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Fundaments of Music

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by

David Chapman

on 30 August 2017

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Transcript of Fundaments of Music

World Music
Just a thought process
Melody
Sound Travel
Vocal Ranges (Tessitura)
Mnemonics
Words that help with the divisions of the beat.
Fundaments of Music
What music needs in order to exist

Dynamics (Amplitude)
Depends on the amount of force applied
Tone Color
(Quality or Timbre)
Partials
Harmonics
Overtones
Time and Meter
A Re-occurring accentuation pattern.
Rhythm is the entire aspect of time in music.
Western "Classical" Music
Three elements
Melody/Tune
Succession of notes and pitches held together in an emotive manner.
Rhythm
Time aspect of music
Harmony
Texture of music
Monophonic
Homophonic
Polyphonic
Heterophonic
Frequency (Tessitura)
-High (faster vibrations)
-Low (slower vibrations)
Alto
Tenor
Bass
Soprano
pp
: Pianissimo (Whisper)
p
: Piano (Quiet)
mp
: Mezzo Piano (Conversational)
mf
: Mezzo Forte (Speech or Lecture)
f
: Forte (Loud)
ff
: Fortissimo (Very Loud/ Yelling)
Simple Meters
2/4 Duple
3/4 Triple
4/4 Quadruple
Complex Meters
6/8
9/8
12/8
Beat: Rhythmic unit (as a second to time)
Accent: Stress of emphasis
Downbeat: First beat
Upbeat: Last beat
1
:
Strongest
, 2: weaker,
3
:
Stronger
,
4
:weakest
Syncopation: Breaking the metric
established pattern to cause
rhythmic tension.
One beat: Plum
Two divisions: A - pple
Three dividions: Straw - be - rry
Four divisions: Wa - ter- me -lon
Help with Meter:
crescendo
decrescendo
subito
Prelude Interlude Postlude
AB= Contrast
AB B= Repetition
AB B'= Variation
AB A = Return
Adagio = slow
Andante = Walking
Moderato = Moderately faster
Allegro = Happy
Presto = Driving in Germany
accelerando = speeding up
ritardanto = slowing down
A Tempo = Back to default
Fermatta= Holding a Note/Rest
PFs
1. Hammered Cordophone
(Piano) ostinato
rhythmical Providing Accompaniment

2. Mallet Membranophone & Idiophone
(drumset) keeping time (percussion)

3. Plucked Bass cordophone (double bass)
Provides fundamental and keeps time

4. Alto F. voice. Main melody/voice


Prelude
A (low and choppy)
B
C
B
interlude (short)
A
B
C
A
B
interlude (longer piano)
B
A
B
C
B
postlude
Amplitude or Volume
Nina Simone
prelude
interlude
postlude
Giorgio Conte
Overtones
Partials
Harmonics
Fundamental
What we listen for:
What is Listening?
Performance Forces & Their Tasks
Kurt Sachs Taxonomy:
Cordophones (Plucked, Hammered, Bowed)
Membranophones (Hand, Mallet)
Idiophones (Hand, Mallet) ie. clave
Aerophones
Electrophones
Elements of Music:
Melody (Ornamental)
Rhythm (Time)
Harmony (Texture)

Do you feel the beat?
LAYERING
a'capella
Form (Structure)
vs.
Tempo (Speed)
Cadences
(Half=? Authentic=. or !
Antecedent vs Consequent
a+b=A
c+d=B
FORM
Salient items:
Describing specific changes in the music.
Damrau Rocks!
0527
Organized Sound
Falsetto
Full transcript