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Fundaments of Music

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David Chapman

on 24 September 2018

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Transcript of Fundaments of Music

World Music
Just a thought process
Melody
Sound Travel
Vocal Ranges (Tessitura)
Mnemonics
Words that help with the divisions of the beat.
Fundaments of Music
What music needs in order to exist

Dynamics (Amplitude)
Depends on the amount of force applied
Tone Color
(Quality or Timbre)
Partials
Harmonics
Overtones
Time and Meter
A Re-occurring accentuation pattern.
Rhythm is the entire aspect of time in music.
Western "Classical" Music
Three elements
Melody/Tune
Succession of notes and pitches held together in an emotive manner.
Rhythm
Time aspect of music
Harmony
Texture of music
Monophonic
Homophonic
Polyphonic
Heterophonic
Frequency (Tessitura)
-High (faster vibrations)
-Low (slower vibrations)
Alto
Tenor
Bass
Soprano
pp
: Pianissimo (Whisper)
p
: Piano (Quiet)
mp
: Mezzo Piano (Conversational)
mf
: Mezzo Forte (Speech or Lecture)
f
: Forte (Loud)
ff
: Fortissimo (Very Loud/ Yelling)
Simple Meters
2/4 Duple
3/4 Triple
4/4 Quadruple
Complex Meters
6/8
9/8
12/8
Beat: Rhythmic unit (as a second to time)
Accent: Stress of emphasis
Downbeat: First beat
Upbeat: Last beat
1
:
Strongest
, 2: weaker,
3
:
Stronger
,
4
:weakest
Syncopation: Breaking the metric
established pattern to cause
rhythmic tension.
One beat: Plum
Two divisions: A - pple
Three dividions: Straw - be - rry
Four divisions: Wa - ter- me -lon
Extra Help with Meter:
crescendo
decrescendo
subito
Prelude Interlude Postlude
AB= Contrast
AB B= Repetition
AB B'= Variation
AB A = Return
Adagio = slow
Andante = Walking
Moderato = Moderately faster
Allegro = Happy
Presto = Driving in Germany
accelerando = speeding up
ritardanto = slowing down
A Tempo = Back to default
Fermata= Holding a Note/Rest
PFs
1. Hammered Cordophone
(Piano) ostinato
rhythmical Providing Accompaniment

2. Mallet Membranophone & Idiophone
(drumset) keeping time (percussion)

3. Plucked Bass cordophone (double bass)
Provides fundamental and keeps time

4. Alto F. voice. Main melody/voice


Prelude
A (low and choppy)
B
C
B
interlude (short)
A
B
C
A
B
interlude (longer piano)
B
A
B
C
B
postlude
Amplitude or Volume
Nina Simone
prelude
interlude
postlude
Giorgio Conte
Overtones
Partials
Harmonics
Fundamental
What we listen for:
What is Listening?
Performance Forces & Their Tasks
Kurt Sachs Taxonomy:
Cordophones (Plucked, Hammered, Bowed)
Membranophones (Hand, Mallet)
Idiophones (Hand, Mallet) ie. clave
Aerophones
Electrophones
Elements of Music:
Melody (Ornamental)
Rhythm (Time)
Harmony (Texture)

Do you feel the beat?
LAYERING
a'capella
Form (Structure)
vs.
Tempo (Speed)
Cadences
(Half=? Authentic=. or !
Antecedent vs Consequent
a+b=A
c+d=B
FORM
Salient items:
Describing specific changes in the music.
Damrau Rocks!
Organized Sound
Falsetto
Prelude Interlude Postlude
Periodic vs. un-periodic
Pawan kiye: Lakota-Sioux for straining the voice
Salient aspect: something unusual
<iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/BX1ljYx3g3k" frameborder="0" allow="autoplay; encrypted-media" allowfullscreen></iframe>
Daf or Buchimis
Rohail Hyatt
Come Together
Create vs. re-Create
The Seven Khoomi Techniques
A: a a' a'' b
B: c c' c'' d
Cadences
Half
Authentic
a a Repetition
a b Contrast
a a' Variation
a b a Return
antecedent or question vs. consequent or answer
Salient Aspects
"https://youtu.be/yg8116aeD7E"
"https://youtu.be/Ckom3gf57Yw"
"https://youtu.be/I_izvAbhExY"
"https://youtu.be/jq_BAHIAuNw"
"https://youtu.be/BX1ljYx3g3k"
"https://youtu.be/P_7xoC6k7PA"
"https://youtu.be/ubR9cXWkXv8"
On Form
A: a b
B: a c
"https://youtu.be/YuBeBjqKSGQ"
"https://youtu.be/QH3Fx41Jpl4"
"https://youtu.be/QH3Fx41Jpl4"
"https://youtu.be/hdSuK93Aya8"
"https://youtu.be/aux_2FK50b4"
"https://youtu.be/7zZainT9v6Q"
"https://youtu.be/TVyyhHFKI8E"
"https://youtu.be/ZTLAx3VDX7g"
"https://youtu.be/KZ8PHf6zYUQ"
"https://youtu.be/UnvbEUXgBU4"
"https://youtu.be/S94dIKcQg9o"
"https://youtu.be/-0kcet4aPpQ"
"https://youtu.be/81uJZIF9TCs" Day of Song
"https://youtu.be/4aI0VFCHu_M"
"https://youtu.be/CVZMSV1Ctjs"
More on the Metrics of Meter
Let's get started:
https://www.ted.com/talks/benjamin_zander_on_music_and_passion?utm_campaign=tedspread&utm_medium=referral&utm_source=tedcomshare
Soprano
Mezzo Soprano
Alto
Tenor
Baritone
Bass





Heinrich Heine:
Where words leave off,
music begins.

Hans Christian Andersen:
"Where words fail, music speaks.”

Friedrich Nietzsche:
"Without Music,
life would be a mistake.

Practice Material
ChapmanD@yosemite.edu
Unit 1.
Topics of Discussion:
Western vs. World Music
Elements of Music
Kurt Sachs Taxonomy
Performance Forces
PFs Applications
Texture
Vocal Ranges
Unit 2.
Topics of Discussion
Form
Cadences
Salient Aspects
Sine Waves
Timbre (Tone Color)
Dynamics
Time (Tempo)
On the Mere-Exposure Effect
C D EF G A Bc d ef g a bc
W W h W W W h
G A Bc D E F#G
I like to Live
Dumbek in Berlin
krieg der sterne
Englander in Neu
Tous les Matins a la viol
reel große riba
Day of Song
Geld
voca & mädchen
Voca-l Ranges
Full transcript