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West Nile Virus

WNV
by

Tian Richard

on 30 March 2016

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Transcript of West Nile Virus

Unknown, we don't know the first person who reported it either unfortunately.


Extra historical information
WNV disease occurred only ocassionally and was perceived as a modest risk for human beings, until an outbreak in Algeria in 1994.
When and where was it discovered?
It was first found in the West Nile subregion in Uganda in 1937 (East Africa).
Who discovered it?
How do you get it/pass it on?
West Nile virus (WNV) is most prevalently transferred to human beings by mosquitoes. You can reduce your chance of being infected with WNV by wearing protective clothing and mosquito repellants to prevent mosquito bites.
Humans can not pass the virus on however mosquitoes can.
Close Relatives
WNV is contained in mosquitoes of the Culex Species.
Mosquitoes from the species Aedes Aegypti, as well as Aedes Albopictus spread viruses such as the Zika virus.
Culex species found in southern US
Classification
Belongs to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae.

West Nile virus is a mosquito-born virus that is stabilized in a bird-mosquito enzootic cycle, and is thought to be the most widely distributed flavivirus in the world. The virus can infect a huge variety of vertebrate species including humans and even horses which are considered dead-end hosts.

enzootic-A disease/virus that typically affects animals at a particular season/area.
Shows up within 2-14 days
It can inflame the brain severely however rarely.
Most people are asymptomatic to it
About 70-80% of people who develop WNV do not experience any symptoms from it. About 1 in 5 will develop fevers, headaches, body aches, joint pains, rashes, etc.
Fewer than 1% will develop meningitis (brain inflammation) as well as encephalitis.
Background Info
Pathogen Identification-->Viral
Symptoms
West Nile Fever (WNV)
By Richard Tian Block Three
How do you know you have it?
The virus can be detected by a physical exam, however there are also tests available for determining whether or not you have WNV:

Laboratory Test: A blood test may show a rising level of antibodies (Proteins that attack viruses-WNV).
Lumbar Puncture: Needle inserted into spine to scrutinize the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord (If you have meningitis).
Brain Test: Electroencephalograph (EEG)-Measures your brain activity. Or an MRI scan which can help detect brain inflammation.
How is it treated?
The majority of people recover from WNV without treatment. However, sever cases require hospital care with intravenous fluids and pain medication.
Over the counter medication pain relievers such as aspirin can reduce the pain of mild headaches as well as muscle aches.

Scientists are examining interferon therapy (type of immune cell therapy) as a cure for encaphilitis caused by WNV.
Unfortunately though, No vaccine or antiviral treatment for West Nile virus infection is available. There is one for horses however it's very deadly for humans.

However, there doesn't seem to be resistant forms of this virus.
Researchers have found that within a year, infected people returned to a normal level of fatigue, as well as physical, mental, and emotional function/health.
Prognosis
WNV doesn't really have any long term consequences with the exception of brain damage such as meningitis, ecephalitis, as well as even possibly paralysis.
Long term therapy would overall be occupational therapy.
The CDC assumes that once you get infected once you confer lifelong immunity, however the immunity may diminish as time passes on.
Can you get it again?
Demographics
Age does not sway who does or does not contract the virus (Anyone could get it).
There doesn't seem to be a gender difference really. Maybe a little bit more in men.
Found more common in hotter and wetter climates because of mosquitoes' climate
At least 1,700 people have died of WNV in the US since it was initially/first detected in New York City in 1999.
Since 1999, approximately 700,000 people in the US have become ill due to WNV.
How many people have died from it?
References
http://www.webmd.com/news/20080818/one-year-recovery-for-west-nile-virus

http://www.webmd.com/news/20060818/west-nile-fever-long-lasting-effects

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/44/12/1617.full

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/25/science/can-you-get-west-nile-virus-more-than-once.html?_r=0

http://diseasemaps.usgs.gov/mapviewer/

http://www.cnn.com/2013/07/13/health/west-nile-virus-fast-facts/

http://www.cdc.gov/features/westnilevirus/

http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/aquatic/southern_house_mosquito.htm

http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0002245

http://www.cdc.gov/westnile/prevention/index.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Nile_virus


http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/west-nile-virus/symptoms-causes/dxc-20166291

http://www.cdc.gov/westnile/symptoms/index.html

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/west-nile-virus/diagnosis-treatment/diagnosis/dxc-20166319

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/west-nile-virus/diagnosis-treatment/treatment/txc-20166322

http://www.cdc.gov/westnile/symptoms/

http://adimusaid.blogspot.com/2014/05/dengue-fever-symptoms-and-signs.html
2006 Global Distribution of WNV
Full transcript