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Human Development

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Shelby Linstrom

on 12 November 2018

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Transcript of Human Development

Ted Tripp: Beyond Internalization taken from, “Shepherding a Child’s Heart”
Develop a Christian mindset
: sufficiently scriptural worldview
Develop friendship with adults
: in church and community, also nurture peer relationships
Discover and grow into personal ministry
Determine career
for cultural mandate & support self and share with needy
Establish home and family identity
: parent-child (temporary) to husband/wife permanent
Develop mature relationship with parents
: mutuality and shared ministry

Legalistic Faith:
Obey the rules or you will
disappoint religious authorities
License-based Faith:
Disregard righteous conduct under the
guise of liberty
Love-based Faith:
Because I love God, I
look for opportunities to do his will
Alternative Approach from Minirth, Meier, Wichern & Ratcliff [1997]


- an
emotional and psychological closeness
that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self.

- providing
guidance to one’s children or the next generation
, or contributing to the well-being of the next generation through career or volunteer work.

- sense of wholeness that comes from
having lived a full life and the ability to let go of regrets
; the final completion of the ego.

B. Divorce and Children

Factors that allow for smooth transition out of divorce
1. Ongoing contact with both parents, end of parental conflict (
2. Cooperation between parents concerning childcare
3. Emotional well being of custodial parent, goodness of new fit
4. Quality of relationships in step family
Parenting Styles

II. Parenting Styles
Ideally, in parenting, the
interaction between parents and their children is dynamic
where rules are relaxed as the child becomes responsible via internalizing of values

Preconventional morality
- first level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in which the
child’s behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior

Conventional morality
- second level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in which the
child’s behavior is governed by conforming to the society’s norms of behavior

Postconventional morality
- third level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in which the
person’s behavior is governed by moral principles
that have been decided on by the individual and which may be in disagreement with accepted social norms.

Personal fable
- type of thought common to adolescents in which young people
believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm

Imaginary audience
- type of thought common to adolescents in which
young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescent’s thoughts and characteristics
as they themselves are.

- the period of life from about
age 13 to the early twenties
, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult.

- the
physical changes that occur in the body
as sexual development reaches its peak.

Period of about four years

- the behavior associated with being
male or female

Gender identity
- perception of one’s gender and the
behavior that is associated with that gender

Trust versus mistrust
- first stage of personality development in which the infant’s basic sense of
trust or mistrust
develops as a result of consistent or inconsistent care.

Autonomy versus shame and doubt
- second stage of personality development in which the
toddler strives for physical independence

- the behavioral characteristics that are
fairly well established at birth

- regular, adaptable, and happy

- irregular, nonadaptable, and irritable

Slow to warm up
- need to adjust gradually to change.

Child-directed speech
– children attend to
higher pitched, repetitious, sing-song speech

B. Stages in Piaget’s cognitive Development


Preoperational stage
- Piaget’s
second stage of cognitive development
in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world.

- the
inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes

- in Piaget’s theory, the tendency of a young child to
focus only on one feature of an object
while ignoring other relevant features.

- in Piaget’s theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object
does not change the object’s nature

- in Piaget’s theory, the inability of the young child to
mentally reverse an action

Cognitive development
- the development of
thinking, problem solving, and memory scheme
(plural schemas) a mental concept formed through experiences with objects and events.

Teratogens: agents that cause birth defects (threats to development)

Embryonic period
- the period from two to eight weeks after fertilization, during which the
major organs and structures of the organism develop

Critical periods
- times during which
certain environmental influences can have an impact
on the development of the infant.

- any factor that can cause a
birth defect

Monozygotic twins
- identical twins formed when
one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells
, each of which develops into a separate embryo.

Dizygotic twins
- often called fraternal twins, occurring when
two eggs each get fertilized by two different
sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time.

- tightly wound
strand of genetic material
or DNA.

• Chromosome disorders include
Down syndrome
(3 copies of chromosome 21 instead of 2)
, Klinefelter’s syndrome
(only affects males- extra X [sex] chromosome - 47XXY )
, and Turner Syndrome
(one normal X chromosome is present in a female's cells and the other sex chromosome is missing or structurally altered)
, whereas genetic disorders include
PKU, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Tay-Sachs disease

- the influence of our
inherited characteristics
on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.

- the influence of the
on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.

Behavioral genetics
– focuses on
nature vs. nurture

Freeman M. Chakara, PsyD, ABPP-CN

1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance

• Adulthood begins in the
early twenties and ends with death
in old age.
• Divided into
young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood
• Women experience a physical
decline in the reproductive system called the climacteric, ending at about age 50 with menopause
- the cessation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman’s reproductive capability.

- gradual changes in the
sexual hormones and reproductive system of males

Increase in health problems, decrease in reaction time, and stability in intelligence and memory

"Divorce affects most children in the short run, but research suggests that kids recover rapidly after the initial blow. In a 2002 study psychologist E. Mavis Hetherington of the University of Virginia and her then graduate student Anne Mitchell Elmore found that many children experience short-term negative effects from divorce, especially anxiety, anger, shock and disbelief. These reactions typically diminish or disappear by the end of the second year. Only a minority of kids suffer longer."
-Arkowitz & Lilenfield, 2013

“Painful reflections on a difficult past are not the same as an inability to feel and function in the present.”
–Kelly and Emery

B. Divorce and Children
• Cooing
• Babbling
• One-word speech (
• Telegraphic speech

Language acquisition device
- governs the learning of language during infancy and early childhood.

- process in which a
more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner
, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable.

Zone of proximal development (ZPD)
- Vygotsky’s concept of the difference between
what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher

Concrete operations stage
third stage of cognitive development
in which the school-age child becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking.

Formal operations
- Piaget’s
last stage of cognitive development
in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking.

• Four
critical areas of adjustment
for the newborn are:
• Respiration
• Digestion
• Circulation
• Temperature regulation
• Infants are born with reflexes that help the infant survive:
sucking, rooting, Moro (startle), grasping, and Babinski
• The senses,
except for vision
, are fairly well developed at birth.
• Gross and fine motor skills
develop at a fast pace
during infancy and early childhood.

A child born
prior to 38 weeks is considered preterm
. Sometimes, this could be due to reasons other than the ones listed above. However, it is still
advisable to monitor the maturation of these children
since they are likely to have a host of developmental difficulties.

Fetal period
- the time from about
eight weeks after conception until the birth
of the child.

- name for the
developing organism from eight weeks after fertilization to the birth
of the baby.


- the science of
inherited traits

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
- special molecule that contains the
genetic material
of the organism.

- section of DNA having the
same arrangement
of chemical elements.

- referring to a gene that
actively controls
the expression of a trait.

- referring to a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when
paired with an identical gene

Human development
- the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from
conception until death

Longitudinal design
- research design in which one participant or group of participants is
studied over a long period of time

Cross-sectional design
- research design in which several different age groups of participants are
studied at one particular point in time

Cross-sequential design
- research design in which participants are first studied by means of a cross-sectional design but also
followed and assessed for a period of no more than six years

Activity theory
- theory of adjustment to aging that assumes older people are
happier if they remain active
in some way, such as volunteering or developing a hobby.

Cellular clock theory
- based on the idea that
cells only have so many times that they can reproduce
; once that limit is reached, damaged cells begin to accumulate.

Identity versus role confusion
- fifth stage of personality development in which the
adolescent must find a consistent sense of self

- the
emotional bond
between an infant and the primary caregiver.

- willing to
, upset when mother departs but
easily soothed
upon her return.

– unattached; explore without “
touching base

- insecurely attached;
upset when mother leaves and then angry with mother upon her return

– insecurely attached and
sometimes abused or neglected
; seemed fearful, dazed, and depressed.

Sensorimotor stage
- Piaget’s
first stage of cognitive development
in which the infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment.

Object permanence
- the knowledge that an
object exists even when it is not in sight

• Immunizations are
far less dangerous than the diseases
they are designed to prevent and are one of the most effective weapons in the fight against infectious diseases.





- the moment at which a
female becomes pregnant

- the
female sex cell
, or egg.

- the
union of the ovum and sperm

- cell resulting from the uniting of the ovum and sperm; divides into many cells,
eventually forming the baby



General Psychology: Development Across The Lifespan
Clinical Neuropsychologist

Understand the trajectory of Human Development
• Special research methods used to study development
• Relationship between heredity and environmental factors
• Chromosomes, genes, DNA and multiple births
• Germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods of pregnancy
• Physical changes in infancy and childhood
• Looking at cognitive development and how language develops
• Developing personalities, forming relationships and Erikson’s first four stages of psychosocial development
• How adolescents develop formal operation, moral thinking and adolescent’s search for identity
• Physical and cognitive changes during adulthood and aging
• Theories of why aging occurs and stages of death and dying
• How attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder affects adults

Developmental Research Designs
Nature versus Nurture
Genetics and Development
Genetics and Development
Genetics and Development
Conception and Twins
Periods of Pregnancy
Periods of Pregnancy
Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood
Cognitive Development
Piaget's Stage Theory
Piaget's Stage Theory
Piaget's Stage Theory
Vygotsky's Theory
Newer Theory
Stages of Language Development
Erickson's First Four Stages
Gender Role Development
Puberty and Adolescence
Egocentric Thinking
Development of Morality
Erickson's Fifth Stage
Physical Changes and Aging
Erickson's Last Three Stages
Theories of Aging
Stages of Death and Dying
Mendel Box
Brown Eyes- Dominant (D)
Blue Eyes- Recessive (R)
Mother (DR)
Father (DR)
Mendel Box
Brown Eyes- Dominant (D)
Blue Eyes- Recessive (R)
Mother (DR)
Father (DR)
Mendel Box
Brown Eyes- Dominant (D)
Blue Eyes- Recessive (R)
Mendel Box
Brown Eyes- Dominant (D)
Blue Eyes- Recessive (R)
Mother (DR)
Father (DR)
Mendel Box
Brown Eyes- Dominant (D)
Blue Eyes- Recessive (R)
Mother (DR)
Father (DR)
Agent: Purported Defects
estimated 12,963 people with an AIDS diagnosis died in 2013
, and approximately 636,000 people in the United States with an AIDS diagnosis have died since the epidemic began.- http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/basics/ataglance.html
3 ways a mother passes it on:
(1) pregnancy via placenta (life support), (2) delivery via maternal blood & fluids, & (3) post birth via breast feedings. Effects will be discussed later.
Agent: Purported Defects
Alcohol: (1) Mom drinks, (2) Vodka in bloodstream, (3) through placenta to baby's blood, (4) flows to baby's brain, (5) impairs baby's breathing.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Intellectual Impairment (previously known as Mental Retardation), stunted growth, facial deformities (see next slide), attention, speech, etc.
Teratogens: Agents that cause birth defects (threats to development)
Teratogens: agents that cause birth defects (threats to development)

Elizabeth Ross- cancer patients
Diana Baumrind’s three styles of parenting
Authoritative Parenting
- nurturant and responsive towards children
- uses reason when disciplining rather than sheer power assertion
Authoritarian Parenting
- harsh discipline not matched by love
- rigid in expressing view, i.e. does not regard child’s view
Discussion: Paul’s warning about exasperating a child and the inflexible style

Permissive Parenting
- Indulgent—child is spoiled and does as she wishes while parent follow
- Indifferent—parent gives up responsibility i.e. doesn’t care where their kid is
"CDS is characterized by many differences compared to adult-directed speech, including higher pitch, greater pitch range, shorter sentences, elongated vowels, more repetition, less diversity in vocabulary, and more references to the 'here-and-now'. CDS plays several important roles in child-caregiver interactions, such as promoting the affective relationship between adults and young children, selectively engaging children's attention, and enhancing children's learning of word boundaries and language-specific phonetic categories" (Watson, Baranek, & Dalton, 2012)
In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. Twenty-two of these pairs, called autosomes, look the same in both males and females. The 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, differ between males and females. (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/howmanychromosomes)

Initiative versus guilt
- third stage of personality development in which the preschool-aged
child strives for emotional and psychological independence
and attempts to satisfy curiosity about the world.

Industry versus inferiority
- fourth stage of personality development in which the
adolescent strives for a sense of competence and self-esteem

Wear-and-tear theory
- as time goes by, repeated use and abuse of the body’s tissues cause it to be unable to repair all the damage.

Free radical theory
- oxygen molecules with an unstable electron move around the cell, damaging cell structures as they go.
Germinal period
- first two weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote
moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining
name for the developing organism from two weeks to eight weeks after fertilization.
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