Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Do you really want to delete this prezi?
Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.
Make your likes visible on Facebook?
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.
Neural basis of personality
Transcript of Neural basis of personality
Social Anxiety Disorder
Link in the brain
Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex
Anterior cingulate cortex
Dopamine + opioid systems
Fear and avoid the scrutiny of others
Concern about saying or doing something that will result in embarrassment or humiliation
‘The tendency to experience the negative emotions and cognitions that accompagny experiences of threat and punishment, including anxiety, depression, anger, irritation, self-conciousness, rumination and vulnerability’
‘Neuroticism reflects a global dimension of negative emotionality that encompasses the tendencies to experience negative affect in the face of minor stressors, to be aroused quickly and for arousal to fall slowly following stimulation. It also reflects tendencies towards worrying and post-event processing, tendencies to appraise events as stressful and an inability to control urges. A core feature of neuroticism is a difficulty in emotion regulation'
Big five personality trait
Relatively stable over time
Hard to change with therapeutic interventions
Link between neuroticism and depression?
Common cause theory: common genetic and environmental determinants
Vulnerability model: neuroticism → psychological processes → depression
Anterior Cingulate Cortex
Larger in neurotic people
--> higher sensitivity to:
the possibility of error following punishment
the possibility of pain following punishment
Smaller in neurotic people
Related to poor emotion regulation
Smaller in neurotic people
A role in detection of uncertainty and goal conflict --> declares high sensitivity towards uncertainty in neurotic people
Linking the brain systems together?
inhibition of responses
orientation of attention to threat
enhancement of arousal
The link to depression
Emotion regulation ~ amygdala
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) - specific association
Abnormal connectivity OFC <--> Amygdala
Hyperreactivity in limbic brain regions
What is agreeableness?
One of the big 5 personality traits
Tendency toward altruism and cooperation as opposed to antisocial and exploitative behavior
non agreeable people
What is psychopathy?
Diminished empathy and remorse
Disinhibited, bold behaviour
Highly comorbid with antisocial personality disorder
The link between psychopathy and agreeableness
Agreeableness is a
Agreeableness and psychopathy in the brain
James Fallon's case
based on further neurological and behavioral research into psychopathy
engagement with aesthetic or sensory information
engagement with abstract or intellectual information
"tendency to process abstract and perceptual information flexibly and effectively, and includes traits such as imagination, intellectual engagement, and aesthetic interest."
Are you open/intellectual?
‘‘Intellect’’ (e.g., intellectuality and intelligence)
‘‘Openness’’ (e.g., imagination, unconventionality, interest in art)
either label would be appropriate (e.g., curiosity, creativity).
(DeYoung, 2010, pp. 1172).
(Barnhofer & Chittka, 2010, pp. 275).
Trait marked by pronounced engagement with the external world
Bahrami, H., Borjali, A., Ghadesi, D., & Sohrabi, F. (2011). Survey the relationship between five factor model and psychopathic personality in a sample of male prisoners in Iran.
Annals of Biological Research, 2
Bailley, E., S., Lutz, J., C., & Ross, R., S. (2004). Psychopathy and the Five Factor Model in a Noninstitutionalized Sample: A Domain and Facet Level Analysis.
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26
Caspi et al. (2010). Adolescent Psychopathy and the Big Five: Results from Two Samples.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33
Barnhofer T. & Chittka, T. (2010). Cognitive reactivity mediates the relationship between neuroticism and depression.
Behaviour research and therapy, 48
, 275-281. Doi:10.1016/j.brat.2009.12.005.
Berger et al. (2013). Brain volumes differ between diagnostic groups of violent criminal offenders.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 263
Bremner, J.D., Narayan, M., Anderson, E.R., Staib, L.H., Miller, H.L. & Charney, D.S. (2000). Hippocampal Volume Reduction in Major Depression.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 157
Canli, T. (2008). Toward a neurogenetic theory of neuroticism.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
, 1129, 153-174. Doi: 10.1196/annals.1417.022.
Cremers H, van Tol M-J, Roelofs K, Aleman A, Zitman FG, et al. (2011) Extraversion is linked to volume of the Orbitofrontal Cortex and Amygdala.
6(12): e28421. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028421
Davidson, R.J., Pizzagalli, D., Nitschke, J.B. & Putnam, K. (2002). Depression: perspectives from affective neuroscience.
Annual reviews of Psychology, 53
, 545-574. Doi: 0084-6570/02/0201-0545
DeYoung, C.G., Hirsh, J.B., Shane, M.S., Papademetris, X., Rajeevan, N., & Gray, J.R. (2010). Testing Predictions from Personality Neuroscience: Brain Structure and the Big Five.
, 21(6), 820–828.
DeYoung, C.G. (2010). Personality and the biology of traits.
Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4
(12), 1165-1180. Doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00327.x.
what is conscientiousness?
achievement - striving
in the brain
left middle frontal gyrus
plan and follow complex rules
maintaining information in working memory
execution of planned action
amygdala & nucleus accumbens
absence of control
lack of restraining impulses, aggression, depression.
Loss of inhibitions
Social inappropriate behavior
Executive dysfunction disruption in the ability to plan and order
Increase of selfishness
frontal mass decreases, conscientiousness decreases !
hormone and neurotransmiter
projections to brain structures
functioning of regions like the PFC,
of modulation by dopamine
of these regions by dopaminergic neurons
sensitivity and activity
of the dopaminergic system itself
dealing with novelty
analyzing and synthesizing abstract or complex relations
PFC = dopamine
strongest in the dorsolateral region
enhances dorsolateral PFC functions SPECIFICALLY
strongest in the dorsolateral PFC
enhance specifical functions
allow entrance of new information and/or improve processing
dealing with novelty
complex abstract relations
increased dopaminergic activation
increased cognitive flexibility
tests of cognitive ability and working memory
OPENNESS / INTELLECT
more linked to intelligence and working memory
abstract integration of multiple cognitive operations
drawing abstract analogies
monitoring goal - directed performance
detecting the likelihood of error during cognitive tasks
Selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation
Impulsity, instability and social deviance
Theory of mind
Social information reasoning
Superior temporal gyrus
Posterior cingulate cortex
to experience the negative emotions and cognitions that accompagny experiences of threat and punishment
, including anxiety, depression, anger, irritation, self-conciousness, rumination and vulnerability’
‘Neuroticism reflects a
global dimension of negative emotionality
that encompasses the
tendencies to experience negative affect
in the face of minor
and for arousal to fall slowly following stimulation. It also reflects tendencies towards
worrying and post-event processing
, tendencies to
appraise events as stressful
inability to control urges
. A core feature of neuroticism is a
difficulty in emotion regulation
neural correlates of the psychopathic core features of callousness and poor moral
(DeYoung, 2010, pp. 1172).
(Barnhofer & Chittka, 2010, pp. 275).
1. Stress dysregulates HPA-ax
2. Hippocampal volume reduces
3. Activity in prefrontal cortex reduces
4. Result: homeostasis within neurocircuit of depression disrupted
linked to 'theory of mind' and moral reasoning
associated with psychopathy
Foster, J.A. & MacQueen, G. (2008). Neurobiological factors linking personality traits and major depression.
Canadian journal of psychiatry, 53
Hansell, N.K., Wright, M.J., Medland, S.E., Davenport, T.A., Wray, N.R., Martin, N.G. & Hickie, I.B. (2012). Genetic comorbidity between neuroticism, anxiety/depression and somatic distress in a population sample of adolescent and young adult twins.
Psychological medicine, 42
, 1249-1260. Doi:10.1017/S0033291711002431.
Lane, C. (2007).
Shyness: How Normal Behavior Became a Sickness
. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Ormel, J., Bastiaansen, A., Riese, H., Bos, E.H., Servaas, M., Ellenbogen, M., … Aleman, A. (2013). The biological and psychological basis of neuroticism: current status and future directions.
Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 37
, 59-72. Doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.09.004.
Ormel, J., Jeronimus, B.F., Kotov, R., Riese, H., Bos, E.H., Hankin, B., … Oldehinkel, A.J. (2013). Neuroticism and common mental disorders: meaning and utility of a complex relationship.
Clinical psychology review, 33
, 686-697. Doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.04.003.
Palazidou, E. (2012). The neurobiology of depression.
British medical bulletin, 101
, 127-145. Doi:10.1093/bmb/lds004
Raine, A., & Yang, Y. (2009). Prefrontal structural and functional brain imaging findings in antisocial, analysis.
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 174
Roelofs, J., Huibers, M., Peeters, F., Arntz, A. & van Os, J. (2008). Rumination and worrying as possible mediators in the relation between neuroticism and depression and anxiety in clinically depressed individuals.
Behaviour research and therapy, 46,
Sladky, R., Höflich, A., et al. (2012) Increased Neural Habituation in the Amygdala and Orbitofrontal Cortex in Social Anxiety Disorder Revealed by fMRI.
PLoS ONE, 29
Sladky, R., Höflich, A., et al. (2013). Disrupted Effective Connectivity Between the Amygdala and Orbitofrontal Cortex in Social Anxiety Disorder During Emotion Discrimination Revealed by Dynamic Causal Modeling for fMRI.
, doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht279. [epub]
Stein, M.B, & Stein, D.J. (2008). Social anxiety disorder.
The Lancet, 371
Terracciano, A., Lobina, M., Piras, M.G., Mulas, A., Cannas, A., Meirelles, O., … Schlessinger, D. (2011).
Psychosomatic medicine, 73
, 638-642. Doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3182306a4f.
Perry, DC & Miller BL , (2013). frontotemporal dementia .
seminars in neurology
. 33 (4), 336-341
The research towards the neurobiology of personality is still in its infancy and our current understanding of neurobiology seems to be insufficient to develop a model of personality that is only derived from biological variables (Foster & Macqueen, 2008)
NATURE VS NURTURE
Do you think that neuroscience can say anything useful about the underlying brain mechanisms of personality? And about the relation between the brain and psychiatric disorders?
Do you think they should be held responsible for their actions?
“I’m obnoxiously competitive. I won’t let my grandchildren win games. I’m kind of an asshole, and I do jerky things that piss people off. I’m aggressive, but my aggression is sublimated. I’d rather beat someone in an argument than beat them up.”
There are some people who have had a brain damage and afterward experienced a drastic change in personality.
By looking inside the brain we can discover many things about people's personality.
How far do you think we should go? Is it ethic to classify a person according to what his/her brain structure shows?
Neuroscience in general is based on LOCALIZATIONISM - theory that different brain functions can be localized to different physical regions of the brain.
The other idea, that has only lately rised, is NEURPLASTICITY - brain's ability to change neural pathways and improve/replace some functions
How does our brain work? Are functions localized, or plastic and dynamic? If the brain really is plastic, is there any point in trying to find personality trait in one single structure?
What plays bigger role in the development of personality: brain (NATURE) or the environment (NURTURE)?
We've heard dozen of findings about the way in which the architecture of the brain predisposes personality.