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Peruvian Textiles

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Julia Nowakowski

on 19 May 2015

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Transcript of Peruvian Textiles

Peruvian Textiles
Harcourt, Raoul D', Grace G. Denny, Carolyn M. Osborne, and Sadie Brown. Textiles of Ancient Peru and Their Techniques. Seattle: U of Washington, 1975. Print.

"HISTORY OF PERU SERIES – Part 8: ANCIENT TEXTILES." Peruvian Times News from Peru. N.p., 12 Mar. 2015. Web. 11 Mar. 2015.

"Keeping the Peruvian Textiles Tradition Alive in Peru." - Peru This Week. N.p., n.d. Web.

King, Heidi, and Delgado Pérez Ma. Mercedes. Peruvian Featherworks: Art of the Precolumbian Era. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2012. Print.

King, Mary Elizabeth. Ancient Peruvian Textiles from the Collection of the Textile Museum, Washington, D.C.: The Museum of Primitive Art, New York N.Y. New York, NY: Museum of Primitive Art, 1965. Print.

"Maximo Laura Tapestries." – Maximo Laura Tapestries. N.p., n.d. Web.
11 Mar. 2015.

"Peruvian Textiles." Ancient Peruvian Textiles Were Very Sophisticated since 3000 BCE. N.p., n.d. Web.

Young-Sánchez, Margaret, and Fronia E. Wissman. Andean Textile Traditions: Papers from the 2001 Mayer Center Symposium at the Denver Art Museum. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Most popular fiber: Known for their rich fiber. Alpaca fiber is used to make knitted and woven items similar to wool.
Vicuñas 2014
Popular due to its warmth
Rare: Sheared once every four years.
Animal of Peru
The code of Chacu

Pima Cotton
Similar properties to
Llama, Andes Ica 2010
Two main Threads: The “North” and The “South”
How It's Made
Maximo Laura Tapestries
Augur of the Harvest Time
82 x 140 in, Alpaca Wool, Mixed Fibers. Handwoven Peruvian Tapestry Art

National Award “Grand Master of Peruvian Craft”, 2001, Peru
Mention Prize, 3rd European Textile and Fibre Art Triennial, 2007, Latvia
The Dream of the Warrior of Light at Dawn
, 99 x 48 in, Alpaca Wool, Mixed Fibers. Handwoven Peruvian Tapestry Art
Backstrap loom
4 post loom
Vertical Loom
Three types of Looms:
Backstrap or belt loom,
Staked-out, horizontal or 4-post loom
Vertical frame loom
Peru Coat of Arms
Chimu (Weaving Fragment)
The storage room for the mummies in the Museo Leymebamba (place where they keep them stored),
Cahayapoya Textiles book
Mummy Bundles
Imagery: Spirituality/Symbolism
Feather works
Three primary colors:
red yellow and blue produced Preceramic times
came from madder (Relbunium) or cochineal (insect coccus cacti)
Blue :
made from a number of plants
Purple/famous tyrian purple: sometimes from mollusk
Yarn dyeing was the most common method

Style Periods Through Time
There has been an understandable tendency to collect together all ancient cultures under one heading “Peru”

Traditional Tools/Usage
There are hundreds of Inca symbols, most of them were create for war, religion and astrology. The symbols have the shape of snakes, condors, corn, cougars, the sun, the lighting, the coca plant and many others.
Since Andean people live in harmony with nature then many of the images in their design reflect nature. To date: Popular designs like flowers, stars, the inti (sun) and mayu (river) can still be seen in the modern woven works.

Other common designs/symbols within ancient textiles: Cats, Anthropomorphic figures, Lizard, bold descriptive line work
“In the Ancient Peruvian world, textiles were both a primary form of artistic expression and a primary means of communication for its oral and highly visual peoples”

Peru; Ocucaje. Mantle Precolumbian
2nd-1st century B.C.E. Material Camelid hair. L. 54 1/4 in.

Necklace fragment: birds and flowers. Textiles and Clothing. 200 B.C.-200 A.D. Alpaca wool (cross knit looping) 15 5/8 x 15 3/8 in. Mount: 18 x 14x 1/2 in.
Early Intermediate Period

Ritual Cloth
Chavin Culture, 1000-600 B.C.
South American; Pre-Columbian
Material tabby weave, extended tabby with supplementary weft
cotton, 112cm x 60.8cm

Cerimonial Sling
Sling Plaited and Embroidered
Fabric bordered with loop stitch figures
Painted Cotton Fibers
open weft in form
Main categories of techniques of Peruvian craftsmanship alone: plain weave, tapestry, double-cloth, triple-cloth, warp and weft patterning, warp and weft interlocking, gauze, twill, weft-pile, brocading, embroidery, applique, featherwork, twining, wrapping looping, sprang, braiding, and knotted netting

Peruvian Coat of Arms
Inca (Tunic)
Men and Women tradtional wear. El Valle Sagrado de los incas. 2010
(Tunic with Serpents, ca. 800–950 Peru, south highlands, Wari-related style Camelid hair, cotton; tapestry weave; 29 3/8 x 40 in. (74.6 x 101.6 cm) Private Collection
Abstract Wari Design came to influence the Bauhaus-based modernist movement later on in the 1920s
Traditional dress worn by women from the communities of Huilloc & Patacancha (Ollantaytambo)

Chavin Culture, 1000-600 B.C. Pre-Columbian
Ritual Cloth
Material tabby weave, extended tabby with supplementary weft
cotton, 112cm x 60.8cm

Border From an Embrodered Mantle 200 BC-AD 600, Paracas
Embroidered and fringed bag
200BC-AD600 Nasca, front facing male figure splayed in frog like fashion
Black outline is characteristic to Nasca Textile
Synthetic textiles in Cuzco market
Tapestry Hanging
AD 1476-1534 Chimu-Inka
This slit tapestry weave has a certain has a cotton warp and camelid fibre weft, although some details in white are woven using a cotton weft. The stunning design is charateristic of Chimu textiles woven during the period of Inka occupation.
Royal Tunic, 50-800AD
Wari tunic
This period developed and centuries later (by the 1920’s) came to influence the Bauhaus-based modernist movement of Artists and architects in Germany

Most common of all vegetable fibers
Paracas Ritual Cloth
32 squares with various figures. The border round the textile also contains several small motifs.
understood to have lain in front of the breast of a mummy in the outer layers of a grave bundle
Nazca mantle from Paracas Necropolis, 0-100 CE This is a "double fish" (probably sharks) design.
Gauze with open space and embroidery
Single-face and Double Face weaves
Plain weave
Carrying clothes
Slings and Cordage
Mummy wraps
Ritualistic purposed textiles

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