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kshitij bafna

on 22 September 2013

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Transcript of PP: LHC

LHC is a machine to create situations similar to big bang (which created the universe), by colliding hadrons.

There are many important, unanswered questions about the origin of the universe and mass. How the things that exist came into existence and how the universe came to the state it is.
LHC - Introduction
No particle can move with speeds faster than the speed of light in a vacuum; however, there is no limit to the energy a particle can attain.in high-energy accelerators, particles normally travel very close to the speed of light, at the LHC. There is no uniform relation between energy and speed of particles, therefore, particle physicists do not generally think about speed, but rather about a particle’s energy. And so the energy of the protons rotating around LHC is 7TeV
Main Goals of LHC -
Higg's field is said to be a field present everywhere in space. This field is responsible for giving mass to different substances. According to the theory of Higg's mechanism the particles that interact with field with higher energy attain higher masses and vice versa.
Higg's field
protons are boosted at a speed 99.99% of the speed of light
protons keep rotating in this part of LHC until they reach this speed
as the speed matches the 99% of speed of light
the protons start rotating at the main path
but in opposite directions

50% in this direction
and 50% in this direction
only the Proton of an Hydrogen atom is drawn further
hydrogen atoms are inserted

The two divisions collide at this point, creating situations similar to the big bang

During the big bang, it is said that two type of things were created. matter and antimatter. As per the discoveries the antimatter is till date not found in the universe, it is said that antimatter is either hidden or was created a bit less that matter.
Antimatter can be created in labs.
What does LHC stand for?
LHC stands for Large Hadron Collider. Large due to its size (approximately 27 km in circumference), Hadron because it accelerates protons or ions, which are hadrons, and Collider because these particles form two beams traveling in opposite directions, which collide at four points where the two rings of the machine
physical features
Built in Swiss-French border the LHC is a circular tunnel of circumference of 27 km. The LHC is built 50m - 175m underground.
This is how the LHC works
Why is LHC built underground

The LHC is built underground as it would have been costlier to acquire a 27km circumference land and would also have a impact on the environment. As the energy of collisions is high and there are chances of radiation, building underground would provide a shield against radiation
LHC physics' Introduction
Light: particle "pure energy"
Mass and Energy
energy = mass x speed of light ^ 2
e = mc^2
This is the famous and very important equation by Einstein, which states that mass can be converted to energy by multiplying it by square of speed of light.
The standard model is limited and does not explain and implement of the whole universe. So, LHC will try to answer many of the unknown questions
The standard model is the collection of theories and laws that explain the functioning of the world known to us.
Unknown Universe
The universe we know accounts for only 4% of the whole. The remaining is dark matter (23%) and dark energy (73%).
Dark matter is made by neutral supersymmetric particles. it is said to be the cause of gravity.
dark energy is associated with the vaccuum in space and time.

facts about the LHC
Extra dimensions
find out if any more dimensions exist.
The reason of gravitational field in the universe. it is said that supersymmetric particles are cause of gravitation. LHC would confirm and conclude the cause.
Fact 1) When the 27-km long circular tunnel was excavated, between Lake
Geneva and the Jura mountain range, the two ends met up to within 1 cm.
Fact 2) Each of the 6400 superconducting filaments of niobium–titanium
in the cable produced for the LHC is about 0.007 mm thick, about 10 times
thinner than a normal human hair. If you added all the filaments together
they would stretch to the Sun and back five times with enough left over for
a few trips to the Moon.
Fact 3) All protons accelerated at CERN are obtained from standard hydrogen. Although proton beams at the LHC are very intense, only 2 nanograms
of hydrogen(*) are accelerated each day. Therefore, it would take the LHC
about 1 million years to accelerate 1 gram of hydrogen.
Fact 4) The central part of the LHC will be the world’s largest fridge. At a
temperature colder than deep outer space, it will contain iron, steel and the
all important superconducting coils.
Fact 5 ) The pressure in the beam pipes of the LHC will be about ten times
lower than on the Moon. This is an ultrahigh vacuum.
Fact 6) Protons at full energy in the LHC will be travelling at 0.999999991
times the speed of light. Each proton will go round the 27 km ring more than
11 000 times a second.
Fact 7) At full energy, each of the two proton beams in the LHC will have a
total energy equivalent to a 400 t train (like the French TGV) travelling at
150 km/h. This is enough energy to melt 500 kg of copper.
Fact 8) The Sun never sets on the ATLAS collaboration. Scientists working on
the experiment come from every continent in the world, except Antarctica.
Fact 9) The CMS magnet system contains about 10 000 t of iron, which is
more iron than in the Eiffel Tower.
Fact 10) The data recorded by each of the big experiments at the LHC will
be enough to fill around 100 000 DVDs every year.
CMS - compact muon Solenoid - a general-purpose detector with the same physics goals as ATLAS, but different design.
ALICE - A Large Ion collider Experiment- study the properties of quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter where quarks and gluons, under conditions of very high temperatures and densities, are no longer confined inside hadrons. Such a state of matter probably existed just after the Big Bang, before particles such as protons and neutrons were formed.
Atlas- a general-purpose detector designed to cover the widest possible range of physics at the LHC, from the search for the Higgs boson to super symmetry (SUSY) and extra dimensions.
LHCb- specializes in the study of the slight asymmetry between matter and antimatter present in interactions of B-particles (particles containing the b quark). Understanding it should prove invaluable in answering the question: “Why is our Universe made of the matter we observe?”
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