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Art History Timeline

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Hannah Durkee

on 6 December 2014

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Transcript of Art History Timeline

1250
1300
1400
1200
1350
Art History Timeline

Megan Charles, Evan Treadgold, and Hannah Durkee

Chapter 13: Art in Thirteenth- and Fourteenth- Century Italy

The Pisanos' Nativity Scenes
Nicola
1220/25 - 1284
Giovanni
1265 - 1314
Nicola Pisano’s carved pulpit named Nativity is a combination of the Annunciation and the Birth of Christ. The scene is carved in relief, so the figures project from the background. Mary’s figure overpowers those of all the others in the scene. Nicola depicts her as a dignified Roman matron. Nicola used forms inspired by both Byzantine and Roman examples and therefore used broad figures, wrapped in “classicizing” draperies to demonstrate the gravity of the scene.
When Nicola’s son, Giovanni, carved a pulpit nearly fifty years later, he chose to emphasize a different aspect of the Nativity, which provides a great contrast to his father’s pulpit. Giovanni dwells on the animal and landscape elements while the Nativity itself dwells in a shallow cave. Mary dominates the scene in Giovanni’s as well, however he does not depict her in the way his father does. Giovanni does not depict her as a dignified matron, but rather a loving mother focusing all her attention on her newborn child. While Nicola’s Nativity is dominated by convex, projected images, Giovanni’s is made up of cavities and shadows.

World Art
Mihrab (prayer niche), Ilkhanid period (1206–1353), A.H. 755 / A.D. 1354–55

Mosaic of polychrome–glazed cut tiles on stonepaste body; set into mortar
Iran, Isfahan
The mihrab is the most important
element of a mosque. It is the
niche that indicates the direction
of Mecca. Because the mihrab
functions as the focal point of the
prayer ritual, its decoration
executed with great skill and
devotion.
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/39.20
Politics and Style Changes
In Italy, the political power did not lie in the power of the hereditary aristocracy, but in the hands of the urban elites. Monarchs only controlled a few regions such as Lombardy in the north and Naples in the south. Wealthy and influential cities such as Florence
and Siena, were organized as
representative republics.


The Palazzo Vecchio, a huge structure still standing in Florence, was the result of a huge shift in the political side of the city. The Guelphs, who were in favor of the Papacy, and the Ghibellines, who were in favor of the Holy Roman Empire, faced a shift in power. The Guelphs consolidated power during the time that the Florence cathedral was being built. This group of people wanted to emit a sense of power throughout the city. Thus, they commissioned the Palazzo Vecchio to be built. Through the philosophy of humanism and the influence of other medieval-style buildings in the area, a castle-like structure was erected. The construction began in 1298 and was completed by 1310. It was a fortified stone building, symbolizing strength in the communal good instead of strength in individual families. Using rusticated surfaces, heavy battlements, a tall, dominating tower, and several other techniques, the architect was successfully able to create a symbolism of political independence. I found this interesting because it shows such a change in architecture from the gorgeous and cavernous cathedrals. This condensed, solid structure was hugely influenced by the political events happening around it.
Politics

Pisano's Fortitude
This was a huge turning point for art from this era. Up until this point, most artists shied away from portraying the natural human form. This sculpture shows similarities between the ancient sculptures of Greece and Rome, both in terms of style and subject. It really shows the beginning of an time of looking to the past as a reference for art. Not only this, but it suggests something more than just a biblical story. The sculpture can be interpreted both as Daniel from the biblical story and as the Greek story of Herakles.
World Art

This piece is a “Rain God Mask” from Mexico during the 13th and 14th centuries. It represents the differences in culture between Europe and Central America during this time, while also showing the similarities. It’s a mask believed to be laid upon the faces of the dead, or even tied to some sort of religious sculpture. It looks to be a depiction of an “idealized” human face, showing the similarities between this culture and that of the Byzantine empire. The Byzantines also “idealized” the human face, believing the study of the natural world to be abhorrent. Sculptures from both areas during this time show this similarity in style. However, it also emphasizes the difference between Italian and Mexican art. During this time, the Italians were discovering the study of nature in art through Saint Francis, who encouraged this type of expression.
St. Francis Preaching to the Birds (Fresco)
This represents a big change in art of this era in Italy. Up until this point, most frescos painted in cathedrals were representations of the Virgin Mary or the life of Christ. In this fresco, the artist depicted St. Francis, a very powerful religious figure of the time. The piece shows St. Francis preaching to the animals, showing his deep connection with animals and the natural world. This ideology had a huge impact on future art pieces.
Giotto's
Madonna Enthroned
This piece was one of the first of this time to create more of a three-dimensional effect. The lighting and shadows are much more dramatic. It shows much more perspective than previous works of art from this time.
Pietro Lorenzetti's
Birth of the Virgin
This piece really helped to bring about the Renaissance in a way. It modifies the idea of perspective that Giotto's piece introduced. While it is not perfected quite yet, It is still a huge turning point for art at this time.
1400
1440
1520
1360
1480
Chapter 14: Artistic Innovations in Fifteenth-Century Northern Europe

1228; Francis of Assisi is canonized as a Saint
Saint Francis marked the beginning of a radical change in Italian philosophy. Humanism, the idea of focusing on the beauty of nature and the human form rather than heavenly images, was introduced. Saint Francis was a man of the people; he worked to bring the church to the people, which had a huge influence on artistic tendencies.
Architecture
Throughout the Middle Ages, Italian architects and sculptors were inspired by Roman and Early Christian art. This is seen in works such as the cathedral of Pisa, in which construction
began in 1064.

World Art
Pisa Cathedral with
Leaning Tower of
Pisa in the
background
This illustrated manuscript of the Lotus Sutra, a folding book made by an unkown artist, is unlike any other manuscript seen in Europe at this time. This intricate piece is far from the lavish, colorful pieces produced by the European artists of the 14th century.
Urban Economy and Innovation
Urban economies in cities such as Paris, London, Prague, Bruges, Barcelona, and Basel were based more on money and wages than landed wealth required bankers, lawyers, and entrepreneurs.
These cities were homes to artisans,
dayworkers, and merchants as well as
aristocrats. Investors were seeking for
new products and markets were
encouraging technological innovations,
such as the printing press. The printing
press was an invention with sweeping
effect. Some cities specialized in
manufacturing specific goods such as
tapestries, or working with certain
materials such as metalwork.
World Art
Turkey, late 15th century
"Star Ushak" carpet,
Ottoman period (ca. 1299–1923),
Wool (warp, weft, and pile);
symmetrically knotted pile;
L. 166 in. (421.6 cm), W. 91 1/2 in.
(232.4 cm)
This carpet is known as Star Ushak from the star shaped medallions and the weaving center from which in originates. By the design, the Anatolians were influenced by northwest Persian book design, as seen in buildings or illuminations, or Persian medallion carpets. Star Ushaks, extremely popular in the West and copied there, are portrayed in European paintings as early as the second quarter of the sixteenth century.
Robert Campin;
Mérode Triptych
Painted from 1425-1430, this was a pivotal piece of the 15th century. It is a modern interpretation of the Virgin Mary being told she is pregnant with the Savior. It is yet another example of the pre-renaissance attempt at perspective. Not perfect, but getting there.
At the same time there were changes in style going on. A lot of influence in building was coming from the french gothic style of architecture. Frescos were starting to be implemented. A lime based plaster arriccio that is applied in layers on a wall. Durable and allows for texture.

Gutenberg's Printing Press
Printing was not an entirely new concept when Johannes Gutenberg created the printing press in 1450. Nearly 600 years before Gutenberg, Chinese monks were setting ink to paper through block printing, where wooden blocks are coated with ink and pressed to sheets of paper. Centuries later in Germany, Gutenberg sped up the advancement of printing by making a mechanized printing press which allowed for an assembly line-style of production which was more efficient than pressing ink to paper by hand. This was a pivotal invention of the time and for the advancement of the world in general, as it allowed for the mass-printing of books, at the fraction of the cost of conventional printing methods. This allowed for the mass spread of ideas and information.
The Garden of Earthly Delights
Hieronymus Bosch
Created by Hieronymus Bosch between 1480 and 1515. These paintings represent humans in the natural world. The left-hand wing appears to represent the Garden of Eden, where God gives Adam the newly created Eve. The central panel reveals a world that is inhabited by tiny humans who interact with the other elements of the scene in various ways. The right-hand wing depicts an infernal zone, which may represent Hell, where odd creatures harass the little humans with punishments that are appropriate for their sins. Some see this as the third day of creation, while others see it as the flood of Noah.
1425
1450
1500
Chapter 15: The Early Renaissance in Fifteenth-Century Italy

1475
1500
1550
1525
Chapter 16: The High Renaissance in Italy 1495-1520

Melun Diptych
Jean Fouquet of Tours
Around 1450, Jean Fouquet of Tours was commissioned by King Charles VII's treasurer, Étienne Chevalier, to paint a diptych representing himself and his patron saint, Stephen, in proximity to the Virgin and Child. The two men in the left-hand painting gaze across the frame at toward the Virgin and Child. According to tradition, the Virgin is also a portrait of King Charles VII's mistress, Agnès Sorel. Fouquet deliberately contrasts the heavenly and earthly realms. The realism in these paintings are incredible. But Fouquet does not appeal to the emotions and his images are geometrically ordered and rational instead of being expressive.There is some kind of notion of perspective in the left-hand painting. The right- hand painting is very symbolic and semi-abstract, very unlike the other side.

Pieta
Bartolome Bermejo
Created around 1490, Bermejo's
Pieta
sets the image of the Virgin grieving for her dead son in a dark and atmospheric landscape which it cominated by an empty cross. The historical mourners are not in the painting, but rather Mary and Jesus are flanked by
St. Jerome to the left and a deacon to the right. This removes the theme from a strict narrative context and instead its function is an image of devotion.
Bermejo's
Pieta
contrasted greatly
from the work of
the time, such as
the work of
Jean Fouquet,
because the
emotion and
expressiveness
that was evident in
the figures.
The Birth of Venus
Sandro Botticelli
Painted in 1486, Botticelli creates a non-Christian scene. The idealized Venus stands in the center while the humanized version of Venus is said to be the woman on the right. The unity movement on the sides move you towards the center towards the idealized Venus. There is a dramatic theatrical sense to this, everything flows together. As the attention goes around this, your attention moves around this and is never driven out. Nothing is redundant. There is color balance, blue on the left and red on the right. There is a sense of modernism and Botticelli had free reign on how to express these myths. The existence of a surreal sense is a leap forward. The painting is now displayed in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy.


David
Donatello
-his body is not showing who David is
usually thought to be depicted as,
a warrior
-his posture isn't strong
-depicted as a young boy
-Story of David and Goliath
-sexual suggestion was widely
debated
-it's very strange in the history of art because not much is going on in the sculpture
-not classical Greek, but also not
Christian even though it's a Christian story

Between 1420's and 1460s
-Humanist sculpture
-represents the new era, Donatello
doesn't feel the need to show
reverence to the Church
-the hat and boots have nothing to
do with Christianity
(they are modern)
Vulture Vessel
Mexico - Aztec, 15th to early 16th century
Throughout the Precolumbian era, ceramic vessels in the forms of animal effigies were made in many large parts of Mexico. The animals selected for depiction were often used in ceremonies and were those that played a role in a myth. They served as cultural and cosmic metaphors based on their habitat and natural features. Birds usually symbolized the celestial realm and were associated with the sun, moon, and planet Venus. They were also seen as messengers between the real world and the supernatural world. The bird depicted here is a king vulture because of the characteristic fleshy protuberance, which is now missing, at the base of the beak.
St. Sebastian
Andrea Mantegna
-anatomically precise, carefully
proportioned body of the saint
-Early Christian Martyr who was
condemned to executed by archers
-classic ruins lie at his feet
-detail in architectural work -
advanced
-left side artist's signature in Greek
- start of individual focus on the
artist as a important figure in
society (artist began to be looked
at as famous)
-light filled landscape alludes to
Flemish paintings that the artist was influenced by

1456-1459

Vitruvian Man
Leonardo da Vinci
The image of the man is anatomically correct, but da Vinci did not a perform a study to draw this man. It is an idealized figure, geometrically designed. Da Vinci drew this to show that the human body can make the perfect geometric shapes of a circle and a square.

Portrait of Eleanora of Toledo and Her Son Giovanni de' Medici
Agnolo Bronzino
In the 15th century, the generation of new
Medici patrons used portraiture as a
means to express their new status.
Agnolo Bronzino (1503-1572) painted
the Portrait of Eleanora and Her son
Giovanni de’ Medici which exemplifies a
new type of court portrait. The painting is
a highly idealized portrait of the wife of
Cosimo I. Eleanora’s hair was actually
blonde, but Bronzino darkened her hair
and perfected her features in the portrait.
In this way, the portrait presents Eleanora
as an ideal beauty, just as Cosimo I was
admired for his manly goodlooks and
courage.
Eleanora sits rigidly with her arm resting on her
silent, staring son. She is wearing a complicated brocaded dress and jewelry that demonstrates
her wealth and status. The way that Bronzino
depicts Eleanora and Giovanni is similar to the Madonna and Child. The lighting in the
background that surrounds Eleanora suggests a
halo. Bronzino’s painting describes the sitter as a member of an exalted social class, not as an
individual personality. This painting and its
qualities became the ideal of court portraiture throughout Europe.
1545
Allegory of Venus
Agnolo Bronzino
Bronzino’s Allegory of Venus was another prominent painting of his. The symbolism and poetry of this painting is evident through each individual figure. The bald Father Time is pulling back the curtain from Fraud, the figure in the upper left-hand corner, to stumble upon Venus and Cupid in an incestuous embrace. This is much to the delight of Folly, who is carrying roses, and to the dismay of a figure that is tearing his hair out, who has been identified as Jealousy or Pain. On the right, Pleasure, half-woman and half-snake, offers a honeycomb. The moral of Bronzino’s image possibly is that folly and pleasure blind one to the jealous and fraud of sensual love, which time reveals. This literary quality of the allegory reflects Bronzino’s skill as a poet.
Circa 1545
The Rape of the Sabine Woman
Giovanni Bologna
Created 1574-1582
Jean Bologne (1529-1608), a
gifted sculptor from Duoai in
northern France, who had
encountered Italian styles at the
court of Francis I, came to the
Accademia del Disegno. He
found employment at the
ducal court and, under the
Italianized name of Giovanni
Bologna, became the most
important sculptor in Florence
during the last third of the
16th century.

He demonstrated his skill by
sculpting three contrasting
figures united in a single action.
Bologna had no specific theme
in mind when sculpting this
piece, but when it was finished a
member of the academy
proposed the title
The Rape of
the Sabine Woman
,
which Bologna accepted.
The duke admired the sculpture
so greatly that he had it installed
near the Palazzo della Signoria.
Devananda's Fourteen Auspicious Dreams Foretelling the Birth of Mahavira: Folio from a Kalpasutra Manuscript
India (Gujarat, Jaunpur), ca. 1465
This folio depicts the fourteen auspicious dreams of the Brahmani, Mahavira's mother. The emblems above the bedchamber scene allude to this story. This painting, which belongs to a unique illustrated Kalpasutra manuscript from Uttar Pradesh, displays an effective use of gold and an intense ultramarine derived from lapis lazuli. While holding onto the broad conventions of the western Indian style, the painting also displays a bold approach to color and ornamentation that connects the archaic western style with the emerging north Indian schools.
Late 1480s
Jan Van Eyck
Man in a Red Turban
(1433)
Lidded Saltcellar, 15th–16th century Sierra Leone; Sapi-Portuguese Ivory H. 11 3/4 in. (29.8 cm) Gift of Paul and Ruth W. Tishman, 1991 (1991.435a,b)
This Saltcellar is representative of a lot of the Ivory carving going on in Sierra Leone around the 14th century. This salt container would have been used by rich nobility for holding salts or spices.
World Art
Madonna and Saints
Giovanni Belini
This was painted in 1505. The figures are realistic and there is a 3D sense to it. This piece is a leap forward as Belini is able to achieve depth of color. Belini was influenced by northern artists who used oil paint and he had a great influence on future artists such a Titian.

This purely secular oil painting is intiguing in a variety of ways. The subject is depicted in a dull and uninteresting way that does not communicate his personality, yet Eyck has the man making eye contact with the viewer. It almost looks as though he his peering into a mirror, bringing up the possibility of it being a self-portrait of Eyck himself. The detail in this is incredible. In writing around the edge of the painting, "ALS ICH KAN" translates to "As best I can" suggesting that he was in competition with other painters of this time. It is also very interesting that it is a secular piece, as many painting around this era were more interested in creating religious works.
Change in European Political and Cultural Landscape: The Protestant Reformation
The Roman Catholic Church was challenged by Martin Luther in 1517, and due to this the political and cultural landscape of Europe changed. The religious unity began to diminish and many began leaving the Catholic tradition. The Protestant Movement urged the obliteration of idolatrous religious art and stained glass. Because of this reformation, the Catholic Church asserted more control of the content and style of images and it sought to define itself against the Protestant Reformation. The religious imagery became more standardized in the Catholic Church in response to this reformation. Also during the time, Charles V initiated influences throughout Europe. He reestablished the Republic of Florence, resorted the Medici to power, and awarded knighthood to Titian, along with patrons of Titian.



The rise of painting as a medium...
Hungarian–style Shield, ca. 1500–1550
Eastern European
Wood, leather, gesso, polychromy; 32 1/2 x 21 in. (82.6 x 54.9 cm)
Rogers Fund, 1949 (49.57.1)
Court patrons continued to prefer works of art made of more expensive materials like gold, and enjoyed illuminated manuscripts and tapestries. At the same time as this, patronage among the merchant class began to grow, affecting the market for artists. While large scale sculptures were still popular, the market for painting grew substantially.
Whats makes this shield special is the double bladed sword of the prophet Mohammed on the front with the back having the crucifix and instruments of the passion.
Madonna with Members of of the Pesaro Family
Titian
This painting was commissioned
by Jacopo Pesaro, whose family
acquired the
chapel in the Frari Basilica in
Venice in 1518. This painting still
resides there today. Titian actually
used his wife, who died in
childbirth soon after the painting
was finished, as the model for the
Virgin Mary.

1519-1526
World Art; Box with a Lid from Syria
This intricate piece of art is great to compare with art in Europe during this time. Made of brass and inlaid silver, it really shows that fine metals were extremely valuable during this time all across the world.
Titian's use of color was
advanced. He became a master
of oil painting. The scene is not
as formal. There is much
more movement and
story-telling.
Divide in the Catholic Church
Main Points: Cathedrals
Dagger Hilt; Iranian (ca. 1450)
The detail of the dragons on the ends of the hilt show similarities to the detail found in some European sculptures.
The Great Cathedrals of Europe's Gothic Era were mostly completed by 1400 with the helps of church officials, rulers and the laity. These Cathedrals became monuments for cities and set the stage for many major artistic, social, and economic changes that we can still see today in the modern world.


There was an outstanding increase in literature and therefore it opened a pathway for people to change their religious expression. In the 14th century, the pope left for Avignon, France. When he returned, some of his successors had elected a new pope. This caused a divide in the Catholic Church because there were two popes. The division ended around 1417. The damage of the division could not be reversed and it caused some people to distrust the Catholic Church. The consequences of the division created a movement called the Modern Devotion, which called for renewal through the restoration of genuine devout practices such as humility, obedience, and simplicity of life.
World Art
1400
High Renaissance
This was the name of the period between 1495 and 1520 in which some of the most revered works of of European art were created. During this time, artists became more celebrated and gained a distinct amount of fame.
Bizhan Forces Farud to Retire into His Fort: Page from a dispersed manuscript of the Shahnama (Book of Kings)
India, ca. 1430–35
This painting illustrates a
passage from the great
Persian epic history, the
Shahnama (Book of Kings).
It shows the dramatic
confrontation of between
the hero Bizhan and the
brave half-brother of the
Iranian king Kay Khusrau,
in the moments after each
protagonist had slain his
opponents horse.
The growth of humanism led to a new perspective on artists. Despite their backgrounds, they managed to gain recognition through their skills.
The Sultanate features of
this painting include the
almost square format. The use of the scale is used for dramatic effect, which is seen through the oversized figure of Bizhan. There is a disregard for architectural plausibility. There is a preference for abstract patterns, which is seen in the tree and in the rows of archers.
Ink, colors, and gold on paper
Michelangelo;
The Creation of Adam
(1508-1512)
Probably one of the more well-known pieces of this famous ceiling, this fresco depicts not the physical creation of Adam, but rather the passage of the divine spark from God to Adam, giving him life. It is a great representation of the relationship between God and humankind, giving off powerful emotions as well as meaningful symbolism.
The New Age
The main change in the 15th and 16th centuries was the change in mindset. The people believed and recognized that they were living in a new age, known as "rinascimento" by the Italians, but now known by its more popular French name the "Renaissance".
It was defined as the rebirth of classic learning of literature and art. It became a time for more humanist studies.
Linear perspective became popularized, and new techniques for creating form through light were being practiced by many different artists.
Portraiture
Mannerism
The Reformation began and the rise of courts affected artists. The connection among the courts created a new style called Mannerism. The word Mannerism derived from the word maniera, which means manner or style. This style was inspired by the works of Raphael and Michelangelo, but the artists developed this new style that put the emphasis on technical virtuosity, scholarly subject matter, beautiful figures, and intentional complex compositions.
During the period of the Renaissance, secular works of art became increasingly popular. Images of history, contemporary events, or myths are all examples of this and can be found throughout the artwork of the Renaissance. Portraits also became popular during this time. In previous years, portraits were found mainly among the wealthy. During this time, however, a surprising amount of portraits were created of merchants, brides, and the artists themselves.
The Papacy and Control of the Church
By the end of the 15th century, the papacy has been firmly reestablished in Rome. In tandem with their spiritual control of the Church, the popes reasserted political and military control over the Papal States in the area around Rome. The papal intentions to rule there were expressed through rebuilding the city. Sixtus IV demonstrated this with the building of the Sistine Chapel, among other projects.
Female Figure (Tunjo), 10th–16th century
Colombia
This ancient work of art may be very simple, but it really connects with the idea of humanism that was becoming more and more popular in Europe around the same time. It represents a female figure holding her child in one hand and a baton in the other. The tunjo were Musica votive objects. They depicted the people of Musica doing a variety of activities. The importance on the human figure is at the center of humanism and the Renaissance.
Important political/philosophical/religious/cultural changes
An increasing focus on nature and trying replicate 3 dimensions.
1512 Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling completed
1521 Hernan Cortes conquers Mexico for Spain
The discoveries of the early renaissance helped pave the way to the discoveries of the High Renaissance.
Artists competed with each other for fame/recognition and the honor of being commissioned by rich merchants or the Church
1525
1550
1600
1500
1575
Chapter 17: The Late Renaissance and Mannerism in Sixteenth-Century Italy

1525
1550
1600
1500
1575
Chapter 18: Renaissance and Reformation in Sixteenth-Century Northern Europe

1625
1650
1700
1600
1675
Chapter 19: The Baroque in Italy and Spain


1620
1640
1680
1600
1660
Chapter 20: The Baroque in the Netherlands


La Belle Jardinière
Rapahel of Urbino
1507 - Oil on panel
La Belle Jardinière (Beautiful Gardener) reflects the style of Raphael's teacher, Perugino. However, the forms are more ample and the chiaroscuro is expertly rendered. The characters depicted are young Jesus and John the Baptist and the Virgin. Jesus and John have perfect little bodies. They are posed in a way that they are interacting with each other and the Virgin. Raphael's painting is a reworking of Leonardo's The Virgin on the Rocks. Raphael differs from Leonardo's by replacing enigmatic gestures found in Leonardo's work with a gentle rhythmic interplay.
Man with a Blue Sleeve
Titian
Circa 1520
Titian placed his
subject against a
non-specific
backdrop behind a
stone parapet,
which his initials (T.V.
for Tiziano Vecellio)
appear. This is an
arrangement that was
pioneered by
Flemish painters.
The man makes eye contact with the viewer by turning his head. He is depicted with having a self-confident air that is shown not only by his cool glance, but also by the commanding prescense of his arm that seems to be projecting out.
Bacchanal
Titian
ca. 1518 - Oil on canvas
Commissioned by Alfonso d'Este,
duke of Ferrara, for his Camerino
d'Alabastro (Little Room of
Alabaster). Titian attempted to remake a Roman painting known only from descriptions by the Roman author Philostratus. The theme is the effect of a river of wine on the inhabitants of the island of Andros. Titians illustrates a crowd of figures who are in various stages of undressing. They are hoisting jugs of wine and misbehaving. The painting, therefore, competes with both antique art and literature.
1640
1660
1700
1620
1680
Chapter 21: The Baroque in France and England


1720
1730
1760
1710
1740
Chapter 22: The Rococo


1760
1770
1790
1750
1780
Chapter 23: Art in the Age of the Enlightenment, 1750-1789

1810
1830
1850
1780
1840
Chapter 24: Art in the Age of Romanticism, 1789-1848

The Great Abu Sa'ud Teaching Law: Folio from the Divan of Mahmud 'Abd al–Baqi
Mid-16th century, Turkey
Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper
Mahmud 'Abd al-Baqi (1526/27-1600) was a Turkish judge and poet whose most important work is Divan, or collection of poetical works, which reflects the pleasures of courtly life in Istanbul in the 16th century. This is a page from one of the one of the four known illustrated copies of the manuscript. In the artwork is the Shaikh al-Islam , the chief theologian, of the time, Abu al-Sa'ud. He is engaged in a discussion with other theologians and a poem about him is written as well.

Portrait of Napoleon on His Imperial Throne
, 1806

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
Ingres received a commission from the French Legislative Assembly for a Portrait of Napoleon on His Imperial Throne, which he showed at the Salon of 1806, where it was heavily criticized, even by Napoleon himself. The harsh Davidian planarity, compressed space, and emphasis on line or contour demonstrate Ingres’s Neoclassical roots. However, Ingres’s edge is sharper and more lively which can be seen in Napoleon’s robe. But through this work the comparison with David and Primitives ends and Ingres’s Romanticism begins, although it does not overwhelm his Neoclassicism. Ingres would be recognized as the great standard-bearer of Neoclassicism in the first half of the 19th century. Ingres fills every square inch of the painting with riches—gold, gems, ermine, marble, tapestries, rare objects. In one of his hands, Napoleons is holding the golden scepter of Charlemagne, in the other the ivory hand of justice of the French medieval kings, both certifying his royal legacy. The curved back of the throne forms a halo around the emperor’s head, which contemporaries recognized as a reference to God the Father in the central panel of Jan and Hubert van Eyck’s Ghent Altarpiece. Ingres had Napoleon pose in the same manner as the Van Eyck’s God. This suggests that Napoleon is gifted with the same qualities, or at least that his actions are authorized by God.
Late Renaissance
The Reformation's challenges of spiritual matters and the rise of powerful courts affected Italian artists in this period by changing the climate in which they worked and the nature of their patronage. No single style dominated the 16th century, however all the artists who were working in what is now called the Late Renaissance, were affected greatly by the achievements of the High Renaissance.
David
Gianlorenzo Bernini
1623
Baroque is an obvious element in Bernini's David.  What makes the sculpture Baroque is the implied presence of Goliath. Unlike previous statues of David, Bernini does not depict David as a self-contained figure but as a half of a pair. Through this, the space between David and his invisible enemy is charged with energy. Bernini’s David demonstrates the distinctive feature of Baroque sculpture: its new, active relationship with the surrounding space. Bernini presents “the movement” of action, not just the contemplation of killing, which is seen in Michelangelo’s work, or the aftermath of it, which is seen in Dontatello’s.
Santa Cecilia
Stephano Maderno
1600
Instead of depicting his subject standing in life like most depictions of saints, he depicted her as a resting dead body. The 15th century saint’s body was found, uncorrupted, in 1599 in the church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. The discovery of her body sparked many depictions of Santa Cecilia during the Baroque period. She is the patron saint of music and artists always depicted her young, alive, engaged, and often playing a musical instrument. However, in Maderno’s depiction she is lying on her side on a flat slab of marble. Her dress is pulled in between her knees and down to her toes as if she had been lying in a bed rather than a morgue slab. The cut in her neck and how her head is twisting away demonstrates that she is dead. In fact, she was martyred by decapitation, but her head did not actually separate from her body. In Maderno’s depiction, she is lying vulnerable even in death, which evokes pathos.


"Simonetti" Carpet
World Art
Egypt, 1500
World Art
This majestic weaving, named for a former owner, is one of the most famous of all Mamluk carpets. It has five medallions instead of two or three, which was more normal. It is slightly brighter and has a more varied palette than normal. Surprisingly, Mamluk carpets are rich in appearance despite being coarsely woven and having a limited color scheme. The overall effect is that of a "shimmering mosaic."
Portrait of Sultan Ahmet I
World Art
Early 17th century, Turkey
This is one painting in a series that seems to have been originally collected or maybe painted for one particular album. There is only one painting that has an inscription revealing the subject of the portrait, but others like this one do not. The top of the painting which has a cartouche might have been meant to hold an inscription. The sultan is portrayed without any other figures. He is seated on a carpet in a room with tile decoration. He is depicted in the typical fashion of the late 16th century Turkish school.
World Art
Jar
Second half of 18th century, Korea
Plain globular jars similar to this one are affectionately called
dalhangari
, or moon jars. Most moon jars are not as perfectly round as a full moon. Many were formed by joining the bottom and top half. This often resulted in a visible joint near the middle of the jar which also caused irregularities throughout the whole piece. Part of the charm of moon jars is the relaxed approach to the process, which yielded a robust and appealing end product. Porcelain jars of this type were very popular in the 17th and 18th centuries.
World Art
George Washington
Charles Wilson Peale
America, 1780
On January 18, 1779, the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania passed a resolution commissioning a portrait of George Washington for the Council Chamber and selected Charles Wilson Peale as the artist. The original portrait, the full-length version now in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, was a great success and Peale completed many copies for royal palaces abroad, and each time updating the Washington's military dress. This figure of George Washington was most likely painted between June and August of 1780. In every other version, Washington is shown after the Battle of Princeton, but here he is depicted after the Battle of Trenton, the turning point of the war. It has been suggested that this portrait was commissioned upon the order of Mrs. Washington, because it is the only portrait in which Washington wears his state sword and because the painting descended in the Washington family.
Basin (Lebrillo) with Lacework Pattern
World Art
From a Mexican puebla (town), 1650
The basin's shape is Hispano-Muslim in origin, however its inscription is indicative of of Christian liturgical use, probably for washing the cloth used to wipe the communion chalice.
A rare example of "Puebla polychrome", the basin's strong black design was inspired by the Spanish ceramic ornamental style known as
encaje de bolillos
(bobbin lace).
World Art
Pen box
Signed by Haji Muhammad
Late 17th century-early 18th century, Iran
The Europeanized landscape depicted on the inside cover of the pen box is associated with the style of this artist and other members of his family, most famously his celebrated brother Muhammad Zaman. The high status accorded to the arts of calligraphy and writing in Islamic world led to the production of many handsome accessories such as this pen box.
Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana at the Hermitage of Bharadvaja
World Art
India (Punjab Hills, Kangra), 1780
The Ramayana manuscript from which this painting comes is one of the great production of the Kangra workshop and also one of the largest in page sizes. Its compositions are distinguished by their variety and audacity. This one depicts the wilderness landscape into which Rama was exiled. Here, Rama and his companions are seen consulting the sage Bharadvaja , who tells Rama that his fourteen-year exile will soon end and he will be reunited with his family.
Main ideas
Many of the key events that occurred during the high Renaissance brought important changes throughout Europe, as well as in Italy. In addition to religious challenge of the Reformation fomented by Luther and the new cultural expressions of the Italian Renaissance, northern Europeans witnessed significant changes: the growing power of large centralized France, England, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire; the expansion of Europe's economic reach around the globe; and the rapid dissemination of new ideas and styles.
The Unicorn in Captivity
This is a famous survival of art in the set of the Unicorn Tapestries which depicts the Hunt for the Unicorn, woven around 1500 in the Southern Netherlands or northern France. This tapestry is the culmination of a series of images describing the hunt for, death of, and resurrection of the unicorn, the mythical one-horned equine beast who could only be catured by a virgin. The theme is supposed to depict the courtly pastime of hunting, but the unicorn itself has been read as symbolizing Christ.
The Burial of Count Orgaz
El Greco
1586
The painting emphasizes the
Roman Catholic position that good works are required to achieve salvation and that saints serve as intercessors with Heaven. This painting honors a medeival benefactor so pious that St. Stephen and St. Augustine miraculously appeared at his funeral and lowered his body into its grave. The color and texture in the armor and vestments reflects El Greco's Venetian training. Every form, the clouds, limbs, and draperies all take part in the sweeping, flamelike movement toward the figure of Christ.
The expansive, expressive quality of the Baroque paralleled the true expansion of European influence -- geographical, political, and religious -- throughout the 17th century. The exploration of the New World that began in the 16th century, mobilized primarily in Spain, Portugal, and England, developed in the 17th century into colonization, first of the eastern coasts of North and South American, and then of Polynesia and Asia. The Dutch East India Company developed trade with the East and was headquartered in Indonesia. Jesuit missionaries traveled to Japan, China, and India, and settled in areas of North and South America. In style and spirit, the reach of the Baroque was global.
Exploration, Colonization, and Globalization
The 17th century brought a division of the Netherlands into two parts: the Northern Netherlands (the present-day Netherlands) and the Southern Netherlands (present-day Belgium and part of France). Each is often known by the name of its most important province: Holland (North) and Flanders (South).
Marchesa Brigida Spinola Doria
Peter Paul Rubens
This is a portrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola Doria, a members of the ruling class of Genoese banking families, who invested in trade with Africa and the East, was painted in 1606, probably in celebration of her wedding at age 22.
Although still a large painting, it was even more monumental in the 17th century, perhaps 9 feet high, before it was cut down on all four sides.
The vast flowing red cloth, which unfurls behind her, contrasts her dress and heightens the color of her face. The diagonal movement of this drapery also suggests her forward stride.
1606
England, led by an absolute ruler, and France, governed by a king who shared power with the Parliament, underwent drastic changes. Devastated by the previous era's religious wars and dynastic struggles, both nations saw close to empty treasuries, their populations reduced, and their societies divided. The theological controversies that had characterized the earlier Reformation and Counter-Reformation continued in this period, with Catholicism becoming the dominant religion in France and Protestantism in England.
Society in England and France
Titian's
Rape of Europa
This piece is a great example of the oil on canvas that was coming about during this time. This way of painting created a lot of excess texture, giving even more emotion to many pieces. Titian clearly took advantage of this in this very emotional piece.
Rosso Fiorentino
The Descent from the Cross
The Rococo
The Rococo style began at the late height of the 17th century Baroque style. There are similarities and differences between the Baroque and the Rococo style. Rococo evokes "enchanted realm that presents a diversion from the real world." The Rococo style is like a fantasy. In France, the Rococo style demonstrated the shift of aristocrats who reasserted their power as patrons and started to be drawn to stylized motifs that came form the nature and a more domestic art. They would create their homes in Paris with this type of art. The word "Rococo" was taken form the French word "rocaille" which means pebble and the Portuguese for "barocco." Overall, the definition of Rococo means a natural quality and sense of ornamentation well suited to depict life.

This religious painting is a great example of an early expression of a new style. Fiorentino's style, especially in this piece is very different from others during his time. He adds a lot of emphasis on the cross, and there is not very much depth to it; all of the subjects appear on the same plane. The angles found throughout the piece are sharp, giving the painting a very edgy dynamic that was much different in comparison to other pieces of the time. Color is also a huge component of this work.
The Protestant Movement
The Protestant movement spread surprisingly quickly throughout northern Europe. This move away from the Catholic Church had a huge impact on art. This can especially be seen through the architecture of the time. Many churches, which always had contained intricate, complicated designs and lavish materials with many different paintings and decorations, would become much simpler as time wore on. Though change did not happen immediately, it definitely marked a huge change in the artistic world.
The Sack of Rome
In 1527, the Habsburg army sacked Rome. This attack was carried out by the troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome. With this event there were a large number of casualties, with effects that continued to have an impact on Rome for years afterward. It marked the end of the Roman Renaissance
Division of the Netherlands
Age of Romanticism
The term “Romanticism” appeared in 1798 in poetry by a German named Friedrich von Schlegal. Romanticism was arguably the largest artistic movement of the late 1700s. The basic idea of Romanticism is reason cannot explain everything. In reaction to the idea of rationality that was of the Enlightenment, Romantics searched for deeper, often subconscious appeals. Sincerity and truthfulness are critical to Romanticism. It was an attitude, opposed to just a style of art which allowed the abandonment of logic.
The Blinding of Samson
Rembrandt van Rijn
Painted in the Baroque style van Rijn developed in the 1630s after moving to Amsterdam, it shows Rembrandt as a master storyteller. He depicts the Hebrew Bible would as full of Oriental splendor and violence, and he is directly influenced by Caravvaggio through the Utrecht Caravaggisti. The theatrical light pouring into the dark tent heightens the drama.
Painted in
1936
The Abduction of the Sabine Women
Nicolas Poussin
This painting displays the severe discipline of Poussin's intellectual style, which developed in response to what he regarded as the excesses of the High Baroque. The figures of the painting look "frozen in action." Many are, in fact, derived from Hellenistic sculpture, but the main group is directly inspired by Giovanni Bologna's
The Rape of the Sabine Woman
.
1633-1634
Portrait of Madame de Pompadour
François Boucher
1756
Boucher established -- even orchestrated -- her self-fashioning as a
femme savante
-- an educated, culture, accomplished woman who was also elegant, beautiful, and sophisticated. The subject is shown amid luxurious surroundings wearing a dress that signals opulence. She sits in her boudoir/library, which reflects the range of her accomplishments. She also identified herself with Venus. The cupid by the clock, the roses on her dress and at her feet, and the pearl bracelets (pearls from the sea in which Venus was born) are each attributes that suggest her affinity with Venus.
The Western world was embarking on a revolution, one that is still unfolding today. This revolution ushered in a radically new way of viewing the world, one that would lead to the social, scientific, economic, and political values that govern our present lives. It was beginning of the birth of modern world.
Birth of the Modern World
Political Revolutions
The political revolutions of the United States in 1776 and France in 1789 were pushed on by the desire for democracy, personal liberty, capitalism, socialism, industrialization, technological innovation, and urbanization. Also, the "doctrine of progress", a continuous upward march toward an improved life through science and knowledge, is also one of the many modern concepts that emerged from this period.
Parnassus
Anton Raphael Mengs
Finished in 1761, this painting depicts the cardinal as Apollo surrounded by the seven female Muses, most of whom can be identified as the cardinal's friends. His painting combines Raphael's planarity and linearity. The figures themselves are copied from Raphael and form the recently unearthed murals at Herculaneum and Pompeii.
Grande Odalisque
Jean-Auguste-Dominque Ingres
Ingres’s Grande Odalisque was commissioned by Caroline Murat, Napoleon’s sister and queen of Naples, in 1814. It was submitted to the Salon of 1819. This painting is even more exotic than the one of Napoleon because it represents a Turkish concubine and is one of the earliest examples of Orientalism, as the Western fascination with the culture of the Muslim world of North Africa and the Near East was then called. The exotic subject of the painting gave Ingres the ability to paint a female nude who was not a Greek goddess. However, she does recall many Renaissance and Baroque paintings of a reclining Venus and sculptures of Adriadne from antiquity. In order to make this painting more appealing to a Paris audience, Ingres gave his odalisque European features. Ingres treats a Romantic subject in an essentially Neoclassical manner, including idealization. The figure is alluringly sensual, and the hashish pipe, incense burner, fan, and turban “authenticate” the exotic scene. But the painting as a whole gives a sense of cultivated beauty, refinement, and idealization that seems Classical.
A Pastoral Landscape
Claude Lorrain
Painted in 1948, Lorrain does not aim for topographic accuracy in his paintings but instead evokes the poetic essence of a countryside filled with echoes of antiquity. In this painting the composition has a hazy, luminous atmosphere of early morning or late afternoon. His sunlight is at the center and at the horizon line of the painting so that the architecture and other elements in the foreground or middleground appear almost as silhouettes. The piece is painted on copper.
The Orgy,
scene III
of The Rake's Progress
William Hogarth
Hogarth's scene is set in a London brothel, The Rose Tavern. It shows a young man, Tom Rakewell, who has just received an inheritance and is now spending his money by overindulging in wine and women. Rakewell is shown as drunk and disheveled. There is a young woman adjusting her shoes in the foreground, the stripper, and she is preparing for a vulgar dance involving the mirror-like silver plate and candle behind her. The candle held to a map on the back wall indicates that Rakewell's world will burn.
1734
France in Italy
France was fertile ground for the importation of Italian ideas. French kings had been intervening in Italy for centuries. This brought them into contact with developments in Italian art and architecture. Charles VII of France had invaded Milan in 1499, and his successors continued to interfere in Italy.
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution began in Britain the previous century and was hastened by the military needs. Waves of people fled the poverty of the countryside for the city to work in manufacturing. This new proletariat class, separated from the comforting predictability of the timeless rural world and needing to sell its labor, now experienced oppressive working conditions and low wages, as
well as poor housing in cities
that were not designed to
accommodate such a dramatic
increase in population.

Reinvirgoration of the Catholic Church
During the 16th century, the Catholic Church attempted to halt the spread of Protestantism in Europe. By the 17th century, the Catholic Church was able to claim their effort a reality. Private influential families, private patrons, and ecclesiastical orders each built new, large churches in Rome. The rebuilding of St. Peter's, the largest rebuilding program of the Renaissance, would finally come to an end and its elaborate decoration profoundly reflected the new glory of the Roman Church.
Rise of Science and Displacement of Natural Magic
The rise of science effected the Baroque period and displaced natural magic, a precursor of modern science that included both astronomy and alchemy. Unlike the new science, natural magic attempted to control the world through prediction and manipulation. It did this by uncovering nature's "secrets" instead of its physical laws. On account of natural magic being related to religion and morality, it lived on in popular literature and folklore well beyond the 17th century.
In 1582, Pope Gregory XII reformed the Julian calendar, replacing it with the Gregorian calendar.
In 1563, Florence's Accademia del Disegno was founded by Cosimo I de' Medici. It was originally named Accademia e Compagnia delle Arti del Disegno, or "academy and company of the arts of drawing" and partnered both as an academy and a guild for any working artists.
Visual Arts: Folklore, Literature, Contemporary Theater
Folklore, Literature, and contemporary theater all became subject for the visual arts in the Baroque, usually depicted in genre scenes of everyday life. These became popular in the 17th century. These genre painting include scenes of men and women in everyday life situations such as eating, drinking, smoking, playing board games, and playing musical instruments. Though about everyday life, they should not be confused with "reality" for their are artistic inventions.
Absolutism
In 1564, William Shakespeare was born.
The Baroque has been identified as "the style of absolutism." This reflects the centralized state ruled by an autocrat of unlimited powers.
In 1534, England broke away from the Roman Church.
The Club-Footed Boy
Jusepe de Ribera
In 1525, the Peasant's War was ignited by the reformation in Germany.
Container (Aduno Koro) with Figures, 16th–19th century
Mali; Dogon
Wood; L. 93 in. (236.22 cm)
The Michael C. Rockefeller Memorial Collection, Bequest of Nelson A. Rockefeller, 1979 (1979.206.255)
Although some may be disturbed by his peasant dress, his begging, and his handicap, Ribera's subject smiles openly and endearingly out at the viewer. The words on the paper in the subject's hands read "Give me alms for the love of God" in translation. This plea for charity reflects the idea in Counter-Reformation theory that only through good works may the rich hope to attain salvation.
In 1626, New Amsterdam (NYC) was founded by the Dutch West India Company.
1642
In 1602, the Dutch East India Company was founded.
Juan de Pareja
Diego Velázquez
In 1639, Japan enforced their policy of isolationism towards European influences.
This relic which is over seven feet was used during the
goru
ritual where it would hold the meat of goats and sheap that were sacrificed at an altar
Simple design but held huge religous value
In 1648, the Dutch Republic was recognized legally in the Treaty of Munster.
Window, 17th century
Egypt or Syria
Stained glass;
15 1/4 x 19 in. (38.7 x 48.3 cm) Gift of William R. Ware, 1893 (93.26.3,4)
In 1664, New York City was claimed by the English.
This is a painting of Velázquez's Sevillian assistant and servant of Moorish descent, Juan de Pareja, who accompanied him to Rome and was an artist himself. De Pareja is shown at half-length, turned at a three-quarters view, but facing the viewer, which is a triangular format developed by Raphael and Titian in the High Renaissance. In effect, the format directs attention to de Pareja's face.
In 1642, the English Civil War began. It lasted until 1651.
This Stained glass would have rested in the home of a wealthy aristocrat
The Green yellow blue orange and red tint of the glass would have complimented the multihued furniture in the room
The Maids of Honor
In 1648, the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture was founded.
Diego Velázquez
1656
In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton formulated the law of gravity.
In 1732, the Theatre Royal in Covent Garden, London opened.
In 1723, Louis XV was crowned the king of France.
This painting is an expression of personal ambition. It is a claim for both the nobility of the act of painting and that of the artist himself. The presence of the king and queen affirm his status. Velázquez paints himself, the painter, in the painting.
In 1715, Louis XIV dies
In 1725, Antonio Vivaldi wrote the
Four Seasons
concerto.
In 1750, Jean-Jacques Rousseau published
Discourse on the Arts and Sciences
.
From 1765 until 1782, James Watts perfected the steam engine.
In 1768, the Royal Academy of Arts in London was founded.
In 1789, the French Revolution began.
In 1815, Napoleon was finally defeated in the Battle of Waterloo.
In 1830, The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was opened. This was the first steam passenger railway service.
Self-Portrait
Rembrandt van Rijn
Rembrandt painted many self-portraits. This self-portrait is partially indebted to frontally posed Venetian portraits, and Rembrandt examines himself with a typically northern European candor. The bold pose and penetrating look demonstrate a resigned but firm resolve that suggests princely nobility, which is materially underlined by his gold collar, fur mantle, and silver staff.
1658
The Jewish Cemetery
Jacob van Ruisdael
1655-1670
The core of this painting is the heightened sense of drama. Natural forces dominate this wild scene, which is imaginary except for the tombs from the Jewish cemetery near Amsterdam. As we have seen in Rembrandt's work, Jews had been living in Amsterdam through the 17th century. The cemetery was called Bet Haim (House of Life).
Married Couple in a Garden
Frans Hals
1622
This is Hals's double portrait, which mose likely commemorates the wedding in 1622 of Isaac Massa and his wife Beatrix van der Laen. It combines the relaxed informal atmosphere of genre painting with the individual likenesses and formal attire of portraiture. This life-sized couple modestly display their affection by sitting close together.
Tomb of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici
The tomb was designed by Francesco Primaticco and was commissioned by Catherine de' Medici and was executed for the French royal pantehon at Saint-Denis. Primaticcio designed the architectureal frame-work, a free-standing chapel on a platform decorated with bronze and marble reliefs. He also designed the corner figures of virtues as elegant young women. The sculpture was executed by Pilon.
A Young Man Among Roses
Nicholas Hilliard
The influence of Elizabethan poetry can be seen in Hilliard's painting. It was inspired by ancient cameos, a portraits on parchment like these were portable and were tiny keepsakes often worn as jewelry. The tall, slender proportions, elegant costume, and laid-back grace may reflect the impact of Italian Mannerism.
1588
Portrait of Elizabeth I (The Ditcheley Portrait)
Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger
1592
This portrait exemplifies Elizabeth's carefully controlled iconography. The portrait represents Elizabeth standing on a map of her realm, which she dominates by her size and frontality.
This portrait is often called The Ditcheley Portrait because Ditcheley was Sir Henry Lee's estate, whom commissioned the portrait. Elizabeth wears one of the elaborate dresses that she favors, significantly in white, the color of virginity. This is significant because Elizabeth steadfastly refused to marry, claiming she was married to England.
Milo of Crotona
Pierre-Paul Puget
Although Puget's composition is more contained, he nevertheless successfully conveys the dramatic force of the hero as he is attacked by a lion while his hand is trapped in a tree stump. It channels ideas from Bernini's
David
and the
Laocoon
. The reference to antiquity is what made the work acceptable to Louis XIV.
1671-1682
Landscape with St. John on Patmos
Nicolas Poussin
This painting continues the Classical landscape tradition of Annibale Carracci. With this work, Poussin considered to have invented the ideal landscape. The brilliantly lit, ancient landscape strewn with architectural ruins suggests both the actual site and the concept of antiquity upon which early Christianity was founded.
1640
The Death of Germanicus
Nicolas Poussin
1627-28
This work served as a model for artistic depictions of heroic deathbed scenes for the next two centuries and may in fact be the first example of this subject in the history of art. Some parts are typical of history painting: death, loyalty, and revenge. Germanicus was a Roman general who had led campaigns against the Germanic tribes.
Back from the Market
Jean-Siméon Chardin
1739
This painting shows life in a Parisian bourgeois household. The viewer cannot ignore the potentially amorous scene taking place outside the room on the left. The maid's posture, leaning on herleft with her shoes pointed to the right suggests informality.
The beauty hidden in everyday life and a clear sense of spatial order beg comparison with the Dutch artist Jan Vermeer. But Chardin's brushwork is soft at the edges and suggests objects rather than defines them.
Gersaint's Signboard
Jean-Antoine Watteau
1721
This painting was created to advertise the wares of his friend and art dealer Edmé Gersaint, the sign does not in fact show Gersaint's gallery. The painting took reportedly 8 months to finish. It was meant to be exhibited outside but was shown for only 15 days. Gersaint reported that the painting attracted many artists as well as passerby who admired the natural, elegant poses of the figures, traits for which it is still admired for today.
Soap Bubbles
Jean-Siméon Chardin
1733
This painting is very much an outgrowth of Dutch genre painting and the vanitas symbols frequently seen in the still-life tradition.
The bubble, intact for only a moment, symbolizes the brevity of life, which serves as one of the painting's underlying themes. But, Chardin has chosen a charming way to do this by presenting two children, an older boy instructing a younger.
Adromache Bewailing the Death of Hector
Gavin Hamilton
1764
This painting's subject is taken from Homer showing Andromache bent over the body of her husband, Hector, the Trojan leader who had been killed by the Greek Achilles. The painting is a reproduction of the widely circulated engraving of 1764.
Portrait of Seosan Daesa (Cheonghodang, 1520–1604), Joseon dynasty (1392–1910), 17th century
Unidentified artist Korea Hanging scroll, ink and color on silk; 59 7/8 x 30 5/8 in. (152.1 x 77.8 cm) Seymour Fund, 1959 (59.19)
This is a scroll with Cheonghodang, a buddhist monk. He helped keep koreas religion buddhist vs. Neo-Confucianism. The colors have faded over time but are believed to have been not much more vibrant.
Male Figure (Aripa),
16th–early 19th century Inyai–Ewa people, Korewori River, Middle Sepik region, Papua New Guinea
Wood, paint; H. 46 1/2 in. (118 cm) The Michael C. Rockefeller Memorial Collection, Purchase, Nelson A. Rockefeller Gift, 1967 (1978.412.1508)
Was filled with the individuals helping spirit to help on the hunt
Seated Ganesha, 14th–15th century India, Orissa
Ivory;
H. 7 1/4 in. (18.4 cm), W. 4 3/4 in. (12.1 cm) Gift of Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Klejman, 1964 (64.102)
An Ivory carving of Shiva's and Parvati's firsts son. The tusk in his hand has to do with a story in which he hurls it at the moon
Panjara Mahakala,
late 14th–early 15th century Tibet
Steatite with color and gilding; H. 6 in. (15.2 cm) Lent by Florence and Herbert Irving (L.1994.6.5)
This statue represent Hahakala or the god of death in Buddhist religion.
Yama,
mid–17th–early 18th century
Tibet
Distemper on cloth; 72 3/8 x 46 5/8 in. (183.8 x 118.4 cm) Purchase, Florence Waterbury Bequest, 1969 (69.71)
This painting is a set of two that represents the ferocious protectors of Buddhism. The many colors draw the eye in but attention is focused on the face.
Jar with lion and landscape elements,
Safavid period (1501–1722), first half of 18th century Iran Stonepaste;
painted under transparent glaze; brass;
H. 11 in. (27.9 cm)
Theodore M. Davis Collection, Bequest of Theodore M. Davis, 1915 (30.95.160a,b)
This pot shows the fact that Iran at the time was still into chinese Ceramic at the time as they attempt to mimic them throughout history.
Planispheric astrolabe,
Safavid period (1501–1722), dated A.H. 1065 / A.D. 1654–55
Signed by Muhammad Zaman al–Munajjim al–Asturlabi Iran, Mashhad Brass and steel; cast and hammered, pierced and engraved;
H. 8 1/2 in. (21.6 cm), W. 6 3/4 in. (17.1 cm), D. 2 1/4 in. (15.7 cm) Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1963 (63.166a–j)
This piece actually served as a tool for measuring astrological, astronomical, topographical calculations along with the time. These were apparently quite common at the time
Altar Tableau:
Queen Mother and Attendants,
18th century Nigeria; Edo peoples, court of Benin Brass;
H. 13 1/2 in. (34.29 cm) Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Klaus G. Perls, 1991 (1991.17.111)
The hair and ornaments of the women in this altar represnts women that were possibly to be married to a king or someone in a position of power
Serape, mid–18th century
Mexico; Saltillo Cotton,
wool;
H. 102 in. (259 cm), W. 50 1/4 in. (127.6 cm) Gift of Mrs. Russell B. Sage, 1910 (10.107.9)
This blanket was used as outside clothing. This finely woven red green and blue blanket would have been worn by the wealthy.
Basin,
Qing dynasty, Qianlong period (1736–1795), dated 1774 China Nephrite (jade); L. 20 in. (50.8 cm) Gift of Heber R. Bishop, 1902 (02.18.689)
One of the most famous jades in chinese history it was inspired by the Dushan Jade bowl
Seated Amitayus,
17th–18th century
Mongolia
Gilt bronze; H. 5 5/8 in. (14.3 cm)
Gift of The Kronos Collection, 1992 (1992.193.1)
This bronze gilt represent a Buddhist statue from the time and area.
Handle for a Fly Whisk (Tahiri), 18th century or earlier
Maohi (Tahitian) people, Tahiti, French Polynesia
Whale ivory, fiber; H. 11 3/4 in. (27.9 cm)
The Michael C. Rockefeller Memorial Collection, Purchase, Nelson A. Rockefeller Gift, 1965 (1978.412.875)
was once owned by the Tahitian royal family. In the late eighteenth century, it likely belonged to the chief Tu-nui-e-a-i-te-atua, who united Tahiti and neighboring islands under his rule in 1791, taking the name of Pomare I. This would have been used to keep flys/bugs off people and food. Though the elegance of this is significant of wealth and prosperity.
John Constable,
The Haywain
, 1821, oil on canvas
John had an appreciation of landscapes and the beauty of them. His work is both scientific and subjective. Similar to an ongoing change in many artists to paint their own country versus the land of italy and also to paint in non idealized look like in the classical past.
Thomas Cole,
The Oxbow
, 1836, oil on canvas
In this view from atop Mount Holyoke in western Massachusetts, Cole unveils to us the beauty of the New England landscape. His work embraced a Romantic truth.
Frederic Edwin Church,
Twilight in the Wilderness
, 1860, oil on canvas
Church at this point had inherited Coles former position of Americas foremost landscape painter. The scene represents the wonders of the American wilderness and the beauty within the New World
Jacques-Louis David,
The Death ofMarat,
Oil on canvas
A very famous piece of art, this image shows the death of Marat, a revolutionary, after his assassination. He was a defender of the people but hated and feared by some, which is why he was assassinated. During this time politcal turmoil was common as people view were changing
World Art
World Art
World Art
Japan, 17th century
This piece is a fascinating example of Mino ceramics made in accordance with the taste of the tea master Furuta Oribe (1544–1615) and the technical changes brought about by the introduction, in the early seventeenth century, of a more advanced kiln type, the chambered climbing kiln modeled on those built by Korean craftsmen at Karatsu in Kyushu.
Stoneware with overglaze enamels (Mino ware, Oribe type); H. 5 7/8 in. (14.9 cm)
World Art
Peruvian (Cuzco), 1680
This painting depicts a dressed statue of the Virgin Mary of the Rosarysaid to represent a miracle-working cult figure in a native parish in Guápulo on the outskirts of Quito, Ecuador. Mother and infant are linked by a particularly loving gaze and by matching robes.
This presentation of the Virgin reveals how enthusiastically indigenous communities adopted the Spanish practice of dressing and otherwise embellishing sacred images, a tradition that corresponded to the Precolumbian Andean custom of lavishing precious textiles on ritual objects.
Etienne-Lous Boullee,
Project for a Tomb to Isaac Newton
, 1784, ink and wash drawing
Boullee liked to design abstract building concepts that sometimes were to impractical, this he knew of course. It reflects the growing taste of the sublime or abstract, especially in buildings, even if building them could never be done. This tomb was conceived to be 500 ft high hollow sphere within three concentric circles, suggessting a planet tracking 3 orbits. It also signifies the the power of the universe and the insignificance of human existence. Boulle meant this to respect one of the most logical thinkers of time.
Jacques-Lous David,
The Oath of the Horatti
. 1784. Oil on canvas
In this the 3 horatii brothers take an oath to fight the 3 brothers from Alba to the death. It signifys the burden and supremity of state before family. The women are upset because one of them is married to the other brothers and one is married to the horatii brothers. No matter the outcome a brother, a wife, and fiance will be lost
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