint: How successful would a car wash be on a rainy day?)

Fiasco
means:
a. great financial success b. welcome surprise c. complete disaster
1. B
2. B
3. C
2. Jamal didn't want to tell Tina the entire plot of the movie, so he just gave her the
gist
of the story. (Hint: What kind of information would Jamal have given Tina?)

Gist
means:
a. ending b. title c. main idea

3. After the accident, I was angered when the other driver told the police officer a complete
fabrication
about what happened. He claimed that I was the person at fault.

Fabrication
means:
a. lie b. description c. confession
Answer Key

1. B
2. C
3. A
Full transcript