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Design and shape buildings with wind energy in mind using CFD

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Chris van Dronkelaar

on 12 May 2013

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Transcript of Design and shape buildings with wind energy in mind using CFD

Wind power generation Power equation Objective Introduction Height Width Distance Shape SCENARIOS INTRODUCTION DESIGN CRITERIA Wind energy "The provision of energy that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs" Sustainable energy Hydroelectricity Solar energy Wave power Tidal power Bioenergy Geothermal energy Scenario A "Rectangular" Inspiration CONCLUSION Scenario B Scenario C "Triangular extension" "Triangular" Scenario D "Round corners" Scenario E "Double rounded corners" "Two ovals" "Two Holes" Scenario G Scenario F Scenario A Case 2B 10m Case 4B 20m Case 5B Case 6B Case 7B Case 8B 30m 40m 50m 60m Distance between buildings: Case 4B Case 6B Investigate how buildings can effectively enhance wind speeds at positions suitable for wind turbine integration. RESULTS RESULTS Cp - Coefficient of performance [-] p (rho) - Air density [kg/m^3] A - Swept area of blades [m^2] v - Free wind velocity [m/s] Wind climate Pturb - Power produced by the wind turbine [W] Buildings enhance wind speeds Urban environment slows down wind Main focus:
Using parallel buildings Aesthetics High wind speeds Low turbulence The faster it turns the more energy it produces Amount of turbines Building location Building orientation Case 6B Scenario B "Triangular" Scenario A "Rectangular" Energy Yield Case 4B Case 4B Scenario C "Triangular Extension" Contours of velocity (m/s) Contours of velocity (m/s) Contours of turbulent kinetic energy (k) (m2/s2) Scenario A "Rectangular" Scenario A "Rectangular" Scenario A "Rectangular" Contours of velocity (m/s) RESULTS Strata Tower London Computational domain Calculated planes Bahrain World Trade Center line-2 OR Building integrated turbines Show environmental consciousness, a cultural statement Wind energy generation can be improved by using the building form and placing building parallel to each other to access higher quality winds and by locally concentrating the winds. Conclusions COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS Realizable k-epsilon turbulence model (2eq.) 2nd-order solutions schemes Convergence criteria to 10^-05 Meshes that produce grid-independent results Correct inlet/turbulence profiles Large enough fluid domains Alternative to more expensive energy sources (oil, gas, electricity) Upwind generated by buildings facades increases wind velocities Buildings reach into higher velocity layers and don't need a wind turbine tower Aerodynamic building structure can direct and concentrate wind towards the turbine Arguments for integrated wind turbines Arguments against integrated wind turbines Natural ventilation and wind turbines for electricity production are depending on the wind and are therefore not reliable or always available Building integrated turbines New surrounding buildings are changing the local wind conditions and must be part of the projects as well Wind velocities in an urban environment are lower and more turbulent then on rural sites An "empty space" is created where turbines are integrated, expensive volume where people could live in Noise and vibrations close to the buildings 3 turbines, 29meter diameter
240m in height "Through its positioning and the design of the towers, the prevailing on-shore Gulf breeze is funneled into the path of the turbines, helping to create greater power generation efficiency" "The turbines are encased by the structure, fixed in yaw and therefore aligned to the prevailing wind direction. Aerodynamic shaping of the casing shall enhance the power performance" 3 turbines, 9meter diameter
147m in height Wind direction Wind direction Scenario E Scenario F Scenario G Scenario D Scenario A Top Right Front h 50m h 85m wind direction y 32.5 Contents Objective
Design Criteria
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Scenarios
Results
Conclusion No specific location Wind direction perpendicular to the buildings Strata Tower height 136m Front Right Calculated turbulence and velocity MESH Top Bahrain World Trade Center Calculated turbulence and velocity Top h 150m h 100m Design criteria Creating accurate results Front Contours of Velocity (m/s) and Contours of turbulent kinetic energy (k) (m2/s2) Right Note: Cell size of 600k converged to 10^-5 Grid sensitivity analysis Different wind directions will give different results. In this case scenario G "Two Ovals" might give better results as it could enhance speeds efficiently from more wind directions. 40m 10m extension Contours of velocity (m/s) Coarse Middle Dense 2nd order scheme Cell size: 166.690 335.000 690.000 Residual: 10^-5 10^-5 10^-5 10^-6 Middle line-3 line-2 line-1 Middle Dense Contours of velocity (m/s) Cases 6B Scenario E case 6B Higher velocities Contours of velocity (m/s) x-velocity Aim: Relatively low turbulence Scenario A Cases 6B Scenario D Top Right Front Scenario E Scenario F Scenario G h 85m y 32.5 Contours of turbulent kinetic energy (k) (m2/s2) wind direction Contours of turbulent kinetic energy (k) (m2/s2) Comparing results E6B "Two rounded corners" and A6B "Rectangular" create highest velocities G6B "Two Ovals" creates the lowest turbulence A6B "Rectangular creates a little more turbulence then E6B All cases create higher velocities than their respective inlet velocity at the same height Coefficient of Performance (Cp) = 0.45
Density of Air (p) = 1.225 kg/ms Scenarios A "Rectangular" case 6B and Scenario E "Two rounded corners" case 6B perform best due to the highest increase in wind and lowest turbulent kinetic energy at positions where turbines can be integrated It is very difficult to predict results when the width, height and shape of buildings is changed Contours of Velocity (m/s) and Contours of turbulent kinetic energy (k) (m2/s2) MESH MESH Bahrain WTC Cell size of 900k converged to 10^-4 Iterations: 3000 4000 6600 8400 Iterations: 3000 Residual: 10^-5 Cell size: 335.000 335.000 Cell size of 600k converged to 10^-5 MESH Strata Tower London by Kim Schickel A new methodology to determine sector load:
Controller clicks
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