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The Four Tissue Types: Compared and Contrasted

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Stacy Maxwell

on 29 October 2013

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Transcript of The Four Tissue Types: Compared and Contrasted

The Four Tissue Types: Compared and Contrasted
Muscle tissue
By: Shelby Whitmire, Pablo Morales, and Stacy Maxwell
Body Membranes
Stratified Epithelia
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Flattened, irregularly shaped cells that are bound tightly together in a mosaic pattern.
Each cell contains an oval centrally located nucleus.
Adapted for diffusion and filtration.
Occurs in:
Lining wall of blood vessels
Lining body cavities
Simple Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
Characterized by the presence of cilia along the free surface.
Simple Columnar type is unciliated.
Occur in uterine tubes of the female.
Simple Epithelium
Single layer thickand are located where diffusion, absorption, and filtration, and secretion occur.
Cartilage Tissue
Connective Tissue Proper
Loose, flexible matrix, frequently called ground substance.
Embryonic Connective Tissue
At the beginning of the embroynic period, all conective tissue appears the same and is referred to as mesenchyme.
It is an undifferentiated embryonic connective tissue.
Consists of irregularly shaped cells lying in large amounts of a homogeneous, jellylike matrix.
Before the end of the embroynic period, all other kinds of tissues are formed.
Simple Columnar Epithelium
Tall columnar cell.
Height depends on the site and function of tissue.
Single nucleus-located near basement membrane.
Unicellular glands called goblet cells that are dispersed throughout tissue.
Found lining the lumen of the stomach and intestine
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
Appears stratified.
Nuclei of these cells are located at different levels, which makes it seem like it would not be simple.
The lumina of the trachea and the bronchial tubes are lined with this tissue.
Hint: it is frequently called respiratory epithelium.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Composed of a single layer of tightly fitted hexangonal cells.
Found lining small ducts and tubules that ma have excretory, secretory, or absorptive functions.
Occurs on the surface of ovaries and forms a portion of the tubules within the kidney and lines the ducts of the salivary glands and the pancreas.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Composed of a variable number of cell layers that tend to flatten near the surface.
Only at the deepest layer, called the stratum basale, does mitosis occur.
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
consists of only two or three layers of cuboidal cells forming a lining around lumen
Transitional Epithelium
similar to nonkeratinezed stratified squamous epithelium except that the surface cells of the former are large and round rather than flat.
Some might have two nuclei
Glandular Epithelia
Unicellular Glands
single celled exocrine glands interspersed with the various columnar epithelial.
Multicellular Glands
composed of numerous secretory cells in addition to cells that form the walls of the ducts.
Loose Connective Tissue
Distributed throughout the body as a binding and packing material.
Binds the skin to the underlying muscles and is highly vascular, providing nutrients to the skin.
Loose connective tissue surrounding muscle fibers and muscle groups is known as fascia.
Also surrounds blood vessels and nerves, where it provides both protection and nourishment
Specialized cells called mast cells are dispersed throughout the loose connective tissue surrounding blood vessels.
Dense Regular Connective TIssue
Characterized by large amounts of densely packed collagenous fibers.
The blood supply to dense fibrous connective tissue is poor, so if this tissue is injured it heals relatively slowly.
Occurs where strong, flexible support is necessary.
Tendons attach muscle to bones and transfer the forces of muscle contractions, and ligaments, which connect bone to bone across articulations, are composed of this type of tissue.
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
Characterized by large amounts of densely packed collagenous fibers that are interwoven to provide tensile strength in any direction.
Found in the dermis of the skin, submucosa of the GI tract, and composing the fiberous capsules of organs and joints.
Makes up the collagenous matrix of bone, called osteoid.
Elastic Connective Tissue
Has a predominance of elastic fibers that are irregularly arranged and yellowish in color.
Can be stretched to one and a half times their original lengths and will snap back to their former size.
Found in the walls of the large arteries, in the trachea and bronchial tubes.
Reticular Connective Tissue
Characterized by a network of reticular fibers woven through a jellylike matrix.
Certain specialized cells within reticular tissue are phagocytic and therefore ingest foreign materials.
The liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow contain reticular connective tissue.
Adipose Connective Tissue
A specialized type of loose fiberous connective tissue that contains large quantities of adipose cells.
Form from fibroblasts and are formed prenatally and during the first year of life.
Store droplets of fat within their cytoplasm, causing them to swell and forcing their nuclei to one side.
Hyaline Cartilage
Has a homogeneous, bluish-stained matrix in which the collagenous fibers are so fine that they can be observed only with an electron microscope.
When viewed through a microscope, it has a clear, glassy appearance.
The most abundant cartilage in the body.
Covers the articular surfaces of bones, supports the tubular trachea and bronchi of the respiratory system.
Has its matrix reinforced with numerous collagenous fibers.
Durable tissue adapted to withstand tension and compression.
Found at the symphysis pubis, where the pelvic bones articulate, and between the vertebrae as intervertebral discs.
Forms the cartilaginous wedges within teh knee joint.
Elastic Cartilage
Similar to hyaline except for the presence of abundant elastic fibers, which make it very flexible while maintaining its strength.
Numerous elastic fibers also give it a yellowish appearance.
Found in the external ear, portions of the larynx, and the auditory canal.
Bone Tissue
The most rigid of the connective tissues
Has a rich vascular supply and is the site of considerable metabolic activity.
Hardness on the bone is due to the inorganic calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate salts deposited within the intercellular matrix.
Numerous collageneous fibers, also embedded within the matrix, give some flexibility to bone.
Vascular Connective
Blood is a highly specialized, viscous connective tissue.
The cells are suspended in the liquid plasma matrix.
Blood plays a vital role in maintaining internal body homeostasis.
3 types of elements in blood are erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and thrombocytes (platelets).
Nervous tissue forms a network for communication in the body by conducting signals from one part of the body to another. Involves three processes; sensory input, the conversion of signals from sensory receptors all over the body to electrical signals that are sent to integration centers; integration, the interpretation of those signals and the production of a plan of action; and motor output, the relay of integrated data back to the parts of the body that carry them out. These processes allow the body to sense and respond to stimuli and function as a coordinated whole.

Nervous tissue
The lining, covering , and glandular tissue of the body.
Epithelial Tissue
Range from thin, flattened cells to tall, columnar cells depending on function.
Consists of cartilage cells, called chondrocytes, and a semisolid ground substance that imparts marked elastic properties to the tissue.
Tissues consisting of two or more layers of cells.
Poorly suited for absorption and secretion because of their thickness.
Protective function
classified by shape of the surface layer cells

Responsible for the movement of materials through the body, the movement of one part of the body with the respect of another, & locomotion. Unique in its ability to contract, & thus make movement possible. Muscle Cells, or Fibers, are elongated in the direction of contraction, & movement is accomplished through the shortening of the fibers in response to a stimulus. Muscle tissue is derived from the mesoderm.
composed of thin layers.
cover and seperate and support visceral organs and line body cavities.
in certain locations epithelial tissue coupled with supporting connective tissue .
two basic types
mucous membranes- thick viscid substance call mucus. Line various cavities and tubes.
serous membranes-line thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
specialized tissues that have secretory functions.
Classified according to the characteristics of the matrix that binds the cells.
Provide structural and metabolic support for other tissues and organs in the body.
Provides the contractile force for the peristaltic movements involved in the mechanical digestion of food. Found in the walls of Arteries, Respiratory Passages, and in the Urinary & Reproductive Ducts.
Smooth Muscle
Makes up most of the wall of the heart. Characterized by the bifurcating (Branching) Fibers, each with a centrally positioned nucleus, and by transversely positioned intercalated discs. Intercalated discs help hold adjacent cells together and transmit electrical impulses from cell to cell. Like Skeletal Muscle, Cardiac Muscle is striated, but unlike skeletal muscle, it experiences rhythmical involuntary contractions.

Cardiac Muscle
Attaches to the Skeleton and is responsible for the voluntary body movements.Each elongated, multinucleated fiber has distinct transverse striations. Fibers of this muscle tissue are grouped into parallel fasciculi (bundles) that can be seen without a microscope in fresh muscle. Both Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle fibers cannot replicate once tissue formation has been completed shortly after birth.
Skeletal Muscle
Have 3 principal components:
1.) A Cell Body/Perikaryon-Contains Nucleus & specialized organelles and microtubes.
2.) Dendrites- Receive stimuli and conduct impulses to the cell body
3.) An Axon- Is a cytoplasmic extension that conducts impulses away from the cell body.
- Most Specialized , number of cells is established shortly after birth.
- They lack the ability to undergo mitosis, however under certain circumstances a served portion can regenerate.
Nerve Fiber is any process extending from the cell body of a neuron and the myelin sheath that surrounds it.
Composes the nervous tissue, cells sometimes called Glial Cells, are about five times as abundant as neurons, and have limited mitotic abilities. Don't transmit impulses but support and bind neurons together. Some of the neuroglial cells are phagocytic; others assist in providing sustenance to the neurons.
The nervous tissue of the spinal cord receives information from skin and muscle sensory receptors and sends out movement instructions. It governs the autonomic nervous system, and generally is responsible for sending out sympathetic signals (signals that prime the body for intense, energy-consuming activities), though some parasympathetic neurons (neurons that work in preparing the body for digesting food and rest) originate in the lower part of the spinal cord. Spinal nerves carry signals to and from the spinal cord. They are part of the PNS. They form reflex arcs that are responsible for our reflexes, autonomic reactions to a stimulus without first having conscious sensation (ex: withdrawing your hand from a hot pot before you realize how hot it is).

Spinal Cord
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