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Scientific Method

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Kimberly Mancuso

on 25 August 2014

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Transcript of Scientific Method

The Scientific Method
State A Problem
Form A Hypothesis
Analyze Data
Inference vs. Observation
Inference: Based on Textual information & Prior Knowledge

Observation: based only on what you SEE, not what you expect to see!
This is the item being used for comparison.
This will be the opposite of what you are testing for!
EX: How will steroids affect the growth of a rabbit?
Dependent vs Independent
Dependent vs Independent
Dependent: What is changed/manipulated in an experiment

Independent: What is affected by the change (Independent). It is what we actually test for. What is measured!
Data Collection
Practice Problems
This what remains CONSTANT throughout the experiment

EX: Same amount of water, same amount of light, etc.
Includes the purpose of the experiment.
Asks a question about the purpose.
A Good Scientific Question
has REAL ANSWERS, often as simple as a YES or a NO
is TESTABLE {You can design an experiment/take measurements in order to find the answer}
has a hypothesis which can be proven as false
asks if the independent variable actually affects the dependent variable
Good Scientific Questions
Will studying every night increase a student's test average?
Bad Scientific Questions
Why do people litter in the park?
NOT yes or no answer
Hard to test: Many reasons! Which do you pick? Many variables {homeless, careless, lazy, etc.}
nothing to prove wrong
no variables identifiable
yes or no answer
can be tested
can be proven wrong
independent variable: studying every night
dependent variable: increase a student's test average
A Good Hypothesis:
restates the scientific question
answers the yes/no scientific question
EXCLUDES all personal opinions (i think, maybe, in my opinion)
based upon research, NOT PERSONAL OPINIONS!!!
EX: Studying every night will increase a student's test grades.
Independent VS. Dependent
variable changed by the experimenter
is not affected by anything
variable measured
what is being tested in the question & hypothesis
IS affected by the independent variable
anything with a #!
Analyzing Data
include ALL data collected in a chart of some form
TELL about the data
PUT the chart into words
Analyzing Data Example
This graph shows that out of 20 people, six prefer romance, four prefer comedy, five prefer action, four prefer sci-fi, and only one prefer drama.
Analyzing Data Example
This graph shows a positive relationship between the number of hours studied versus the test score achieved. As the hours studying increases, so do the test scores.
restates the hypothesis
identifies whether it is proven wrong or not proven wrong
NEVER say "I was correct!"
uses the data to explain why it was proven as wrong or not proven as wrong
Studying every night does affect the test score. According to the data, if a person studies fewer hours a lower grade is achieved while if that person studies more hours, a higher grade is achieved. In order to achieve an average test score of 80%, a person would need to study between 20-30 hours. While this is not possible in one sitting, it is possible to study this amount of hours over several days, or every night. In conclusion, the number hours studied is positively correlated to the test grade earned.
Conclusion Example
press play
Press Play
Conclusion Example
Write a 5-7 sentence conclusion explaining the data.
If asked who gave birth to the scientific method, how might you respond?
Isaac Newton?
The Golden Age of Arabic Science
Ibn al-Haytham moved to Cairo, Egypt in the 11th Century.
Was placed under house arrest in 1011 by a powerful caliph and used this time to study how light travels.
He wrote the Book of Optics with a powerful message: "Don't take my word for it. See for yourself."
One of the first to operate on the Scientific Method as we know it.
The Golden Age of Arabic Science

Ibn al-Haytham
The Somersetshire, England
Roger Bacon
combined observations, experiments and rational arguments to support his theory of vision (optics)
Oxford philosopher who was prohibited from publishing books
Pope Clement IV protected Bacon and he wrote many books on light and vision using the concepts of repeating these cycles:
The Somersetshire, England

Roger Bacon
wrote Encyclopedia of Science
13th century
"for the things of this world cannot be made known without the knowledge of Mathematics"
Full transcript