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Cells and Microscopes

An assignment on cells and micrscopes

William Reading

on 4 September 2012

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Transcript of Cells and Microscopes

Cells and Microscopes Part 1: How we see cells The light microscope was invented by two Dutch spectacle-makers, Hans Janssen and his son, Zacharias Janssen were the inventors of the light microscope. It was invented it around 1623. Question 1: Who invented the light microscope, and when? Today’s light microscopes are much better made and clearer than the first ones. Nowadays, they are made out of plastic or steel. Back then they would have been made out of brass. Today’s light microscopes are also much more powerful that the original. Question 2; How do the first light microscopes compare to today's modern light microscopes. The first cells were seen in a drop of water. Q. 3:What substance were the first cells seen in? A. History of the Light microscope B. Electron microscope The electron microscope was invented by two German engineers named Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll in 1928. This was a very rough design and a much more powerful version was invented in 1932. Question 1: Who invented the electron microscope, and when? The electron microscope is large, cylindrical and airless tube that uses a thin beam of rapidly moving electrons to provide a greatly magnified image by interfering with the specimen in the tube. Question 2: How does an electron microscope work? The electron microscope is much more powerful and is better for looking at cells whereas the light microscope isn’t as powerful. Question 3: What are the benefits of using an electron microscope over a light microscope? The electron microscope is much more expensive and much bigger/heavier. Only people that have a job in science or are interested in science and have a lot of money would have one of these. They are heavy duty. Question 4: What are the drawbacks of using an electron microscope over a light microscope? C: Part 1. Robert Brown's involvement in the study of cells under the microscope. Robert Brown was a paleobotanist who was one of the first people to study cells and life under the microscope. He made lots of contributions to the study of cells and is known for writing detailed descriptions of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming. He lived from 1773 – 1858. C Part 2. Parts of the cell A) A typical animal cell The cell is the basic unit of life. All organisms are made up of cells. Most cells are very small. Most are invisible without using a microscope. Cells are covered by a cell membrane and come in many different shapes. The contents of a cell are called the protoplasm. Animal cells are also known as eukaryotic cells or cells with a membrane-bound nucleus. Unlike animal cells, plant cells have a vacuole. They also have a Cell Wall for protection and Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are always green. Although they have a few different parts, plant cells also have parts like the nucleus and cell membrane. B) A typical plant cell Part 3 Cell differentiation Cell Differentiation Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialised cell becomes a more specialised cell type. This occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as it changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. Cell differentiation is when adult cells divide and create other complete cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. Cell differentiation dramatically changes a cell's size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are largely due to highly controlled modifications in gene expression. Different cells can have very different physical characteristics despite having the same genome. Red blood cells. Different types of cells. They deliver oxygen to the body tissues via the blood flow through the circulatory system. White blood cells They mainly fight germs that enter your body. They are like your own personal army. Bone cells Bone cells make up your bone structure. The End
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