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Transcript of Facilitating Learning
Carrie Jacobs &
Lance Lennon Cognitivism "Learners use their memory
and thought processes to
generate strategies as well
as store and manipulate
mental representation and
ideas" (Januszewski, 25-26) Jean Piaget http://www.denstoredanske.dk/@api/deki/files/29064/=24888990.jpg Piaget's Theory
Fixed stages of cognitive development
Assmilation (Fitting objects and events into existing knowledge)
Accomodation (Modifying mental structures when objects and evets do not fit into what we already know) Information Processing Theory
Facilitating Learning "Educational Technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning..." “Helping people to learn is the primary and essential purpose of educational technology.” Januszewski - 15 Technology Defined: “The systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical tasks” Januszewski - 11 History of Facilitating Learning Definition http://sunderlandbookgroup.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/girl_sleeping_book.jpg 1963-- Emphasis on design and use of messages to control he learning process management of learning Process of Learning--This forshadows the current definition 1972- Facilitating learning is chosen and kept by the current authors Synonyms: PRomote, Assist, Support Learning Theory and Instructional Theory Instructional Theory: prescribe methods for teaching Learning Theory: describe how people learn 3 Main Learning Theories
-Constructivism Behaviorism Operant Conditioning- using consequences to modify the occurance and form of behavior (classical Conditioning)
Pavlov and his dogs
Skinner http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Skinner_teaching_machine_01.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:B.F._Skinner_at_Harvard_circa_1950.jpg The Teaching Machine--To--Programmed Instruction Programmed Tutoring Now reafirmed by peer with smile or nod or affirming phrase
hints toward answers
from 50th percentile to 75th compared to conventional instruction
Direct Instruction Fast paced, constant interaction, between learner and instructor
more like discussion whle learning
higher test scores Personalized System of Instruction Content divided into equal parts such as chapters
learn at own pace
pass competency test to continue
missed questions gone over again Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) and PLATO CAI came when programmed instruction was popular PLATO (University of Illinois) cost effective instruction with networked terminals
frist drill and practice
later a larger variety used for colleges
hardware and software improvements
more colleges connected
improved learning methods- discoverty oriented
PLATO pioneered forums,message boards, eamil, chate, IM, remote screen sharing, and multiplayer games
Continued through the 2000's and found niche in Military and Vocational Education Behaviorism and Facilitating Learning Behaviorism through Technlogy showed test scores can be improved--tests are the assessment
Learners can move at their own pace and no live teacher needed Online Wildland Fire Fighting Example Is Knowledge gained? transfered to realworld?
faster and better=life long?
ownership of learning, future self-initiated learning
Thoughts on Skinner's Remarks 1 Constructivist Prinicples 1. Embed learning in complex, realistic, and relevant environments.
2. Provide for social negotiation as an integral part of learning.
3. Support multiple perspectives and the use of multiple modes of representation.
4. Encourage ownership in learning.
5. Nurture self-awareness of the knowledge construction process.
pg. 34 Januszewski & Molenda Situated Cognition Anchored Instruction Problem-Based Learning Collaborative Learning "Emphasizes the notion that all human
thoughts are conceived within a specific context
--a time, a place and a social setting."
pg. 34 Januweski and Molenda
Learning must be related to the outside world, not
just in a classroom. scaffolding
coaching Realistic, interesting, interactive multimedia production
in a context that encourages active construction of knowledge
by learners. (http://tip.psychology.org/anchor.htm) Schema Theory Neuroscience Approaches Items stored in organized structures
Items likely to change as our perceptions do understand the mental process
by observing the brain through
imaging tools Cognitivism in Eduactional Technology instructional theories focus on presentation how to organize content so it makes sense to the learner Audiovisual Media provides a tool to overcome limitations of chalk and talk
more than rote memorization
Gestalt or 1+1 = 3 Auditory Learning Learning based on hearing
Processing of information
Visual Learning Learning by seeing
Todays learners are more visual Digital Multimedia display cheaper and easier than analog
transform one symbolsystem to another
mathmatical data becomes a graph
hypertext Cognitism and Facilitating Learning Focuses solely on cognitive theory Shows learners how the knowledge is structured Gagne's Events of Instruction Silber &Stelnicki's
"Gognitive Training Module" 2 Eclectic Method
"Learner-CenteredEducation" Formal and Informal Learning Related to Problem-Based Learning.
Uses open-ended problems, but includes embedded cues to support learners.
Follows a storyline.
Requires students to discuss and debate. A student centered strategy where students
work together to solve problems and then
reflect on their findings. (http://www.udel.edu/pbl/)
www.nndb.com/people/359/000094077/ Lev Vygotsky
www.vygotskydocumentary.com/vygotsky.htm Jerome Bruner
http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/quotations/bruner.html Ernst von Glasersfield
http://www.phillwebb.net/topics/human/VonGlasersfeld/VonGlasersfeld.htm Constructivism a theory about learning we construct our own understanding and
knowledge of our surroundings through
experiences and reflections of those experiences. When we learn something new, we
have to integrate it with our former
experiences. Sometimes changing
what we believe or deciding the
new information is irrelevant. There have been may key players in the process
of defining and establishing constructivism. Students work together to improve
communication, problem thinking,
creative thinking and team building skills.
Januszewski & Molenda pg. 36 constructivism in educational technology "Students are explorers, teachers, congnitive apprentices,
producers of knowledge, and directors and managers of their
own learning. Teachers are facilitators, guides, and colearners."
Januszewski & molenda pg. 36 Focus on authentic assessment. Valuing performance of the students. Using complex and meaningful activities. Based upon construction of knowledge. Media Versus Method In 1983, research by R. E. Clark declared tha media had no influence
on student achievement, media was just a delivery method. Then, in 1991, Kozma claimed media has a great influence on student achievement when students are learning with media not from media. Summary Keypoints
Formal vs. Informal
Media vs. Methods
Behaviorism Activity Constructivism activity Setting the scene:
You are a teacher in a classroom and have normally taught a lesson with a lecture or worksheet and then assessed the students with a multiple choice test. The students have generally performed well, but you wonder how much they are truly retaining and are able to relate to the world outside of the classroom. You just attended a staff development session on constructivism and have learned a few of the basic concepts of the learning theory. Pick a partner from the group and plan a short constructivist lesson, using a topic that you already use in the classroom. Plan the activity as well as the authentic assessment for the lesson. Final Thoughts