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Transcript of Humanism
Humanistic Approach Humanism is an approach to teaching
that believes learning is a personal
act to fulfill one's potential. The teacher acts as a facilitator by:
developing students self - esteem
encouraging learners to take responsibility for their own learning
nurturing their learning
participating in groups
helping learners to set realistic goals
allow students to have choice in activities
act as a role model Taking responsibility for their own learning
They choose what to learn and how to learn it
They are self-monitoring and self-evaluating
They need to personalize information that is being presented to them
They are more independent Children are able to develop their strengths
and talents through self-directed activities.
Students have a natural desire to learn.
Students have control over their learning.
Children will develop their self-esteem.
No focus on assessments.
Primary focus is on the learners.
Includes all children in the classroom.
Many people believe that these types of schools are concerned with what the learner wants to do at that moment.
There is too much concern for personal growth, rather than the good for the whole student.
There is no planning for the future.
It is difficult to quantify the effect on learners.
While they put emphasis on individuals, students spend most of their time working in groups. 1. Students' learning should be self-directed
2. Schools should produce students who want and know how to learn
3. The only form of meaningful evaluation is self- evaluation
4. Feelings as well as knowledge are important in the learning process
5. Students learn best in a non threatening environment Maria Montessori Born in Chiaravalle, Italy on August 31, 1870
Was very well educated
Became Italy's first woman doctor with a degree from the University of Rome
Began working in insane asylums with mentally handicapped children, where she became interested in human behavior and psychology
She shifted her focus on reforming education for children Montessori Method Primary focus is on independence, freedom, respect for child's natural psychological development
Mixed age group classrooms i.e. 2-6 yr. olds
Student choice of activities
Uninterrupted blocks of work time
Discovery model, where students learn by experimenting, not from direct instruction Abraham Maslow Born in Brooklyn, N.Y. on April 1, 1908
The "Father of Humanistic Psychology"
He felt it was important to focus on the positive
qualities in people
Strong emphasis on choice, creativity, and self-realization
Proposed that motivation is based on a hierarchy of needs Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs Maslow believes that individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs
The lowest level of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs, while the more complex needs are at the top
Basic needs must be met first, before higher ones can be satisfied How To Apply In A Classroom Maslow stresses the importance of self-actualization.
Self-actualization is a process of developing and growing as a person in order to achieve potential.
Children can be given opportunities to develop their understanding and appreciation of affective aspects of their achievement. Loris Malaguzzi Maslow Malaguzzi Montessori Born on February 23, 1920.
He was a teacher.
He started the Reggio Emilia Approach.
After the destruction of WWII, the city of Reggio Emilia, in Italy, needed a new approach to teaching children.
His method has a strong emphasis on creating relationships. Reggio Emilia
Approach Based on the following principles:
Children must be able to learn through experiences of touching, listening, seeing, hearing, and moving.
Children must have some control over the direction of their learning.
Children must have endless opportunities to express themselves.
Children have a relationship with other children. Reggio Emilia Approach An approach that puts the natural
development of children, as well as the close relationships they share with their environment, at the center of the model.
Parents are a crucial component and are involved in every aspect of the curriculum. They
are viewed as partners, advocates,
and collaborators. What It Looks Like Most Reggio classrooms include a studio
filled with paint, clay, and writing tools.
The outdoor area is just as important as inside the classroom.
Natural light and plants are everywhere in the classroom.
Children's work is displayed throughout the room.
Mirrors and places to climb are made available to provide a different perspective for the learners. Summary Sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Maslow