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Transcript of Te Whariki
Credited with being the first bi-cultural early childhood curriculum in the world.
The national curriculum addresses the issues faced by children growing up in a society with more than one cultural heritage.
Nga kohanga neo now play an integral part in transmitting Maori culture and values to young Maori children and in particular supporting both the survival and revival of the Maori language.
The English and the Maori translations parallel and compliment each other.
This curriculum is shaped by the people, places, and things in the child’s environment: the adults, the other children, the physical environment, and the resources.
reflects the values of New Zealand natives while acknowledging the larger world of the child, family and community.
children grow to be competant and confident learners that are healthy in mind, body and spirit.
children develop a sense of belonging and know that they are valued contributers to their community.
The literal translation of "Te Whariki" is woven mat.
The curriculum philosophy is woven from four principles, five learning strands and program goals.
Curriculum Central Elements
Role of the Educator
Image of the child
Parent and Community Involvement
Child Assessment Tools
The layout of the class room is just as important as the materials in it.
• “The whole setting gives us cues about expected behaviour, and generally we do what we have been invited to do…” (Pairman & Terreni, 2001)
* blocks * books and storytelling
* carpentry * clay * collage
* cooking * dramatic/family play
* junk play * manipulative play * outdoor and physical play * paint * play dough * sand * music
* science and nature * water play
16 interest areas that promote development in all 5 strands of wellbeing; belonging, contribution, communication, and exploration
Documentation of the child's learning in the form of a story.
Provides a holistic picture of the child.
Photo Retrieved from http://mswonderoutloud.wordpress.com/tag/te-whariki/
Te Whariki outlines that the needs of the children should determine the curriculum rather than the assessment procedures.
The information gathered from child assessments should lead to the improvement of the overall program
Te Whariki stresses that in depth assessments require that the adult observes changes in each individual child’s behaviour and that these finding should be linked to curriculum goals.
Vygotsky argued that early childhood development is shaped by cultural-historical inheritances, placing value on children's early experiences in family and community settings .
Vygotsky viewed these experiences as a foundation for later cognitive development in the same way that the Te Whariki philosophy stresses that all aspects of the environment are a part of a child’s overall learning.
Vygotsky also believed that individual learning is based on much more than developmental domains and include knowledge about becoming a valuable member of a community, culture and society.
The Te Whariki curriculum reflects and implements these beliefs.
Cultural Development Theory
Photo Retrieved from https://www.marxists.org/archive/vygotsky/images/index.htm
children should be exposed to cultural tools, events and artifacts relevant to their culture and practices.
argued that human development and the ongoing creative development of knowledge is influenced by participation in sociocultural activities.
children's understandings change through participation with people in cultural activity.
Photo Retrieved from http://currents.ucsc.edu/03-04/01-26/rogoff.html
Photo Retrieved from http://www.bishopdalepreschool.co.nz/curriculum.php
ECE Educate. (2009). Principles of te whariki and assessment. Retrieved from http://www.educate.ece.govt.nz/learning/curriculumAndLearning/TeWhariki/PartA/CurriculumImplementation/PrinciplesOfTeWharikiAndAssessment.aspx?p=2
Hedges, H. (2007). Funds of knowledge in early childhood communities of inquiry. Retrieved from http://mro.massey.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10179/580/02whole.pdf?sequence=1
Hedges, H. (2012). Learning, culture, and social interaction. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210656112000244
Ministry of Education. (1996). Te Whaariki. He Whariki Matauranga mo nga Mokopuna O Aoteroa. Early Childhood Education, Learning Media. Retrieved from http://www.minedu.govt.nz/web/downloadable/dl3567_v1/whariki.pdf
Pairman, A., & Terreni, L. (2001). If the environment is the third teacher what language does she speak? Retrieved from http://www.educate.ece.govt.nz/learning/curriculumAndLearning/Learningenvironments/ThirdTeacher.aspx
Tyler, J.(2002). Te Whaariki: The New Zealand Curriculum Framework. Retrieved from http://www.worldforumfoundation.org/wf/presentations/index.php?p=2002_tyler
16 Areas Of Play Retrieved from http://www.howickplaycentre.co.nz/index.php/areas-of-play?start=10
Socio-cultural Cognitive Theory
Educates the child through specifically planned activities and spontaneous interactions that occur on a daily basis.
The curriculum is child directed. Educators follow the children’s lead when planning and implementing activities.
Interests are observed and activities, projects and tasks are planned to help each child stretch and expand on his/her interests and developmental needs.
These activities and experiences are planned for individual or small group times.
Te Whariki educators provide opportunities for open exploration, provide appropriate interesting materials that children can interact with both indoor and outdoor environments including their community.
The children are also provided with a lot of space, time and opportunity to practice and repeat tasks and activities at their own pace since there are variations in the children’s abilities and development.
As the children engage in these activities, the role of the educator becomes that of a facilitator who offers support when absolutely necessary
Opportunities are also provided for social interactions with peers, other children and the adults within the child’s immediate environment .
Learning also transcends beyond the home and school environment of the child. It incorporates the community that they operate in. As the saying goes, “it takes a village to raise a child” (African Proverb].
Planning activities, stories and events that have connections with the children’s social cultural background also forms an essential part of the Te Whariki’s curriculum
The Te Whariki educator also supports and extends children’s play with minimal interruption.
Photo Retrieved from http://www.earlychildhoodcentre.co.nz/programme
The four broad principles at the core of the Te Whariki curriculum are:•
Family and Community
(Whanau Tangata), •
From these four principles arise five strands which are:•
(Mana Atua) which includes social skills, and the promotion of emotional and physical health,
(Mana Whenua) which helps children develop an understanding of community, routines and acceptable behaviour,•
(Mana Tangata) which encourages working with others, understanding difference, and an understanding that each child can make a valuable contribution,•
(Mana Reo) which includes being expressive and creative, literacy, numeracy, non-verbal and verbal communication,
(Mana Aotaroa) which includes physical skills and challenges, thinking skills and making sense of the world.
Together the strands and principles form an integrated foundation for every child's development. This is what the woven mat activity depicts.
family and community relates to the New Zealand curriculum framework
one of the four guiding principles this curriculum is founded on is parents and community
Center doll = "The Learner" in the immediate learning environment
Next size doll that fits around the center one = home, family, ECE settings and the people in them
The adults' in the environment
The nations beliefs & values about children & ECE & education
If adults are to make informed observations of children, they should recognize their own beliefs, assumptions, and attitudes, all that have influence on the children.
Originally for DISADVANTAGED
Then 3-4 year olds
Then finally infant and toddler programs were expanded
A child who is empowered to learn and grow in a holistic way and learn through responsive and reciprocal relationships with people, places, and things.
Presently in New Zealand early childhood educators and families are both involved with the children’s behavior, care, and learning.
The educator’s role is to have a continuous understanding of the children’s relations between their culture, language, learning, and issues children face while growing up for example having more than one cultural heritage.
The educational strategies that derived from the mat activity shows 5 strands and 4 principles have effective learning and development for the children.
The Te Whariki program is designed to be inclusive and appropriate for all children including those with special needs and have IEP or IDP.