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Scientific Method

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Kimberly Mancuso

on 28 September 2017

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Transcript of Scientific Method

The Scientific Method
State A Problem
Research
Form A Hypothesis
Experiment
Conclusion
Collect & Analyze Data
Inference vs. Observation
Inference: Based on Textual information & Prior Knowledge



Observation: based only on what you SEE, not what you expect to see!
Control Set-Up
This is the set-up being used for comparison.
This will be the opposite of what you are testing for!
EX: Will steroids affect the growth of a rabbit?
Control Set-Up: Rabbit without steroids
Dependent vs Independent
Dependent vs Independent
Variables
Dependent: What is changed/manipulated in an experiment



Independent: What is affected by the change (Independent). It is what we actually test for. What is measured!
Data Collection
Practice Problems
Constant
This what remains CONSTANT throughout the experiment

EX: Same amount of water, same amount of light, etc.
Includes the purpose of the experiment.
Asks a question about the purpose.
A Good Scientific Question
has REAL ANSWERS, often as simple as a YES or a NO
is TESTABLE {You can design an experiment/take measurements in order to find the answer}
has a hypothesis which can be proven as false
asks if the independent variable actually affects the dependent variable
Good Scientific Questions
Will studying every night increase a student's test average?
Bad Scientific Questions
Why do people litter in the park?
NOT yes or no answer
Hard to test: Many reasons! Which do you pick? Many variables {homeless, careless, lazy, etc.}
nothing to prove wrong
no variables identifiable
yes or no answer
can be tested
can be proven wrong
independent variable: studying every night
dependent variable: increase a student's test average
A Good Hypothesis:
restates the scientific question
answers the yes/no scientific question
EXCLUDES all personal opinions (i think, maybe, in my opinion)
based upon research, NOT PERSONAL OPINIONS!!!
Includes:
Materials
Setup
Procedures!
Independent VS. Dependent
variable changed by the experimenter
is not affected by anything
is INDEPENDENT!
variable measured
what is being tested in the question & hypothesis
IS affected by the independent variable
Data
Collection
Quantitative
Qualitative
numbers
quality
Examples:
measurements
quantity
height
width
anything with a #!
Examples:
color
smell
shape
texture
Analyzing Data
include ALL data collected in a chart of some form
TELL about the data
PUT the chart into words
Analyzing Data Example
This graph shows that out of 20 people, six prefer romance, four prefer comedy, five prefer action, four prefer sci-fi, and only one prefer drama.
Analyzing Data Example
This graph shows a positive relationship between the number of hours studied versus the test score achieved. As the hours studying increases, so do the test scores.
Conclusion
restates the hypothesis
identifies whether it is proven wrong or not proven wrong
NEVER say "I was correct!"
uses the data to explain why it was proven as wrong or not proven as wrong
From the results, Sam is able to conclude that studying every night before a test will raise a student’s test


score. According to the data, if a person studies every night the week of a test, a higher score is achieved while


if a person studies only the night before, a lower score is achieved. The lowest score achieved for the group


which did not study every night is a 27/F, while the lowest score achieved for the group which did study every


night is a 67/D. At least one student in each group, however; did in fact achieve a 100/A on their vocabulary


test. This proves that individually, not every single student has to study every night of the week in order to


achieve an A. However, on average, it does raise scores to study every night. In conclusion, the students who


studied every night for their vocabulary test did achieve a higher score than those who did not.
Conclusion Example
press play
Press Play
If asked who gave birth to the scientific method, how might you respond?
Isaac Newton?
Galileo?
Aristotle?
The Golden Age of Arabic Science
Ibn al-Haytham moved to Cairo, Egypt in the 11th Century.
Was placed under house arrest in 1011 by a powerful caliph and used this time to study how light travels.
He wrote the Book of Optics with a powerful message: "Don't take my word for it. See for yourself."
One of the first to operate on the Scientific Method as we know it.
The Golden Age of Arabic Science









Ibn al-Haytham
The Somersetshire, England
Roger Bacon
combined observations, experiments and rational arguments to support his theory of vision (optics)
Oxford philosopher who was prohibited from publishing books
Pope Clement IV protected Bacon and he wrote many books on light and vision using the concepts of repeating these cycles:
observation
hypothesis
experimentation
verification
The Somersetshire, England









Roger Bacon
wrote Encyclopedia of Science
13th century
"for the things of this world cannot be made known without the knowledge of Mathematics"
A Good Hypothesis Example:
Studying every night will increase a student's test grades.

restates Independent & Dependent Variable
Gives a yes/no answer (without saying yes or no)
Clearly states the opinion without referring to opinions
Analyzing Data Example
Scatter plots show how much one variable is affected by another. The relationship between two variables is called their correlation .
Analyzing Data Example
A bar graph is a chart that uses either horizontal or vertical bars to show comparisons among categories. One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.
Analyzing Data Example
This graph shows that the majority of people have Dogs and Cats as pets. This suggests that a Dog or a Cat is the favorite pet. According to the data shown, Dogs are the most preferred, while Rodents are least preferred
Analyzing Data Example
A pie chart (or a circle chart) is a circular statistical graphic which is divided into slices to illustrate numerical proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each slice (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents.
Finally
DONE!
Experimental Set-Up
This is the set-up you are actually testing.
EX: Will steroids affect the growth of a rabbit?
Experimental Set-Up: Rabbit WITH steroids
Variables
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Constant
Analyzing
Data
Full transcript