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Middle Ages

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Patrick Stallings

on 14 September 2016

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Transcript of Middle Ages

Middle Ages


4. Disappearance of Trade
A.
B.

Feudal Economic Conditions

1. Self-sufficient Manor
A.
B.
C.
D.

2. The Serfs
A. Neither slave nor free
B. Obligations of Serfs
C. Impoverished Life

3. Low Agricultural Output
A.
B.
C.

3. During Peacetime
A.
B.
C.

4. Chivalry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Charlemagne Rules a Medieval Empire (768-814)

1.
Warfare
A. Charlemagne’s Conquests
1. Lombard's in Northern Italy
2. Muslims in Spain
3. Slavs - in Bohemia
4. Saxons - in Germany

B. Effects of conquests - increased the power of the Catholic Church

C. Emperor of the Romans
1. Crowned by Pope Leo III
2. Encompassed central Europe
3. Crumpled upon Charlemagne's death

2.
Government
- established many provinces with Nobles responsible to him.

3.
Education
A. Established schools
B. Maintain palace schools
C. hired Alcuin

3. Decline of Strong Central Government
A. Lacked power to control large lands and people
B. Lacked large armies
C. Lacked roads and bridges to transport armies
D. Lacked rules of Succession to the prevent civil wars.

Factors leading to the Decline of Feudalism

1. The Crusades
A.
B.

2. Rise of National States and Absolute Monarchy
A.
B.

Feudal Society

1.

Rigid Class Distinctions
(determined by birth)
A. Land Holding Nobles
B. Peasants/Serfs

2.Feudal Social Pyramid
a. King
b. Upper Lords
c. Lower Lords
d. Knights
e. Serfs

3. Feudal Hereditary Relationships
a. Mutual Relationship between lord and vassal
b. Noble's title and property could be inherited only by first born son


1.
The Norse (Vikings)
- barbarians from the Northern regions of Scandinavia. Became fearless sailors. Conquered Western Europe, England, Russia and Iceland - all the way to North America



2. The Magyars -a people from central Asia, settled in Hungary



3. The Arabs - followers of Islam - stopped at the Battle of Tours 732

New Invasions of Europe

Charlemagne Video

The
Frankish
Kingdom

1.
Created by
Clovis
A. Late 5th century (496 - 511)
B. Leading the Frankish Kingdom was a capable King:
Clovis
C. Converted Franks to
Christianity


2. Ruled by “Do Nothing Kings” - - two centuries outbreak of Civil Wars


3. Provided Leadership for Western Europe
A.
Charles Martel
-
Battle of Tours (732)
ended Muslim threat to Christian Europe

B.
Pepin - (the Short)

(741-768)
C.
Charlemagne
(768-814)

*
Carolingian Family
The Middle Ages

1.


2.

Middle Ages (1)

Military Aspects of Feudalism

1. During Wartime
A. Powerful Lord would summon vassals
B. Vassals would enlist sub-vasssals
C. Invasions destroyed crops and property

2. The Castle
A. Located on elevated ground
B. Constructed of heavy wood or stone
C. Surrounded by a moat

Feudal Government

1. Weak Central Government
A. King could not exercise authority beyond royal domain


2. Decentralized Local Governments
A. Nobles made laws
B. Nobles levied taxes
C. Nobles waged war


1. Weakness of Central Government

2. Land Policy of Germanic Kings
(
Germanic rulers granted landed estates to nobles in exchange for military assistance)






Reasons for Rise of Feudalism

Definition of
Feudalism

1.
Social
- system of rigid class distinctions and a static, or unchanging way of life.


2.
Political
- system of local government and military defense


3.
Economic
- system of self sufficient agricultural manors

Feudalism

Breakup of Charlemagne’s Empire

1.
Treaty of Verdun

(843)
-divided kingdom up among his grandsons

A.
Louis
- Eastern part (bases of modern Germany)
B.
Charles
- Western (bases of modern France)
C.
Lothar
- central (bases of modern Italy)


The Franks

1. Decline of Trade and Industry
A. Trade Routes not secure
B. Roads Deteriorated
C. Shift to rural areas (cities declined)

2. Decline of Learning and Culture
a. Roman schools, libraries, and museums were destroyed
b. Arts and sciences were neglected
c. Reading and writing were forgotten

The Decline of Civilization in the Dark Ages

Early Middle Ages: 5th - 10th Centuries "DARK AGES"
Later Middle Ages: 11th - 14th Centuries (Period of Advancement)
AG
The Medieval Church
The Church Dominates Medieval Life
During the Middle Ages the Church's most important achievement was converting people to Christianity

Pope Gregory I sent St. Augustine to convert the Anglo-Saxons in England
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge
400's - 800's
Treaty of Verdun 843
Terms and Names:
1.
lord
- landowner

2.
fief
- land granted to a person

3.
vassal
- person receiving the fief
Terms and People:
4.
knight
- mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords' lands in exchange for fiefs

5.
Serfs
- people who could not lawfully leave a place where they were born
Terms and People:
6.
Manor
- the lord's estate

7.
tithe
- church tax
Feudalism Explained
Time to get to work!................Let's get in groups

Look at the
Feudalism
pyramid on
page 361
.

Draw the European
Feudalism
Chart.

Do not draw the one on Japanese
Feudalism
- instead create one on modern day "American" social system.

Compare and contrast
as a group. Write a statement explaining the differences and similarities.
Military Aspects of Feudalism (continued)
The Age of Chivalry
The Code of Chivalry glorified both combat and romantic love
Key Terms and People
1.
chivalry
- complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defence of three masters - feudal lord, his heavenly Lord, and his chosen lady

2.
tournaments
- mock battles

3.
Troubadours
- traveling poet-muusicians


German State’s Remain Separate
German kings after Frederick try to revive empire
German princes, who elect kings, prefer to keep them weak

Disorder in the Empire

The Reign of Frederick I
In 1152, Frederick I becomes king; dominates German princes
Disorder breaks out whenever he leaves Germany
Frederick invades Italy, meets defeat at Legnano in 1176
Empire collapses after Frederick’s death in 1190

Disorder in the Empire

This is an illustration of the concept of “lay investiture.”

In this picture a king from the Middle Ages is handing a bishop his “shepherd’s crook” a symbol of the office of bishop.

The Catholic Church insisted that bishops were chosen by the Pope, not by kings.

Concordat of Worms
Concordat of Worms is 1122 compromise win Worms, Germany

Compromise: pope appoints bishops, emperor can veto appointment

The Emperor Clashes with the Pope

Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII

Pope Gregory VII bans lay investiture—kings appointing Church officials
Henry IV orders pope to resign; Gregory VII excommunicates Henry


Showdown at Conossa

Henry goes to Canossa, Italy, to beg Gregory forgiveness (see primary source)
Gregory forgives Henry, buy lay investiture problem is not solved

The Emperor Clashes with the Pope

Signs of Future Conflicts
Otto’s German-Italian lands become Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire is the strongest European power until about 1100

The Church and the Holy Roman Empire

Otto I- Allies with the Church

Otto I (Otto the Great) - is crowned king of Germany in 936
Limits strength of nobles with help of clergy

Gains support of bishops and abbots (heads of monasteries)

Invades Italy on pope’s behalf; pope crowns him emperor in 962

The Church and the Holy Roman Empire

Religion as a Unifying Force
Religion is important in the Middle Ages; shared beliefs bond people
Clergy administers the sacraments—rites to achieve salvation
Village church is a place of worship and celebration

Far-Reaching Authority of the Church

Chapter 13, Section 4

The Power of the Church

“There, having laid aside all the belongings of royalty, wretchedly, with bare feet and clad in wool, he [Henry IV] continued for three days to stand before the gate of the castle. Nor did he desist from imploring with many tears the aid and consolation of the apostolic mercy until he had moved all of those who were present there.”
POPE GREGORY, in Basic Documents in Medieval History

Primary Source

Middle Ages:
Economic Recovery Sparks Change
1. An Agricultural Revolution

Technology Improves Farming -
by the 800's iron plows were used
a new harness allowed horses to pull plows
three field system (grain/legumes/ unplanted)
2. The Revival of Trade And Travel
Trade Routes Expand
- Crusades expanded trade (1100's)
The Growth of Towns and cities
-
Charter
(written document that set out rights and privileges of a town)
3. Commercial Revolution
The Beginnings of Modern Business
- Capital (money)
- Partnerships developed
- Jewish people took on roles as moneylenders
4. The Rise of the Middle Class
Guilds
-
think of like a labor union
Apprentice -
trainee to a guide master
Journeyman
-
salaried workers
* towns were filthy
Full transcript