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Carbon Chemistry

Chapter 4 overview

Jeannette Sterbinsky

on 6 February 2013

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Transcript of Carbon Chemistry

"Most Valuable Element"award goes to carbon.
It bonds extremely well with itself and other elements. As a result, carbon helps create many materials, including ALL forms of life on our planet. The simplest organic compouds are called hydrocarbons, which are made from carbon and hydrogen.
Hydrocarbons can form carbon chains that are straight, branched, or ring-shaped.
Hydrocarbons are flammable and are used as fuels, like methane, propane, and butane (gasoline is made by mixing hydrocarbons). Chapter 4 Carbon Chemistry A carbon atom has four valence electrons, which allows it to bond with othere elements in many different ways. Carbon atoms also form bonds with other carbon atoms, so pure carbon many appear in different ways. Examples are diamonds, graphite, and fullerenes (buckyballs). Remember, carbon chains can form into several different shapes.
Isomers are compounds that have the same number and type of elements, but different shapes and structures. Because of this, they have different properties.
In substituted hydrocarbons, sometimes one atom of another element is substituted for hydrogen in hydrocarbon. This creates a totally different compound. These include halogen compounds, alcohols, and organic acids.
Organic compounds can sometimes be linked together to build huge molecules called polymers. There are four classes of pollymers found in living things: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
These polymers are huge chains of organic compounds, but when your body digests them, they are broken down to their simplest form.
Each link in the chain of a polymer is called a monomer. During digestion, your body breaks down polymers into monomers. For carbohydrates, their monomers, or simplest forms, are simple sugars.
The monomers of lipids and fats are fatty acids and glycerol.
The monomers of proteins are amino acids.
The monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides.
Vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients contribute to a healthy diet. More than 90% of all known compounds contain carbon- solids, liquids, gases, meat, vegetables, paper, fuel, etc.
A compound that contains carbon is called an "organic compound". (related to living things)
Many organic compounds have similar properties, like low melting points and low boiling points.
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